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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
word, sound, or visual device that represents an image, sound, concept, or experience
thing that a symbol represents
mental process of creating an image, sound, concept, or experience triggered by a referent or symbol
symbolic interaction theory
theory that members of a society are bound together through common use of symbols
denotative meaning
restrictive or literal meaning of a word
connotative meaning
personal and subjective meaning of a word
linguistic determinism
theory that describes how use of language determines or influences thoughts and perceptions
linguistic relativity
the theory that each language incldes some unique features that are not found in other languages
sapir-whorf hypothesis
based on the principles of linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity, the hypothesis that language shapes our thoughts and culture, and our culture and thoughts affect the language we use to describe the world
world view
culturally acquired perspective for interpreting experiences
confusion caused by the same words' meaning differnt things to different people
confusion of one word or phrase that sounds similar to it (construction and instruction)
restricted code
a set of words that have particular meaning to a person, group, or culture
another name for restriced code: specialized terms or abbreviations whose meanings are known only to members of a specific group
tendency to use language to make unqualified, often untrue generalizations
avoiding generalizations by using statements that seperate one situation, person, or example from another
static evaluation
a pronouncement that does not take the possibility of change into consideration
describing and evaluating what you observe in terms of extremes such as good or bad, old or new, beautiful or ugly
word picture
short statement or shotry that illustrates or describes an emotion; word pictures often use a similie to clarify the image
elaborated code
conversation that uses many words and various ways of describing an idea or concept to communicate its meaning
able to pursue one's own best interest without denying a partner's rights
expressing one's interests while denying the rights of others by blaming, judging, and evaluating other people
nonverbal communication
behavior other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone
interaction adaptation theory
theory suggesting that people interact with others by adapting to what others are doing
interactional synchrony
the mirroring of each other's nonverbal behavior by communication partners
study of human movement and gesture
nonverbal cues that have specific, generally understood meanings in a given culture and may substitue for a word or phrase
nonverbal behaviors that accompany a verbal message and either contradict, accent, or complement it
affect display
nonverbal behavior that communicates emotions
nonverbal messages that help to control the interaction or flow of communication between people
nonverbal behaviors that satisfy a personal need and help a person adapt or respond to the immediate situation
backchannel cues
nonverbal cues, typically vocal cues, that signal your wish to being or end a conversation
study of how close or far away from people and objects people position themselves
intimiate space
zone of personal space most often used for very personal or intimate interactions, ranging from 0 to 1&1/2 feet from the individual
personal space
zone of personal space most often used for conversation, ranging from 1&1/2 feet to 4 from the individual
social space
zone of personal space most often used for group interactions, ranging from 4 to 12 feet from the individual
public space
zone of interactions most often used by public speakers or anyone speaking to many people, ranging beyone 12 feet from the individual
sutyd of how animals and humans use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space
feelings of liking, pleasure, and closeness communicated by such nonverbal cues as eye contact, forward lean, touch, and open body orientation
feelings of interest and excitement communicated by such nonverbal cues as vocal expression, facial expressions, and gestures
power, status, and control communicated by such nonverbal cues as a relaxed posture, greater personal space, and protected personal space
expectancy violation theory
theory that you interpret the messages of others based on how you expect others to behave
perception checking
asking someone whether your interpertation of his or her nonverbal behavior is accurate
emotional contagion theory
theory that emotional expression is contagious; people can 'catch' emotions just by observing each other's emotional expressions