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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Personal Inventory, Clustering, Reference Search, Internet Search
4 Brainstorming Methods
Two General purposes of most classroom speeches.
To Persuade, To inform
A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in their speech.
Specific purpose statement
Write the Purpose as a full Phrase.
Express the purpose as a statement, not a question.
Avoid figuratice language in your purpose statement.
Limit your purpose statement to one distinct idea.
Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or general.
5 steps for formulating your speech.
A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
Central Idea
Does my purpose meet the assignment?
Can I accomplish my purpose in the time allotted?
Is the purpose relevant to my audience?
Is the purpose too trivial for my audience?
Is the purpose too technical for my audience?
Questions to ask about your specific purpose.
Should be expressed in a full sentence
Should not be in the form of a question
Should avoid figurative language
Should not be vague or overly general
Guidelines for an effective central idea
Focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion.
critical thinking
Speaker
Message
Channel
Listener
Feedback
Interference
Situation
7 elements of speech communication
The belief that one's own group or culture is superior is superior to all other groups or cultures.
ethocentrism
the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs. The information in the speech can have an impact on someone's life and you want to make sure the information is correct.
Ethics & why its important
Make sure your goals are ethically sound
Be fully prepared for each speech
Be honest in what you say
Avoid name calling and other abusive language
put ethical principles into practice
5 guidelines for ethical speechmaking
presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own.
Plagiarism
Stealing a speech from a single source
Global Plagiarism
Stealing ideas or language from 2 or 3 sources
Patchwork Plagiarism
Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from others
Incremental Plagiarism
Best way to avoid plagiarism?
Paraphrase or use quotes whenever you think you may need them
Be courteous and attentive
Avoid prejudging the speaker
Maintain the free and open expression of ideas
3 basic guidelines for ethical listening
Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation.
being audience-centered
To be concerned above all with your own values, beliefs, and well-being
Being egocentric
Size
Physical setting
Disposition toward the topic
Disposition toward the speaker
Disposition toward the occation
5 situational audience analysis factors
Age
Gender
Sexual orientation
Racial
Ethnic and cultural background
Religion
Group membership
6 demographic traits of audiences
Two ways to get information about an audience.
Interviewing and Questionaires.
Fixed
Scale
Open Ended
3 types of questions used in questionaires
Assessing how your audience is likely to respond to what you will say in your speech
Adjusting what you say to make it as clear, approriate, and convincing as possible
Ways to adapt your speech to your audience before the speech.
Adapt if you find yourself with less time that you thought
Look for audience approval
Ways to adapt your speech to your audience during the speech
Numerical Data
Statistics
Are they representative?
Measures used corrrectly?
From a reliable source?
3 questions asked to judge reliability of statistics
quotations or paraphrases to support a point
testimony
Testimony from someone who has had a firsthand experience on the topic.
Peer Testimony
Testimony from an expert in the field of topic.
Expert testimony
Brief, Extended, nad Hypothetical
3 types of examples
A specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
Brief Examples
A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
Extended Example
describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
Hypothetical
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.
Chronological Order
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a dirent pattern
Spacial Order
A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause effect relationship
Causal Order
First main point deals with the existence of a problem and the 2nd main point presents a solution to the problem
Problem-solution order
The main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
Topical order
Transition
Internal previews
Internal summary
Signpost
4 kinds of speech connectives
a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another
Transition
a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
Internal Preview
A statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points
Internal Summary
A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas.
Signpost
Get the attention and interest on your audience
Reveal the topic of your speech
Establish your credibility and goodwill
Preview the body of the speech
4 objectives of a speech introduction
Let the audience know you are enging the speech,
Reinforce the audiences understanding of or commitment to the central idea
2 major functions of a speech conclusion
crescendo ending
dissolve ending
signal the end of the speech
A conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
Crescendo
A conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement
Dissolve
a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and biography of a speech
Preparation outline
a brief outline used to jog a speakers memory during the presentation
speaking outline
the literary or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
Denotative Meaning
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase
Connotative
Use familiar words,
Choose concrete words,
Eliminate Clutter
using language clearly tips
conveys Ideas clearly
Doesnt call attention to itself
good speech delivery
manuscript
reciting from memory
speaking impromptu
Speaking extemoraneously
4 types of speech delivery
a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience
Manuscript
Memorize and deliver speech
Reciting from memory
delivered with little or no immediate preparation
Speaking impromptu
carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.
Speaking Extemporaneously
the loudness or softness of the speakers voice
Volume
the highness or lowness of the speakers voice
pitch
the speed at which a person speaks
Rate
A momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech
Pause
changes in a speakers rate, pitch and volume
Vocal Variety
the acceptd stardard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language
pronunciation
the physical production of particular speech sounds
articulation
a variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammer, or vocabulary
Dialect
personal appearance
movement
gestures
eye contact
4 aspects of nonverbal communication
interest retention and enhancing every aspect
3 advantages of using visual aids