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69 Cards in this Set

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What are some things that theories do that make them so useful?
ORAGANIZE IDEAS
DESCRIBE PHENOMENON
EXPLAIN COMMUNICATION PROCESSES AND HOW THEY WORK
PREDICT WHATS GOING TO HAPPEN
SOLVE PROBLEMS

THEY ALSO HELP US FEEL IN CONTROL OF OUR ENVIRONMENT AND GUIDE OUR BEHAVIORAL CHOICES
How is communicatioon strategic?
WE RCOGNIZE THAT SOMETIMES WE CONSTRUCT MESSAGES WITH PARTICULAR MOTIVATIONS/GOALS IN MIND

MAY HAVE MULTIPLE GOALS IN MIND AT VARIUOS LEVELS OF AWARENESS
Give some examples of how communication is strategic?
MIGHT APPROACH A TEACHER TO ASK FOR EXTENSION ON A PAPER

APPROACH HOT GUY IN HOPES OF A DATE

VARIOUS GOALS

WANT TO STUDY WITH SOMEONE IN CLASS BUT YOU DON'T WANT TO SEEM DUMB AND YOU DON'T WANT TO MAKE THEM FEEL OBILGATED
How is communication consequential?
MOST OF THE TIME IT HAS UNANTICIAPTED AFFECTS
What is a temporal relationhip?
CERTAIN CONCEPTS PRECEDE OTHERS IN TIME

COGNITION PRECEDES SPEECH

IT'S NOT CAUSALITY, BUT TIME ORDER

ONE THING HAPPENS AND THEN SOMETHING ELSE
What is a correlational relationship???
TWO CONCEPTS CHANGE TOGETHER IN SIMILAR WAYS

IF ONE GOES UP, SO DOES THE OTHER

THE MORE I EAT, THE MORE I WEIGH
How is communication consequential?
MOST OF THE TIME OUR COMMUNICATION IS CONSEQUENTIAL

IS HAS AN UNACNTIICAPATED OR UNINTENDED AFFECTS
What are the three different types of consequential communication?
PERCEPTUAL - INCLUDES ALL THE ASSUMPTIONS WE MAKE ABOUT PEOPLE'S COMPETANCE

EX. HEAR PERSON SPEAK A CERTAIN WAU, ASSUME THEY BELONG TO A CERTAIN SOCIAL CLASS

BEHAVIORAL- OCCUR WHEN PEOPLE CHANGE THRIE BEHAVIOR WITHOUT ANY PARTICULAR EFFOTR FROM OTHERS TO INFLUENCE CHANGE

EX. SEEK OUT CERTAIN PEOPLE BECAUSE YOU ENJOY THEIR COMPANY AND AVOID OTHERS

RELATIONAL - CREATE INTERACTION PATTERNS AND EXPECTATIONS WITHIN PERSONAL, SOCIAL AND PROF. RELATIONSHIPS

THIS OVER TIME RESULTS IN CULTRE- VALUERS, NORMS AND RITUALS
What is a temporal relationship?
CERTAIN CONCEPTS PROCEDE OTHER IN TIME

EX. COGNITION PRECEDES SPEECH

NOT CAUSALITY, IT IS TIME ORDER, ONE THING HAPPENS AND THEN SOMETHING ELSE
What is a correlational relationship?
TWO CONCEPTS CHANGE TOGETHER IN SIILAR WAYS, IF ONE GOES UP, SO DOES THE OTHER

THE MORE I EAT, THE MORE I WEIGH

SCIENTIFICALLY STUIDED, BUT ASSUMPTIONS CAN BE MADE
What is a cause/effect or if/then relationship?
ONE CONCEPT CAUSES THE OTHER TO DO SOMETHING

MUST FIND EVIDENCE THAT ONE CONCEPT PRESEDES ANOTHER CONCEPT AND THAT THE CONCEPTS ARE RELATES AND THAT THE FIRST CONCEPT CAUSES OR MOTIVATES THE SECONDS

CAN BE HARD TO OBSERVE, PEOPLE OFTEN CONTROL THEIR EMOTIONS SO YOU DON'T KNOW IF SOMEONE GETS UPSET WHEN THEY HEAR A NEGATIVE COMMENT
What is the inductive approach to theory bulding?
TRY TO AVOUD LETTING PRE-EXISITING CONCEPTS DETERMINE WHAT THEY LOOK FOR

INSTEAD, THEY TRY TO OBSERVE WITHOUT AND DISCRIMINATION

MIGHT OBSERVES HOW PEOPLE FROM OTHER CULTURES TALK OR HOW GOSSIP IN THE WORKPLACES MOVES ALONG

COULD BE CONSIDERED BOTTOM-UP
USING OBSERVATION TO GUIDE THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS
What is the deductive approach to theory bulding?
BEGIN WITH PREFORMULATED EXPECTATIONS, OFTEN IN THE FORM OF HYPOTHESES, ABOUT HOW A PROCESS WORKS OR WHAT CONCEPTS ARE RELATED

THEN USE OBVSERVATIONS TO TEST THESE VALUES

THEORISTS GOAL IS TO TEST AND CONFIRM THEIR ASSUMPTIONS RATHER THAN DISCOVER PATTERNS OR ASSOICIATIONS

COULD BE CONSIDERED TOP-DOWN
USING THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS TO GUIDES OBSERVATION
What are the criteria by which I kevaluate a theory?
UTITLY, SCOPE, PARSIMONY, HEURISM, FALSIFIABILTY
What is utilituy?
USEFULNESS, THINK OF IN TERMS AS ITS CUMALITIVE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GOALS OVER TIME

THEORY HAS BEEN PROVEN USEFL OVER TIME FOR UNDERSTRANDING THE FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
What is scope?
THE BREADTH OF FOCUS OF A THEORY

REASONABLE ENOUGH TO UNDERSTAND NOT TOO BIG OR SMALL

COULD BE A WIDE NET OR MORE FOCUSED
What is parsimony?
SIMPLICITY, NO JARGON OR

MANNER IN WHICH THE THEORY IS WRITTEN

PRESENTS COMPLEX OR ABSTRACT IDEAS IN THE SIMPLEST POSSIBLE MANNER
What is heurism?
PROMOTES RESEARCH AND HOW THINGS RELATE, THE ABILITY OF A THEORY TO STIMULATE NEW WAYS OF THINKING
What is falsifiability?
IF A THEORY'S CLAIMS CAN BE PROVEN FALSE

IT HAS TO BE TESTABLE

IF A THEORY'S CLAIM CAN BE PROVEN DALSE, THEN THEY CANNOTER BE PROVEN CORRECT EITHER
What does metatheory mean?
THEORIES ABOUT THEORIES

NOT A SPECIFIC THEORY OR SPECIFIC EXPLANATION ABOUT SOME ASPECT OF COMMUNICATION, BUT A WAY OF TALKING ABOUT INDIVUDAL THEORIES
What is ontology talking about reality?
IDEAS ABOUT THE NATURE OF REALITY

WHAT IS THE ANTURE OF OUR SOCIAL WORLS AND THE ERNTITIES THAT POPULATE IT

ITS THE NATURE OF WHAT WE STUDY

GIVES US A CERTAIN VISION OF THE WORLD
When talking about the reality view of ontolgoy, what are the researchers views?
SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVE

REALIST
OUR SOCIAL WORLD IS REAL, RELAITY EXISTS EXTERNALLY TO ALL OF US. THERE ARE TANGIBLE AND RELATIVLEY IMMUTABLE STRUCTURES

NOMINALIST
REALITY EXISTS INSIDE EACH OF US DIFFERENTLY NO REAL WORLD EXISSTS, JUST NAMES AND IDEAS WE CREATE

SOMETHING IS TURE B/C WE NAMED TO TO BE TRUE

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONIST
INTER-SUBJECTIVE

REALITY EXISTS, BUT WE'VE CREATED IT THROUGH WORDS

FOR EXAMPLE. RACE WAS CREATED THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO BUT IT HAS COME TO BBE VERY REAL IN MANY CULTURES
What is the idea of ontolgoy when reffering to people?
IDEAS ABOUT THE NATURE OF PEOPLE

SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVE
DETERMNIIST

WE ARE STIUMULUS RESPONSE BEINGS, THERE ARE LAWS OF HUMAN NATURE

LOOK FOR CAUSES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR

HUMANISTIC SUBJECTIVE
NOMINALIST

VOLUNTARISTIC, WE HAVE A CHOUSE, BEHAVIOR IS VOLUNTARY, LOOK FOR REASONS WHY WE DID WHAT WE DID

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONIST
FREE WITH SOME LIMITS

WE ARE CONSTRAINED IN OUR ABILITY TO MAKE CHOICE DEPENDING ON WHEN AND WHERE WE WERE BORN
What is epistemology?
KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE SOCIAL WORL AND THE STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE
What are some of the views of epistemological researchers?
SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVE
POSTIVISM

WE CAN BE POSTIVE ABOUT OUR KNOWLEDGE

HUMANISTIC
SUBJECTIVISM

WE CAN'T BE POSTIVE ABOUT OUR KNOWLDEGE BECAUSE WE USE WORDS

WE CREATE REALITY AND NAMED THINGS LONG AGO, CRATED THEM WITH OUR OWN KNOWLEDGE

DOESN'T GENERALIZE SOCIETY, IT FOCUSES
What is axiology?
THE ROLE OF RESEARCHER VALUES
What are some of the views of axioloigal researchers?
SCIENTIFC OBJECTIVE
VALUE FREE

SCIENTISTS ARE VERY OBJECTIVE, THEY USE NUMBERS AND THEY DON'T HAVE A BIAS, THOSE CONDUCTING RESEARCH SHOULD BE VALUE FRE

HUMANISTIC SUBJECTIVE
VALUES INCLUDED

SOME HUMAN RESEARCHERS BELIEVE VALUES SHOULD GUIDE RESEARCH, FIMINIST RESEARCHERS FOR EX.

SOCIAL CONSTRUTIONIST
VALUES ARE MOSTLY REMOVED

IMPOSSIBLE TO BE COMPLETELY VALUE FREE, THEY ACKONLWEDGE VALUES BUT SHOULD TRY AND LEAVE THEM AT THE DOOR
What is the scuientific/humanisitic/critical debates?
AN ENTIRE NEW DIMNENSION OF SOCIAL CHNAGED WAS ADDED. CREATING A NEW PARADIGM WHICH IS THE CRITICAL THEORY

WHETHER ITS SCIENTIFIC OR HUMANISTIC DEPENDS ON ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT RALITY, MEANING AND KNOWLEDGE
What do critical theorist believe?
SEEK TO RID THE WORLD OF OPPRESIVISMS, RACISM AND SEXISM

WHOLE RANGE OF THEORIES THAT ADDRESS SOCIAL POWER AND POWER INEQUALITIES IN SOCIETY BY LOOKING AT ORGANIZATIONS, POLITICS
What is the status quo/social change dimension of critical theory?
STATUS QUO

TELL YOU WHERE OR HOW IT EXISTIS, WON'T DO ANYTHING ABOUT IT, LEAVE THING AS THEY ARE

SOCIAL CHANGE

INSPIRE A CHANGE AND CHANGED LANGUAGE AND VALUES
What are the different types of quantitatuve and qualitative research?
QUANTITITAIVE

USES DEDUCTIVE APPROACH
STARTS WITH A BIGGER THEORY AND AND NARROWS IT DOWN TO JUST ONE CONCEPT, USES NUMBERS WHEN STUDYING, SPECFICI CONCRETE INFO IS USED

QUALITITAVIE

MIGHT VARY IN THEIR UNDERLYING VIEW OF THE WORLD FROM A SOMEWHAT OBJECTIVE VIEW
What is a conceptual definition?
THEY WAY WE THINK ABOUT A NOTION

ED. DEFINE EDUCATION EFFECTIVENESS

IT'S THE ABILITY FOR STUDENTS TO GATHER AND LEARN INFO
What is an operational definition?
RESULTS ON THAT QUIZ, HOW YOU MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS ABOUT THE CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION
What is a null theory?
STUDY OF THE EXPERIMENT OF WHAT YOU YOU DON'T BELIEVE

STUDY THE OPPOSTIE OF WHAT YOU THINK WILL HAPPEN
What is a confounding variable?
VARIABLE THAT IS UNACCOUNTED FOR
What are the control variables?
INDEPENDENT, IF, AND DEPENDET, THEN

INDEPENDENT
WHEN YOU CAN MANIPULATE
EX. THE HOURS OF STUDY A STUDENT DOES

DEPENDET, STAYS THE SAME, IT'S WHAT IS MEASURE
EX. TEST SCORES
With quanititaive research, what is reliabilty?
YOU CAN DO EXPERIMENT OVER AND OVER AGAIN AND GET THE SAME RESULT, CONSTITENCY
With quantitative research, what is validitiy?
IF THE INOFRMATION IS CORRECT, DID YOU FIND WHAT YOU WANTED
What types of research do quantitative researchers conduct?
SURVEY
RESEARCH PARTICIAPANTS ARE PROVIDED WITH A STANDARD SET OF QUESTIONS DESIGNED TO MEASURE ONE OR MORE VERY SPECIFIC CONCEPTS

GENERALIZABLE TO LARGE POP.

EXPERIEMENT
DESIGNED TO SHOW THAT TWO OR MORE EVENTS ARE CAUSALLY RELATED, TESTS OF THEORIES THT SEEK TO EXPLAIN WHY EVENTS OCCUR

CONTENT ANALYSIS
METHOD FOR ANALIYZING THE CONTENT OF COMMUNICATIONS
With qualititative research, what are some types of research?
FOCUS GROUP
A SMALL GP. OF PEOPLE BROUGHT TO A CENTRAL LOCATION FOR AN INTENSIVE INTERVIEW WITH A MODERATOR

IND. INTERVIEWS
RESPONDETNS ASKED AT LEGHT TO GIVE AN ANSWER TO AN OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS, FREE TO ELABORATE IN ANY WAY

ETHNOGORAPHY
SEEKS TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE AS THEY INTERACT IN NATURALLY OCCURING GROUPS

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS
CRITIQUES AND ANALYSIS ON ALL KINDS OF TEXT, SPEECH, SIT COMS, FILMS
THIS IS THE DEFINTION IDENTIFYING HOW I WILL DEFINE SOMETHING - SCIENTIFIC RESARCH.
CONCEPTUAL
THIS IS THE DEFINITION IDENTIFYING HOW I WILL MEASURE SOMETHING - SCIENTIFC RESEARCH.
OPERATIONAL
THE OPPOSTIE OF A NOMINALIST.
REALIST
ANY COMUNICATION THAT CAN BE ANAZLYZED.
TEXT
A THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIP WHERE ONE CONCEPT PRECEDES ANOTHER IN TIME.
TEMPORAL
WHAT I WILL DO WITH SOME VARIABEL WHILE I MANIPULATE OTHERS.
CONTROL
A THEORY HAS THIS IF IT IS SIMPLE.
PASIMONY
A PREDICTION OR PRE-THEORY
HYPOTHESIS
RESEARCH THAT ALLOWS THE THOERY TO EMERGE FROM THE DATA GATHERED
INDUCTIVE
IN SCIENTIFC RESEARCH, A VARIABLE THAT IS NOT CONTROLLABLE OR CONTROLELD FOR
CONFOUNDING
A RELATIONSHIP OF CAUSE AND EFFECT
CAUSAL
MY HUMANISTIC RESEARCH HAS THIS IF MY INTERPRETATION OF MY DATA IS CONSITENT
RELIABILTY
THE BELIEF THAT WE ARE STIMULUS CREATUYRES, WE BEHAVE IN CAUSE-EFFECT PATTERNS
DETERMINISM
WHEN THE PEOPLE IN POWER KEEP THEIRPOWER BY CONTROLLING THE RESOURCES TO GET POWER
HEGEONY
THE VARIABLE THAT WE MEASURE- THE EFFECT
DEPENDENT
THE BREADTH OF FOCUS OF A THEORY
SCOPE
A THEORY HAS THIS WHEN IT IS USEFUL
UTILITY
THEIR ROLE OF VALUES IN RESEARCH
AXIOLOGY
QUESTIONS ABOUT THE KNOWLDEGE AND WHAT COUNTS AS KNOWLEDGE IN A FIELD
EPISTEMOLOGY
THE WHAT OF OUR THEORIZXING QUESTIONS ABOUT THE NATURE OR HUMAN BEHAVIOR
ONTOLOGY
RESEARCH BEIGNS WITH AND THEN TESTS A HYPOTHESE
DEDUCTIVE
THE VARIABLE THAT WE MANIUPLATE- THE CAUSE
INDEPENDENT
HUMANISTIC RESEARCH METHOD THAT DESRIBES PEOPLE AS THEY INTEARCT NATUREALLY
ETHNOGRAPHY
THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIP WHEN ONE THING GOES UP, THE OTHER GOES UP
CORRELATIONAL
A THEORY HAS THIS WHEN ITS CLAIMS CAN BE PROBEN TRUE AND FALSE
FALSIFIABILITY
A SINGLE IDEA IN A THEORY- DISTANCE
CONCEPT
THE BELIEF THAT WE CAN BE POSITVIE ABOUT A REALITY
POSITIVISM
A THEORY HAS THIS CRITERIA IF IT PROMOTES NEW RESEARCH
HEURISM
MY HUMANISTIC RESEARCH HAS THIS IF I INTERPRETATION OF MY DATA IS ACCURATE
VALIDITY