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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
global plagiarism
stealing a speech ENTIRELY from a SINGLE SOURCE and saying it's your own
patchwork plagiarism
stealing from 2 or 3 sources
incremental plagiarism
not giving credit for particular parts of the speech
- quotations (...historian Perry says the following..."quotation")
- paraphrases
Public Speaking vs. Conversation
Public Speaking is:
1. more highly structured
2. requires more formal language
3. requires a different method of delivery
Dealing with nervousness/speech anxiety
1. experience
2. preparation
3. think positively
4. visualize giving a good speech
5. know that nervousness is not visible
6. don't expect perfection

(deep breaths, eye contact, good intro, visual aids, etc.)
Being aware of cultural diversity
words change from language to language, ways of thinking and seeing the world are different, different gestures might be offensive, etc.
steps to take to adapt to listeners of diverse backgrounds
1. avoid ethnocentrism
2. put yourself in your listener's shoes
3. visual aids (help with language barrier)
4. be alert to facial expressions or confusion
5. listen to other speeches with courtesy and attentiveness
belief that your own culture is superior to all others
Ethical Speech Making
issues of right and wrong (ex: Felicity running for school board. Her opponent is going to be indicted for shady purposes. Should she make it an issue???)
Goals for Ethical speech making
1. Make sure goals are ethically sound (Hitler)
2. Be fully prepared for each speech (analyze audience, visual aids, organize ideas, rehearsing, etc.)
3. Be honest
4. Avoid name calling ("fag" "nigger" "dike")
5. Put ethical principles into practice (not just in your speech!)
Types of Listening
1. appreciative
2. empathic
3. comprehensive
4. critical
Appreciative Listening

- listening to music
Empathic Listening
to provide emotional support for a speaker (empathy)

- psychiatrist to a patient, or friend in distress
Comprehensive Listening
to understand the message of the speaker

- lecture, directions to a house
Critical Listening
evaluate for rejecting or accepting a message

- campaign speech of a politician, jury in a trial
4 Causes for Poor Listening
1. Not concentrating
2. Listening too hard
3. Jumping to conclusions
4. Focusing on Delivery and Personal Appearance (the guy who couldn't focus bc he had an accent)
Topic Selection
Brainstorming (clustering, personal inventory), reference search, internet search
3 General Purposes of Speeches


Specific Purpose Statement (SPS)
1. write as a full infinitive phrase, not fragment
2. express your pupose as a statemnt, not as a question
3. avoid figurative language i your purpose statement
4. limit to one distince idea
5. make sure SP is not too vague

Central Idea Statement (CIS)
one sentence statement that sums up major ideas of speech
The Linear Model
no feedback
1 way instead of 2 way
The interactive model
shows communication in discrete acts (stop, go)

doesn't look at the FLOW
4 types of NOISE
1. Physical
2. Physiological (body functions, headache)
3. Psychological (internal, stress, biases)
4. Symantic (word choice - offensive, confusing)
The Transactional Model
communicators can SIMULTANEOUSLY send and receive messages

BEST defines communication as a content and relational message
Elements of Communication Competance
1. knowledge
2. skills
3. competence
4. sensitivity
5. commitment
Outline of Speech
1. foundation info
2. intro
3. body
4. connectives
5. conclusion
6. works cited
Speech Foundation
topic, GP, SPS, CIS, organizational pattern (topical, spatial, chronological)
Transitions, internal previews, internal summaries, signposts