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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Group Climate
the emotional atmosphere, the enveloping tone that is created by the way we communicate in groups.
Positive Climate
when individuals perceive that they are valued, supported, and treated well by the group
Negative Climate
when group members do not feel valued, supported, and respected, when trust is minimal, and when members perceive that they are not treated well
Competition
a mutually exclusive goal attainment (MEGA) process. When transactions in groups are competitive, individual success is achieved at the expense of other group members. Necessitates the failure of many for the success of the few.
Cooperation
A mutually inclusive goal attainment process. Individual success is tied directly to the success of other group members. Group members work together, not against each other, when attempting to achieve a common goal
Individual achievement
the attainment of a personal goal without having to defeat another person.
Hypercompetitiveness
the excessive emphasis on defeating others to achieve one’s goals is called hypercompetitiveness
Norm of group interest
“justice consists of helping one’s friends and harming one’s enemies”. A collective prescription that group members should pursue maximum group outcomes(winning at all costs), even if this means acting hypercompetitively against other groups when members may privately not wish to do so.
Defensive communication
defensiveness is a reaction to a perceived attack on our self concept and self esteem. Invites hypercompetitiveness.
Supportive communication
invites cooperation
Competitive Listening
where speakers keep changing the subject to focus attention on their issue. Uses shift responses to divert attention away from current topic and onto their own.
Noncompetitive listening
uses supportive responses to continue speaking on the current topic
Constructive Competition
occurs when competition produces a positive, enjoyable experience and generates increased efforts to achieve without jeapordizing positive interpersonal relationships and personal well-being
Descriptive
a first person report of how an individual feels, what the individual perceives to be true, and what behaviors have been observed in a specific context.
Negative Evaluations
include criticism, contempt, and blame. Negative evaluations produce defensiveness
Positive Evaluations
include praise, recognition, and flattery
Manipulative communication
often makes people defensive due to hidden agendas
Controlling Communication
Issuing orders and demanding obedience, especially when no input was sought from group members who were told what to do
Psychological Reactance
the more someone tries to tell us what to do, the more we try to resist it or even do the opposite
Dependent Variable
The variable which shows an effect or is the outcome of an experiment.
Indifference
making little or no effort to listen to what a member of your group has to say exhibits indifference and treats the communicator as a nonperson.
Impervious Response
- failure to acknowledge another person’s communication effort either verbally or non verbally
Empathy
the counter to indifference. Thinking and feeling what you perceive another to be thinking and feeling. Seeing from the perspective of the other person.
Equality
from the standpoint of group climate means that we give everyone an equal opportunity to succeed. Doesn’t necessarily mean abilities.
Dogmatism
the belief in the self evident truth of one’s opinion
Provisionalism
counters certainty. Means you qualify statements, avoiding absolutes. Uses terms such as possibily, probably, perhaps, occasionally, maybe, might, sometimes, etc. Problems are approached as interesting questions to be investigated and discussed, not defensive power struggles over who is right and wrong
Competitive Listening
where speakers keep changing the subject to focus attention on their issue. Uses shift responses to divert attention away from current topic and onto their own.
Noncompetitive listening
uses supportive responses to continue speaking on the current topic
Roles
a pattern of expected behavior associated with parts that members play in groups
Role reversal
stepping into a role distinctly different from or opposite of a role one usually plays
Role status
the relative importance, prestige, or power accorded a particular role
Role conflict
when group members play roles in different groups that contradict each other
Informal Role
a role that emerges in a group from the group transactions; it emphasizes functions, not positions
Formal role
a position assigned by an organization or specifically designated by the group leader
Task Roles
Informal group roles that move the group toward attainment of its goals
Maintenance Roles
Informal group roles that focus on social relationships among group members
Disruptive Roles
Informal group roles that serve individual needs or goals while impeding attainment of group goals
Role emergence
The roles each member will play have not been designated in advance but emerge from the transactions conducted among group members.
Role specialization
when an individual group member settles into his or her primary role
Role fixation
The acting out of a specific role, and only that role, no matter what the situation might require
Leadership
an influence process between leader and followers directed toward change that reflects mutual purposes of group members and is largely achieved through competent communication.
Autocratic style
exerts control over group members. Highly directive. Does not encourage member participation
Democratic style
encourages participation and responsibility from group members. Democratic leaders work to improve the skills and abilities of group members
Laissez-faire style
a do nothing approach to leadership. It is the avoidance or absence of leadership. Avoid making decisions, hesitate in taking action, and are absent when needed
Traits perspective
Leaders are born not made. Problem with this approach is the assumption that leadership resides in the person, not intransactions conducted within the group context
Style Approach
Autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire
Situational perspective
It depends on the situation perspective
Functional perspective
Views leadership in terms of certain functions or responsibilities, that must be performed for the group to be successful. Typically, these functions fall into two categories: task requirements and social or maintenance needs.
Team
a small number of people with complementary skills who act as an interdependent unit, are equally committed to a common mission, subscribe to a cooperative approach to accomplish that mission, and hold themselves accountable for team performance
Solidarity symbols
a team name or a logo can be a solidarity symbol
Team talk
a shared language amongst the team, using words like we, our, us
the four dimensions of empowerment
group potency, autonomy, meaningfulness, impact
group potency
the shared belief among team members that they can be effective as a team,
autonomy
the degree to which team members experience substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in their work,
meaningfulness
a teams perception that its tasks are important, valuable, and worthwhile,
impact
the degree of significance given by those outside of the team, typically the team’s organization, to the work produced by the team.
Self-managing work teams
self regulating teams that complete an entire task, embraces empowerment,
Individual accountability
an established minimum standard of effort and performance for each team member to share the fruits of team success
. Participative leadership
being open to input from team members. Head coaches consider assistant coaches input. Coaches consider players input.