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102 Cards in this Set

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a collection of people who interact verbally & non verbally, occupy certain roles with respect for one another & work together to accomplish a common goal
group
5-7 people work best, task oriented groups smallest # of people capable of handling task
size of group
motivation for existing, the end state desired
goals
pattern of message flow
pattern of communication
emotional atmosphere
climate
1. supportiveness 2. participative decision making 3. trust 4. openness & candor 5. high performance goals
Charles Redding's Effective Climate
-facilitates polling resources
-increases motivation
-identify errors easier
-decisions better recieved
-provides rewards
Advatages of Groups
-promotes laziness
-conflicting personal & group goals
-domination of few
-stubborness leads to deadlock
-riskier decisions made
-takes longer to reach decisions
Disadvatages of Groups
able & willing to communicate with most or all group members
central position
relate to only one or at most a few
peripheral position
nonfunctional bejaviors, prevent effective group: blocking, aggression, recognition seeking, withdrawing, dominating, joking, self confessing, & help seeking
self serving roles
help group realize goals: initiating, info seeking, opinion seeking, info giving, opinion giving, clarifying, coordinating, evaluating, consensus testing
task oriented roles
help group run smoothly: encouraging, gate keeping, harmonizing, compromising, standard setting
maintainance oriented goals
ability to influence others and achieve goals
leadership
a group is stronger than any individual alone
synergy
any one person in the group can affect everyone positively or negitively, all group members depend on eachother
interdenpendence
collective belief among members that they can be effective
efficiency
the members work togehter to achieve obectives and goals pool resorces and coordinate efforts to obtain common goals
coopertive goal structure
members do not share resources, uncoordinated efforts, work to hinder one another's efforts to obtain goal
competitive goal structure
-evaluation
-control
-strategy
-neutrality
-superiority
-certainty
defensive climate
-description
-problem orientation
-spontaneity
-empathy
-equality
-provisionalism
Supportive climate
extreme way of avoiding conflict
groupthink
extent person wants to attain personal goals
Blake & Moulton's Conclict Grid Horizontal scale
extent person is concerned for others
Blake & Moulton's Conflict Grid Vertical Scale
neutrality is maintained at all costs, withdrawl form dealing with conflict
Blake & Moulton's Conflict Grid 1.1
compormise, bargaining & middle ground positions accepted so no one wins, workable rather than best solution
Blake & Moulton's Conflict Grid 5.5
valid problem solving takes place, emotions, reservations, & doubts are examined & worked through
Blake & Moulton's Conflict Grid 9.9
disagreements are smoothed over or ignored, maintained peaceful co-existance
Blake & Moulton's Conflict Grid 1.9
conflict is suppressed through authority
Blake & Moulton's Conflict Grid 9.1
exchange of information between individuals who are unalike culturally
Intercultural Communication
system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, & artifacts that the members of a society use to cope with one another & with their world
cultures
a group whose beliefs or behaviors distinguish it from the larger culture of which it is a part & shares similarities with
co-cultures
specialized languages used by co-cultures to facilitate effective communication & to distiguish group members from non members
co-languages
specialized language of disreputable underground co-cultures
argot
specialized language of non-professional non criminal groups
cant
technical language of a particular trade, profession, or group
jargon
derived from cant & argot consists of widely used terms to dominant culture but not acceptable in formal writing & speaking
slang
belief that your group or culture is superior to other groups or cultures
ethnocentrism
belief that another culture should be judged by its context rather than measured against own culture
cultural relativism
generalization about some group of people that oversimplifies their culture
stereotype
value individual freedom, choice, uniqueness, & independence
individualistic cultures
value the group over the individual
collectivist cultures
info & cultural rules are implied & known to individuals
implicit rule culture
info & cultural rules are explicit; procedures are explained & expectations are discussed
explicit rule culture
ability to use the verbal & Nonverbal language appropriately to culture or co-culture norms
code sensitivity
being open minded about differences
tolerating abiguity
process of recieving & interpreting oral stimuli
listening
physiological act of recieving sound
hearing
interference in the communication process from external & internal sources
noise
all stimuli in the environment that keep from focusing on the speaker & the message
physical distractions
wandering of the mind when you're supposed to be focused on something
mental distraction
internal interference focus so intently on details you miss the main point
factual distractions
occurs when you over respond to an emotion, word or concept
sematic distractions
person's social standing, rank, title, or value; can affect listening
status
active listening that challenges speakers message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness, & utility
critical listening
what you see & ear affects listening
sights & sounds
excessive self focus, which interferes with listening
egocentrism
an impediment to listening that occurs when individuals act threatened as if they must defend what they have said or done
defensiveness
impediment to listening occurs when you look down on others
experiential listening
involved listening with a purpose
active listening
listener's verbal or nonverbla response to speaker & message
feedback
active listening you listen with a purpose and attempt to understand
empathetic listening
ability to percieve another person's world view as if it were your own
empathy
state of being fully engaged in the moment
mindfulness
analyzing & judging the accuracy of messages
critical thinking
speaker's competence to make a claim as precieved by the listeners
source credibility
critical thinking includes evaluating info or knowledge was discovered & evaluating the message itslef
message analysis
process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions
persuasion
mental give & take between speaker and listener during persuasive speech
mental dialogue with audeince
portion of the audience the whole audience that hte speaker most wants to persuade
target audence
questions about the truth or falsity of an assertion
Questions of fact
Questions of fact orgainized
topically
quesitons about worth, rightness, morality of idea or action
Questions of Value
Questions of value orgainized
topically
questions about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
Question of policy
question of policy organized
problem-solution order
problem-cause-solution order
comparative advantages order
monroe's motivation sequence
audience's perception of whether speaker is qualified to speak on topic based on competence & character
credibility
how an audience regards a speaker's intelligence & knowledge of topic
competence
how an aundience regards speaker's sincerity, trustworthiness & concern on topic
character
credibility of speaker before he or she starts to speak
initial credibility
credibility of speaker produced by everything speaker does during speech
derived credibility
credibility of speaker at end of speech
terminal credibility
credibily; authority & knowledge of credible source
ethos
logical proof based on reasoning
logos
emotional proof based on feelings or emotions
pathos
supporting materials used to prove or disprove something
evidence
process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence
reasoning
moves from particular facts to general conclusion
reasoning from specific insances
error in reasoning form specific instances justs to conclusion on basis of insufficient evidence
hasty generalization
reasoning moves from general principle to specific conclusion
reasoning form prinicple
error in reasoning from specific instances, justps to conclusion on basis of insufficient evidence
hasty generalization
reasoning moves from general prinicple to specific conclusion
reasoning from principle
reasoning seeks to establish realtionship between causes & effects
casual reasoning
mistake that one event cuased another; error in casual reasonning
false cuase
reasoning speaker compares similar cuases; if tru for first than true for second
analogical reasoning
two causes being compared are not essentially alike
invalid analagy
error in reasoning
fallacy
fallacy introduces irrelevant issue to divert attention from discussion subject
red herring
fallacy attacks person rather than dealing with real issue
ad hominem
fallacy forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more exist
either or OR fasle alternatives
fallacy assumes because its populat that it is correct, good, or desirable
bandwagon
fallacy assumes taking first step leads to other steps
slippery slope