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34 Cards in this Set

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Suggested 5 stages of preparing a speech
invention - search for persuasive

arrangement - organization of the parts of a speech to ensure that all of the means of persuation are present and properly disposed
style - the use of correct, appropriate, and striking language throughout the speech.

memory - the use of mnemonics and practice of the speech.

delivery - the use of effective gestures and vocal modulation to present the speech.
supporting material
examples, makes interesting, statistics
Persuasive Goals
To Convince

To Actuate
Persuasive Claims
Question of Fact

Question of Value

Question of Policy
organizing your arguments
claim pattern
causal pattern
probelm-solution (Benefits or Action)
comparative advantages
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
Types of delivery
extemporaneous

manuscript

memorized

impromptu
claim pattern
like topical, but instead you are stating PERSUASIVE claims (Ex: drinking milk is benefitial to your body because it helps prevent osteoperosis) - MAKE PERSUASIVE CLAIMS!
Extemporaneous delivery
speaking from notes, key words/phrases, thouroughly prepared
causal pattern
want to establish the cause to a particular problem, and the effects of what's causing it. (Ex: eating disorders on this campus - talk about what's causing it, then about it's effects, then what can you do about it)
Manuscript delivery
word for word from prepared text
Memorized delivery
remembered by heart
3 forms of persuasive appeals
Logos, Pathos, Ethos (reason, emotion, authority)
Problem-solution
problem - the eating disorder; solution to the problem; then the benefits of this solution

ex: eating disorder; create support group; help because it allows them to go somewhere
Impromptu delivery
no preparation. no notes.
Vocalics
1. volume (loud/soft)
2. rate
3. pitch (high/low)
4. enunciation
Enunciation
Articulation

Pronunciation
Comparative Advantages
if you want to compare SOLUTIONS. one solution is better than another

Ex: we agree the parking is a problem on campus but we don't agree on how to resolve it. propose we build a parking deck vs. just clearing out some more space
Articulation
3 major problems:
1. omission ("wanna"/want to)
2. substitution ("dese"/these)
3. addition ("athalete"/athlete)
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
organizes from the introduction to the conclusion

A - ATTENTION
I. Intro/attn getter
N - NEED
II. Body
A. Need:
S - SATISFACTION
B. satisfy the need
V - VISUALIZATION
C. visualize how satisfies need
A - ACTION
III. conclusion/action

Ex: Uncle Ben's Rice bowl with the people making out
Pronunciation
2 major problems
1. errors of accenting (O-rator, not ORA-tor)
2. adding words("homage")
Pauses (filled and unfilled)
Filled - makes you appear hesitant, unprepared, unsure "um, right, yea"

Unfilled - effective at:
transitional points
end of important assertions
after rhetorical questions
before an important idea
Visual aspects
- eye contact
- facial expressions
- posture
- gestures
- movement
- proxemics
- attire/clothing
Using Notes
minimum, subtle, cues
Practicing the Speech
rehearse
time it
approximate actual speech
rehearse often
make changes and notes
Persuasive Appeals
Ethos

Logos

Pathos
Rhetoric
art of persuasive speaking.

used in civil disputes, impose tyrants, determine public policy, administer laws

inseperable from business affairs


arguments that would move people

strategies varied on audience


practice and ________
Classical Rhetoric
Aristotle - philosopher, theories based on observations
arrangement
organization

evidence and reasoning

emotional appeals
inductive reasoning
from specific example and move to general conclusion

Ex: problems on campus...actually happening nationwide
deductive reasoning
from general conclucsion to specific example
causal reasoning
problem being caused by this, this is the solution
analogical reasoning
because 2 things are similar you're going to get similar results

Ex: parking decks - this is how it is on this campus, so we should do it this way because our campus is similar to ours
Present both sides of info when...
1. when listeners disagree
2. when listeners agree
3. when listeners will hear this again somewhere and notice it somewhere else
Consider appeals to needs that will TRULY motivate your audience to do what you want them to do
Ex: you spend an hour watching TV when you claim you have no time, so that's time you could be working out!