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165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Variety of diversity among audience members; dissimilarity
heterogeneity
buzzwords or phrases that are devoid of specific content
platitudes
assuming that all members of a demographic category are alike in all respects
stereotyping
subjective factors that characterize a particular audience and make its situation distinct
audience culture
personal gain or loss resulting from an action of policy
self-interest
what an individual regards as interesting or important
personal interests
statements that listeners regard as true
beliefs
positive or negative judgements that listeners apply to a person , place, object, event, or idea
values
talking down to an audience; assuming that listeners are not capable of thinking about a subject and reaching their own conclusions
condescending
facts that are commonly known among the members of a culture, common knowledge.
cultural facts
brief references to something with which the audience is assumed to be familiar
allusions
socially assigned positions such as "parent," "student," "employee," and "citizen"
roles
groups with which listeners identify, regardless of whether they belong to them.
reference groups
a tendency to expose oneself to messages that are important personally and that are consistent with what one already believes
selective exposure
conscious or unconscious choice about whether or not to focus intently on a speech, absorb and process its contents, and take it seriously
selective attention
the interpretation or understanding given to a speech; the meaning it has for a listener
perception
listeners who share the characteristics of people in general
general public
subject-matter areas with distinct norms or assumptions
fields
an imaginary audience made up of all reasonable people
universal audience
saying whatever will please an audience even if it is not what the speaker really believes
pandering
the process of looking for and discovering supporting materials for the speech
research
exploration of a speech topic to determine which subordinate topics must be covered
analysis
the beliefs and values that members of a society or cultures generally share
common knowledge
the assumption that a statement or claim is true until shown otherwise
presumption
primary sources that can establish a claim directly, without opinion or speculation
documents
numbers recording the extent of something or the frequency with which it occurs
statistics
information or an opinion expressed by someone other than the speaker, cited to support some claim
testimony
a question with a finite number of choices from which the respondent must pick
closed question
a question that does not restrict the range of possible responses
open-ended question
a question that explores the implications of a previous response
follow up question
using someone else's words or ideas as though they were your own
plagiarism
a file of clippings, quotations, ideas, and other gleanings on a variety of subjects that may be used as supporting materials
speech material file
proof established through interaction between the speaker and the listeners; provides support for a conclusion but not assurance that it is true
rhetorical proof
would be inferred by most people when exercising their critical judgement
reasonable
a statement that a speaker asks listeners to accept and that the speaker tries to prove
claim
a mental leap from the supporting material to the claim
inference
specific instances used to illustrate a more general claim
examples
typical of the larger category from which a case is selected
representative
an inference that appears to be sound but that, on inspection contains a significant flaw
fallacy
assuming that what is true of the part is automatically true of the whole
fallacy of composition
a comparison of people, places, things, events, or more abstracts relationship
analogy
a direct comparison of objects, people, or events
literal analogy
a comparison of the relationships between objects, people, or events
figurative analogy
something that stands for something else
sign
regarding something that can be observed as a sign of something that cannot
physical observation(as a sign)
a statistical measure that is taken as a sign of an abstraction
statistical index (as a sign)
a sign relationship that results from norm or social convention
institutional regularity (as a sign)
a pattern of inference that suggests that one factor brings about another
causal inference
assuming that one thing causes another when in fact a third factor really is the cause of both
common cause fallacy
assuming that, because one event occurred before another, the first is necessarily the cause of the second
post hoc fallacy
testimony from a person who is generally recognized as an authority on a particular subject
expert testimony
testimony from a person who is not an expert
lay testimony
to offer judgements, without providing any basis for them
pontificate
the quality of striking a responsive chord with listeners, causing them to identify with what one is saying
resonance
a claim that, on its face, is unrelated to the supporting material
non sequitur
only restating the claim in slightly different words, rather than supporting the claim
circular argument
making an inference tha diverts attention from the issue at hand
ignoring the question
having multiple messages
equivocal
a display of the organational pattern of the speech
outline
a detailed outline, usually written in complete sentences, used to develop a clear organizational structure during preperation of the speech
preperation outline
a brief outline, usually containing only key words, used as a memory aid during delivery
presentation (speaking) outline
designating the supporting materials for a main idea with the subordinate symbol and indentation system in an outline
subordination
designating all ideas that are on teh same level of importance with the same symbol series and level of indentation in an outline
coordination
the pattern of choices attributed to a person by others to characterize or to distinguish him or her
style
an individual pattern of stylistic choices that characterizes a particular person
signature
a pattern of stylistic choices that characterizes a group with which a person identifies
type
making self-reference to the speaker or situatoin
reflexive
unintentional but possibly meaningful confusion of words and usages
malapropism
the process of giving meaning to a word
definition
explaining what a term means by identifying specific operations to be performed
operational definition
the referent for a given word
denotation
the feelings or emotional responses associated with a given word
connotation
a shift in connotation applied to the same denotation or a shift in denotation applied to the same connotation
persuasive definition
a consise statement of a principle, often in the form of a proverb, also called an aphorism
maxim
specialized or technical terms within a given field of knowledge
jargon
a term that may or may not be widely used in ordinary conversation but that has a specific meaning within a particular field of knowledge
technical term
efficiency in the use of words, avoidance of unnecessary words
word economy
a word pattern that focuses on who did what and prominently features the agent
active voice
a word pattern that focuses on what was done and largely ignores the agent
passive voice
saying or writing the opposite of what is meant
irony
capable of being interpreted with more than one meaning
ambiguous
a word, phrase, or thing that harmoniously acommodates diverse ideas or references within a single positive or negative connotation
condensation symbol
speaking simultaneously with different voices or on differnet levels of denotative meaning but with similar connotations
multivocal
the sense of movement or pacing within a speech
rhythm
a pattern in which the audience responds to a speaker's questions or prompts, often with a repetitive refrain
call and response
the pairing of opposites within a speech, often to suggest a choice between them
antithesis
graphic, easy to picture. a speech is vivid if its language enables listeners to develop mental pictures of what is being said
vivid
a cumulation of details that suggest a mental picture of a situation , person, or event
description
an explicit statement that one thing is like another
simile
naming one thing in terms of another; discussing one thing as though it were another
metaphor
repetitive consonant sounds
alliteration
use of sounds that resemble what they describe
onomatopoeia
discussion of abstract or complex ideas in human terms
personification
reproducing a conversation within a speech
dialogue
a question for which no answer is expected; it is asked to get listeners thinking so that they quickly recognize the obvious answer
rhetorical question
a memorable phrase that is recalled from a speech and used to identify the speech
sound bite
the presentation of the speech, using the voice and body to create the desired effect
delivery
feeling what listeners feel and knowing what they think
empathy
loudness of voice
volume
placement of the voice on the musical scale, ranging from high to low
pitch
a very narrow, unchanging pitch range
monotone
the speed at which a person speaks, measured in words per minute
rate
periods of brief silence within a speech
pauses
pauses filled with sound such as "uh" or "uhmm" or "fuckshitdamnsuck"
vocalized pauses
precision and clarity in the production of individual vocal sounds
articulation
precision and distinctness in sounding words
enunciation
sounding of a word in an accepted way
pronunciation
a pronunciation pattern that characterizes a particular geographic area, economic or social class, or cultural factors
dialect
pronunciation pattern for a sentence as a whole
inflection
movement of hands and arms during the speech as a means of emphasis
gesture
the first step of a gesture, involves bringing the hands into a position from which the gesture can be made
anticipation step
the execution of a gesture, raising the hand and moving it in the intended manner
implementation step
returning the hands to a normal relaxed position at the conclusion of a gesture
relaxation step
looking directly at members of the audience
eye contact
a mode of presentation in which the speaker has done little or no specific preperation for the speech
impromptu presentation
the opposite of speaking impromptu; the speaker pays close attention to a prepared text and commits it to memory
memorized presentation
a mode of presentation in which the speaker reads aloud the prepared text of the speech
manuscript presentation
a mode of presentation in which the speech is planned and structured carefully but a specific text is not written in advance nor memorized
extemporaneous presentation
brief periods of practice spread over time
distributed practice
a few lengthy practice sessions shortly before delivering the speech
massed practice
approaches tp preparing a speech in which the overall goal is to share ideas with an audience
informative strategies
creating awareness about a subject that listeners did not know about or think about before
agenda setting
a strategy to clarify a term or concept that is vague or troublesome , or to introduce a new way of viewing the subject
definition
a strategy to relate what happened with little analysis or interpretation
reporting
a strategy in which a cumulation of details characterizes, or evokes a mental image of, the subject
description
a curve that displays the rate at which something learned is forgotten over time
forgetting curve
a response by a speaker that rewards the listener to strengthen the listener's posiitive attitude toward the speech
reinforcement
an audience that is strongly commited in opposition to the views of the speaker
hostile audience
abandoning one belief or value and replacing it with another
conversion
within a larger audience, those individuals whom a speaker especially wants to address, usually people whose response will determine whether the speech succeeds
target audience
the incentive to do something that requires effort, such as considering a persuasive message
motivation
the refusal to accept the claim in a message no matter how strong its justiciation is
denial
disregarding a message (even if it is generally true) beacuse one disputes that it applies to oneself
dismissal
keeping two conflicting beliefs seperated so that one need not be conscious of the conflict between them
compartmentalization
capable of being understood in more than one way
polysemic
the opposite effect from that which a speaker intends
boomerang effect
making people aware of values and commitments that they previously took for granted
consciousness raising
a predicition that comes true because of actions that people take upon hearing the prediction
self-fulfilling prophecy
the attack or defense of a challenged statement or claim
refutation
statements that are not in the speaker's self-interest
reluctant testimony
statements that are suspect because they are influenced by the self-interest of the source
biased evidence
establishing commons bonds between speaker and audience so that the speaker appears to be at one with listeners
identification
a persuasive message that is organized in terms of steps in the audience's motivation rather than in terms of the specific subject
motivated sequence
fittingness or appropriatness to the occasion
decorum
speaking in a court of law, concerned with establishing justice
forensic speaking
speaking in a decision-making assembly, concerned with matters of expediency; addresses the question "what shall we do?"
deliberative speaking
a group presentation in which a subject is organized topically and each speaker addresses a limited portion of the subject
symposium
the tendency for groups to approve more extreme solutions than would an individual because no one is personally responsible for the group's decision
groupthink
the presiding officer of a meeting
chair
rules for the conduct of public meetings
parliamentary procedure
a statement proposing what an assembly should do
motion
a question that presupposed a value judgement adverse to the speaker
loaded question
identifying two unacceptable options and assuming that htey are only alternatives
false dilemma
ceremonial
epideictic
speaking at ceremonial occasions; it reaffirms a community's common bonds and values, strengthening ties between individuals and the group
ceremonial speaking
conscious awarness, salience
presense
articulating the unexpressed feelings of the listeners, who then conclude that the speaker's message rings true with them
resonance
a speech honoring a person
testimonial
a special form of the testimonial speech, honoring someone who has died
eulogy
a brief testimonial speech, usually delieverd in the presense of the person honred and accompained by raising a glass in the persons hand
toast
a speech of tribue that both honors and pokes fun at a person
roast
a speech marking the issuance of an award
presentation speech
a speech presented when one receives an award or a nomination for office
speech of acceptance
a speech that is intended to motivate a group and inspire enthusiasm for a task
pep talk
a speech presented following a ceremonial meal, usually humorous in tone but which a serious message
after-dinner speech