Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

508 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is pollination?
the transfer of pollen grains to the stigma
What are the 3 aids of pollination? (what attracts pollinators)
color, odor, presence of nectaries
What are 3 modes of pollination?
air, H20, pollinators
What are the 3 organisms that serve as pollinators?
birds, insects, animals
What are 3 types of pollination?
self pollination, cross-pollination, artificial pollination
What is self-pollination?
the anther of a plant pollinates the stigma of the same plant
What is cross-pollination?
the anther of one plant pollinates the stigma of another plant of the same species
What is artificial pollination?
the anther of 1 plant species contributes pollen grains that are added to the stigma of female plant of another species and hybrids (man intervenes)
What are 2 types of cells in a pollen grain?
tube cells and generative/germinative cells
What is a tube cell?
a cell contained in a pollen grain that houses digestive enzymes that digest a pathway through the style and to the micropyle (distal opening) of the ovary
Where is the pathway (2 parts) that the tube cell creates using digestive enzymes
style and micropyle
What is the purpose of the micropyle in a tube cell?
allows entry of generative/germinative cell
Type of cell in a pollen grain that contains the 2 sperm used for double fertilization
generative/germinative cell
The process of sperm meeting the egg
Part of female plant that breaks down pollen grain
When a pollen grain reaches the stigma, how does the female plant respond?
Uses enzymes to break down the pollen grain
Tube cell's function in fertilization in a plant
breaks down tissue of pistil which creates path for generative cell to travel to the micropyle
Generative cell's function in fertilization?
travels via pathway and enters ovary through micropyle for double fertilization
Two areas that sperm fertilizes in double fertilization
1 synergid, polar nucleus
Parts in the female plant that are 2N?
zygote, polar nucleus
Part of plant that is 3N?
This part of the plant undergoes numerous mitotic divisions and surrounds the developing embryo during double fert
This is the food source for the devel embryo in a plant
Once the endosperm is fertilized, what happens? (double fert)
undergoes numerous mitotic divisions and surrounds developing embryo
What happens to the ovule once fertilized in double fert?
hardens and shrinks in size
What is the purpose of the hard seed coat that the ovule obtains during double fert?
prevents H20 loss in devel embryo, protection
Edible portion of fruit?
Phase between development of embryo to birth in a plant?
3 conditions necessary for germination
favorable climate, H20, gases in balance
2 gases needed to be in balance for germination
H20 and C02
When does germination phase end?
cotelydons are exposed to sun and are now capable of carrying out photosynthesis
part of plant that determines when germination is over
What is a cotyledon
seed leave
2 major growing seasons in plants
primary and secondary
What area of growth does that plant focus on during primary growing season?
the apical meristem and growth in height
This growing season primarily affects lateral meristem and grown in fullness or girth
How many growing seasons do annuals have?
This type of plant survives 2 growing seasons
How many growing seasons do perennials have?
> 2
7 reasons why plants are important
start food chain, maintain ozone layer through protecting earth from gamma rays, provide food, shelter, fuel, clothing, meds
What is repro?
continuation of species
How does repro occur?
presence of gametes or sex cells formed by the meiosis, which occurs in gonads (sex organs)
2 types of gametes?
sperm, oocyte
Word to describe testes and ovaries
Outward patching of abdominal pelvic cavity of male
Function of scrotum
houses testes
Why is scrotum wrinkly?
dartos muscle and folds to increase surface area to protect testes
What is pubic hair on the scrotum for
What is the raphe
visible exterior ridge on scrotum that separates scrotum into two halves externally
Impermeable membrane which sep scrotum into 2 distinctive halves
Each halve of scrotum houses how many testes
Septum has a ________ membrane
What is an inguinal canal
openings in abdominal-pelvic cavity
3 Functions of inguinal canals
sites of testicular descent, mode of travel for spermatic cord and cremaster muscle
When do testes begin to leave the abd pelvic cavity and descend into scrotum
@ 7 mo. of prenatal life
What happens if the testes do not descend at 7 mo of prenatal life?
cryptoorcidism and possible sterility
2 modes of treatment to get rid of cryptoorcidism?
hormone therapy or orchiopexy
Which two hormones can be used to treat cryptoorcidism
hCG and testosterone
What is orchiopexy
surgical proced to cause testes to descend
3 parts of spermatic cord
blood/lymph vessels, nerves, vas deferens
Function of spermatic cord?
allows communication/w body proper
Function of cremester muscle?
positions testes in order to maintain a temp 3* lower than body temp, which is crucial for proper spermatogenesis
Why do testes need to be 3* lower than rest of body
optimum spermatogenesis
If hot, which direction do testes go
The cremaster muscle raises the testes in this type of situation
too cold
where are testes located
Size of testes? (L x W)
2" L x 1" W
What are the two connective tissue coverings in testes from outer to inner?
tunica vaginalis, tunica albuginia
Function of tunica vaginalis?
Function of tunica albuginea
inverts to form septa which divides testes into 200-300 lobules/compartments
What are septa
part of tunica albuginea that divides testes into 200-300 lobules
Septa divides testes into how many lobules/compartments
How many seminiferous tubules are housed in each lobule
Where does sperm prod (spermatogenesis) occur?
seminiferous tubules
Length of seminif tubules
700 ft
Where specifically in the seminiferous tubules does spermatogenesis take place?
below basement memb and lymen in nurse/sertoli/systentacular cells
Where EXACTLY are nurse/sertoli/systentacular cells located
between basement memb and lymen of seminif tubules
6 Functions of nurse/sertoli/systentacular cells
nurse/nourish developing sperm, form blood-testes barrier, get rid of misfit sperm, carrying out spermination, produces inhibin, and produces androgen-binding protein
Specifically, how are sperm protected from antibodies in blood?
blood-testes barrier that nurse cells create
What is spermiation and where does it occur?
process of kicking mature enough sperm out of seminiferous tubule conducted by nurse cell of seminif tubule
What does inhibin do in the male?
acts on nurse cells to inhibit spermatogenesis when all nurse cells are full of developing sperm
How exactly does inhibin stop spermatogenesis in nurse cells in seminif tubules
inhibits release of FSH from gonadotroph cell of adenohypophysis
Where is adenohypophysis in male?
anterior pituitary
How does FSH stim spermatogenesis
stims nurse cell function
Which hormone does nurse cell attempt to pull in which aids in sperm devel
Where are interstitial endocrinocytes in male?
outside and between seminif tubules
What part of male produces testosterone?
interstitial endocrinocyte
How does LH help interstitial endocrinocyte
creates stimulation in the cells to increase testosterone production
Specifically, where does LH come from in male?
gonadotroph cell of ant pituitary gland
8 Steps in spermatogenesis?
daughter cell spermatogonium becomes precursor stem cell, spermatogonium pushed away from basement membrane of semif tubule, differentiation, DNA rep/tetrad form/crossing-over in primary spermatocyte, Meiosis I/Reduction Division, 2 secondary spermatocytes, Meiosis II/Equatorial Div, Spermatids created which devel into spermatozoa and go deep within lumen
Each secondary spermatocyte contains how many chromatids?
Stages in which male gametes are 2N?
precursor stem cell, spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte
These male cells are Haploid
2ndary spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa
Spermiogenesis occurs when sperm are in which two stages?
spermatids, spermatozoa
5 locations in which sperm travel through to get to epididymis
spermenter lumen of seminif tubule, straight tubules, rete testes, efferent ducts, ductus epididymis
Rete testes are defined as?
ciliated tubules
What is epididymis of male?
comma-shaped orgain which houses 20 ft of ductus epididymis
Where is epididymis located?
on each posterior testes
Function of epididymis
maturation site for sperm
After leaving seminif tubules, how long does it take for sperm to mature in epididymis
10-14 days
Comma shaped male sex organ
How many ft of ductus epidydimis in epidydimus
3 parts of epididymis
head, body, tail
Where are most mature sperm loc in epid
2 functions of vas deferens
passageway for sperm, links epidyd, to sex accessory structures
Where are vas deferens loc
spermatic cord
How long are vas deferens
2 structures in vas deferens that aid in peristalsis
cilia, smooth muscle
What is peristalsis
rhythmic contractions
Why is peristalsis needed in vas deferens?
moves sperm through vas deferens
What is the ampulla
distal end that widens in vas deferens
2 functions of vas deferens
passageway for sperm en route to sex accessory structures, temp storage from sperm
Where does vasectomy occur in male
vas deferens
2 types seed plants
Gymnosperm and Angiosperm's Kingdom
Subphylum of Gymnosperm
Phylum of gymnosperms
Division of gymnosperms
When did gymnosperms originate
early Mesozoic Era
how many dif species of gymnosperma
2 char of gymnosperms
needle-like leaves, cone-bearing
4 Purposes needle-like leaves on gymnosperms
prevents water loss, helps withstand extreme humidity, temp, and wind conditions
Examples of gymnosperms
pine, spruce, fir, hemlock, junipers, sequoia, Calif Redwoods
What does word gymnosperm mean
naked or exposed seeds
Where are seeds of gymnosperm housed
scales of female cones
For what 2 reasons are there a lim # of gymnosperm species
prone to predator and environmental stresses
Where are sex organs located in gymnosperms
Male or Female? Long and fleshy cone of gymnosperm
Male or Female: Cone that hangs in clusters of 3 on gymnosperm
When do male cones fall from tree
After pollen release in spring
What is pollen
yellow dust that travels through air and water
Male or Female: short, stocky, woody cone of gymnosperm
What happens within female cones of gymnosperm in spring
sclaes of that house the seeds open to accept pollen for fertiliz
Subphylum of angiosperm
phylum of angiosperm
Division of angiosperm
4 divisions into which gymnosperms and angiosperms are classified in
Plantae, Subphylum, Phylum, Division
When did angiosperm originate?
Cretaceous period of Mesozoic Era
From what species of plants did angiosperm originate
early gymnosperm shrub
When did angiosperm begin to diversify
cenozoic era
How many species of angiosperma
What general kind of plants are angiosperms
flowering plants
Most successful plant group on earth
4 reasons why angiosperms are so successful
seeds housed in ovaries, hardy, evolved when insects did, have soph vascular sys
What does word angiosperm mean
seed vessel
What makes angiosperms considered to be hardy
grow in many climate and soil conditions
What do insects do for angiosperms
How does the soph vascular sys contribute to success of angiosperm
allows flow of nutrients
Where are angiosperms seeds located
ovaries (fruits)
2 classes of angiosperms
monocotelydon, dicotelydon
What is a cotelydon?
seed leaf
How are angiosperms classified
by # of seed leaves
Monocots have ____ seed leaves
Dicots have ____ seed leaves
Type of angiosperm char by long, narrow leaves that typically unfurl from central region of plant
Leaves on this type of angiosperm have parallel venation
Type of angiosperm char by short, broad leaves
This type of angiosperm have leaves with netted venation
The stem on this angiosperm has a scattered vascular sys
Stem on this angiosperm has organized peripheral vascularity
Flowers are always in multiples of 3 on this type of angiosperm
Flowers always in multiples of 4's and 5's on this type of angiosperm
Examples of monocots
grasses, orchids, pineapple, palm, wheat, corn, irises
What kind of angiosperm are these plants: strawberry plants, peach trees, and apple trees
4 types tissues in seed plants
dermal, ground, vascular, meristemic
2 types of dermal tissue in seed plants
epidermis, cuticle
Three types ground tissue in seed plants
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
2 types vascular tissue in plants
phloem, xylem
2 types meristemic tissue in seed plants
lateral, apical
What is the dermal tissue, epidermis?
outer covering of tissue that secretes cuticle
What is dermal tiss, cuticle, on seed plants?
waxy coat secreted by epidermis
What part of the plant secretes waxy coating for cuticle
Purpose of dermal tiss, cuticle
retardation of certain organisms
Purpose of ground tiss in seed plants
photosynthesis, food storage, fill and support of interior of plant
Ground tiss that provides for photsynthesis and food storage in seed plant
Purpose of ground tiss, collenchyma, in seed plants
supports immature or growing parts of plant
Celery stalks are ex of what type of ground tissue
Ground tiss supporting matured portion of plant such as petal or leaf
Vessel that picks up H20 and minerals from soil by the roots and conducts it to the stem to be used during photosynthesis
Picks up nutrients created during photosynthesis and carries them to roots for plant growth and devel
Where is meristemic tiss in seed plants
tips of roots and shoots
Where is mitosis carried out in seed plants
meristemic tiss
What tissue accounts for lengthwise plant growth
apical meristem
Which specific type of tissue is most active in primary growing season
apical meristem
Lateral meristem accounts for what kind of growth in seed plants
Def of photosynthesis
process that converts radiant energy from sun into chemical energy called glucose
Reactants (what incites rxn also) --> Product (in photosynthesis)
6CO2+6H20+light (CHLOROPHYLL) --> C6H1206+602
4 ingredients needed for photosynthesis
H20, CO2, Chlorophyll, light
Where is H20 obtained in a plant for photosynthesis
soil via roots which goes to xylem in leaves
How is CO2 obtained for photosynthesis
stomata (pores in leaf) from air
How is O2 produced
after photosynthesis O2 leaves via stomata into atmosphere
What is stomata
pores in leaves
Part of plant that attracts sun
Chlorophyll in chloroplants
2 reaction stages in photosynthesis (in order)
light dependent, light indep
Where does light dependent rxn of photosyn take place?
thylakoids of chloroplast
Where does light dependent rxn take place
thylakoids of chloroplasts
Which light rxn manufactures ATP?
light dependent
Where does the light independent phase take place in a plant?
What is stoma?
area around thylakoid in chloroplast
Which stage of photosynthesis uses ATP to make glucose?
light independent
Why is ATP necessary in photosynthesis?
to make glucose
What are thylakoids?
photosynthetic units
series of thylakoids are called?
space around and in between thylakoids is called?
The swollen bases that flowers grow in are called?
What in the receptacle of a flower aids in pollinator attraction?
Nectaries contain what two things?
sugar and H20
What are whorls?
the circular patterns in which flowers grow
Name all 4 whorls from outer to inner
calyx, corolla, androecium, gyneocium
This whorl contains the sepals or leaves
2 functions of the calyx
photosynthesis, protection to developing bud
What is the corolla of a plant?
part of plant that contains petals
2 Purpose/Functions of corolla
attracts pollinators, beauty
This whorl contains the stamen of the plant. The stamen is comprised of what two things?

(Name whorl and 2 other components)
androecium, anther and filament
Where do pollen grains form in a plant?
in the stamen's anther
This area of a plant contains 4 pollen sacs
How many pollen sacs does the anther of a plant contain
Function of a stamen's filament?
suspends and supports
Function of androecium in a plant
male sex part
This whorl in a plant contains the carpel or pistil
The carpel/pistil contains what three things?
stigma, style, ovary
What is a carpel's stigma?
sticky, hair-like projections that aid in pollen grain adherence
The style in a carpel/pistil serves as what
Part of carpel/pistil that houses embryo sac
What does it mean when a plant is said to be complete?
All 4 whorls are present, a perfect plant
When one or more whorls are missing from a plant it is said to be
This kind of flower has male and female sex parts intact
Flower that has either male or female sex part missing
Where does pollen formation occur in plant
in pollen sacs of anther
Where are the diploid megaspore mother cells located in a plant
pollen sacs
Type of cell in plant that undergoes meiotic and mitotic division
megaspore mother cells
are megaspore mother cells diploid or haploid
2n diploid
This stage in pollen formation creates 4 haploid daughter cells gen dif from parent
meiosis II
This type of cell division in pollen formation is when the megaspore mother cell divides to form 2 haploid cells
meiosis I
This stage in pollen formation is when 2 haploid cells divide to produce 4 haploid daughter cells
meiosis II
What happens to 4 haploid daughter cells in pollen formation after having undergone Meiosis II
They each undergo mitosis once, creating 4 germinative cells and 4 tube cells
This surrounds 2 of the daughter cells resulting from pollen formation
hardened pollen grain
How many daughter cells become surrounded by a hardened pollen grain for protection
What is another name for ovule formation in plants
embryonic sac production
This part of female plant becomes hardened seed coat that surrounds the seed
Where does ovule formation occur in a female plant
inside ovary
From what does the ovule develop from
ovarian tissue
When an ovule is formed, it is suspended from ovarian wall by means of
What are funiculi
hairlike projections that suspend an ovule from the ovarian wall once the ovule is formed
The distal opening through which sperm enters
The ovule forms around all areas of the ovary in ovule formation with the exception of what part
Where are megaspore mother cells housed in a female plant
This female plant part undergoes mitosis twice
megaspore mother cell
After the megaspore mother cell in a female plant undergoes Meiosis I and II, what happens?
enzymes in the plant destroy three of 4 daughter cells
How many times does the remaining daughter cell resulting from ovule formation undergo mitosis
Final result of ovule formation
8 haploid daughter cells
Final result of pollen formation
4 germinative cells and 4 tube cells (haploid)
Where are seminal vesicles located
inferior, posterior bladder
What is the function of seminal vesicles
to produce seminal vesicle fluid
Is the pH of seminal vesicle fluid acidic or alkaline
This makes up 60% of semen
seminal vesicle fluid
Seminal vesicle fluid makes up what percentage of semen
3 components of seminal vesicle fluid
fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen
Purpose of fructose in seminal vesicle fluid
converts to glucose and used by mitochondria in the midpiece of sperm for energy to enhance movement
Where is the fructose in seminal vesicle fluid converted to glucose and through what means?
mitochondria in the midpiece of sperm
Purpose of prostaglandins in seminal vesicle fluid
provide reverse peristalsis
Prostaglandins in seminal vesicle fluid assist sperm mhow
it propels sperm in upward fashion towards oocyte
Where is prostate located?
just below bladder
This male sex accessory structure can enlarge to varying degrees
Chestnut sized male sex accessory structure
Function of prostate?
produces prostatic fluid
What does prostatic fluid contain and what is its purpose
prostatic urethra which is the beginning of urethra
pH of prostatic fluid?
slightly acidic
What accounts for prostatic fluid's acidity
prostatic acid
This comprises 20-30% of semen
prostatic fluid
What percentage of semen does prostatic fluid take up
2 components of seminal vesicle fluid
liqueifying enzymes, coagulating enzymes
Purpose of coagulating enzymes in seminal vesicle fluid
coagulate semen to allow acclaimation time to adjust to the acidic conditions in the vagina
How long does it take for sperm to adjust to acidic conditions in vagina
15-20 min
Purpose of liqueifying enzymes in seminal vesical fluid
after coagulation, liquefying enzymes liquify semen and allow the sperm to swim towards oocyte
What aids in sperm swimming toward oocyte
liquefying enzymes
What happens after coagulation when semen has been released
after 15-20 min liquiefying enzymes assist sperm in swimming towards oocyte
What makes semen milky white
liqueifying enzymes in seminal vesicle fluid
What 2 things form the ejaculatory ducts
ampulla (in vas deferens) and seminal vesicle ducts
How long are ejaculatory ducts
Purpose of ejaculatory ducts?
conduct sperm and seminal vesicle fluid to enter into prostate
Where is the ampulla located
vas deferens
Where is sperm located once it starts to enter into prostate
vas deferens
Another name for Cowper's glands
bulbourethral glands
Where are Cowper's glands located
near urogenital diaphragm
Pea-sized male sex accessory structure
cowper's glands
How big are Cowper's glands
size of pea
Function of Cowper's glands
produces Cowper's fluid
pH of Cowper's fluid
(Acidic, Alkaline)
Makes up 5% of semen
Cowper's fluid
How much of semen is made up of cowper's fluid
2 purposes of cowper's fluid
coats walls of membranes and spongy urethra, coats tip o fpenis to ease entry into vagina
Why is it important that Cowper's fluid coats the walls of membranes and spongy urethra
protects sperm from acidic condition of urethra
3 components of semen
seminal vesicle fluid, prostatic fluid, cowper's fluid
pH of semen (exact)
Male fluid that contains sperm
3 parts of sperm
head, midpiece/neck, flagellum
part of sperm that houses DNA
How many chromosomes does head of sperm contain
part of sperm that houses digestive enzymes
This part of sperm contains acrosome and digestive enzymes
As sperm swims toward oocyte, what happens to the acrosome
Purpose of acrosome in head of sperm
breaks down outer layer of oocyte so that only 1 sperm can access it for fertilization
part of sperm that houses mitochondria
Purpose of mitochondria in neck of sperm
converts fructose from seminal vesicles to glucose to use for NRG prod by mitochondria
Where is fructose that is needed by mitochondria in sperm come from
seminal vesicles
def of flagellum
organelle of movement
Comp of flagellum in sperm
9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules
Why is it necessary that mitochondria in neck of sperm produce NRG
needed by flagellum to propel towards oocyte
Life span of sperm?
72 hours
Amt of ejaculate
2-3 mL
Amt of sperm/mL
Natural antibiotic in semen
seminal plasmin
How does seminal plasmin protect sperm
natural antibiotic, protects against WBC's
When a semen analysis is done, what 7 things do doctors check for
pH, amt of sperm, # of sperm, structure of sperm, presence of coag and liqueif enzymes, fructose levels, presence of seminal plasmin
4 main parts of penis
root, penile shaft, connective tissue, glans penis
What does root do for penis
attachement site to body proper
2 parts of root of penis aiding in attachment to body
part of penis that houses majority of male urethra
penile shaft
How long is pnile shaft
3 parts of penile shaft
prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy urethra
How long is prostatic urethra?
1- 1.5"
How long is membranous urethra in penile shaft
How long is spongy urethra in penile shaft
Where is prostatic urethra of penile shaft located
where is membranous urethra in penile shaft located
between urogenital diaphragm
part of urethra that travels through penile shaft
spongy urethra
Conn tissue surrounding spongy urethra
corpus spongiocum
Purpose of conn tissue corpus spongiocum
protects spongy urethra by lining it
Conn tissue comprised of blood sinuses
corpora cavernosa
Erections caused by
filling of blood sinuses under parasynthetic influence
Tip of penis also called
glans penis
Why is glans penis named that
shaped like an acorn
What part of glans penis separates it from penile shaft
What is urethral orifice
exit site for semen in urine on glans penis
foreskin that covers glans penis upon birth
Name 4 brain male hormones
Another name for brain hormones
What does GNRH stand for
gonadotrophic releasing hormone
Where does GNRH come from
tubular region of the hypothmus
Purpose of GNRH
stim gonadotroph cell in ant pituitary to secrete FSH or LH
Process of stimulating gonadotroph cells to secrete hormones
FSH, LH, and ICSH are called
adenohypophyseal hormones
What secretes FSH
gonadotroph cell
Function of FSH
stim nurse cells of seminif tubules to encourage spermatogenesis
Know that LH and ICSH are
Where do LH/ICSH come from in male
gonadotroph cell
Purpose o LH/ICSH in male
stim interstitial endocrinocytes to encourage testosterone production
Where does inhibin come from in male
nurse cells of seminif tubules
When is inhibin secreted in male
When devel sperm is to full capacity in nurse cells
Purpose of inhibin in male
inhibits FSH to stop spermatogenesis
What secretes testosterone
interstitial endocrinocytes
2 male hormones that are not considered hypothalmic/brain hormones
testerone, inhibin
Functions of testosterone
maintains male sex organs and sex char, protein anabolist
When is testosterone most active in a male's life
How does testosterone aid in male devel
works/w human growth hormone to aid in male devel
Male hormone that anabolizes protein
Female gonads
earliest female sex cell
Oogonium convert to
primary oocytes
In female ovaries where are primary oocytes located?
primordial follicle
When do ovaries descend from abs to pelvis, and oogonium convert to primary oocytes
3 mo prenatal life
where do ovaries start out at at 3 mo of prenatal life
When in a girl's life do primary oocytes change
female responds to FSH at puberty
What hormone stimulates the primary oocytes at puberty
How many oocytes are females born with
If pregnancy does not occur what happens to estrogen and progestrin
plumet near end of menstrual cycle and starts period
3 ligaments that position the ovaries
mesovarian, ovarian lig, suspensory lig
What does the ovarian ligament do
suspends ovaries from uterus
What does suspensory ligament in ovaries do
anchors ovaries to pelvic wall
What occurs in _____ hormonally determines what occurs in _____
oavaries, uterus
What begins a menstrual cycle
progestrin and estrogen levels dec and 20-25 primary oocytes appear in primary follicles, 1 row of theca cells that produce estrogen develop
Primary oocytes are 2N or N?
What happpens Day 4 of the menstrual cycle
Meiosis I occurs producing 20-25 sec oocytes in sec follicles, 2 rows of theca cells producing estrogen
Secondary oocytes are 2N or N
What day of menstrual cycle do only 1 of the secondary oocytes begin to develop
Where is 1 secondary oocyte develop?
graafian follicle
What is the graafian follicle
ripened follicle in which a sec oocyte develops and the oocyte is ovulated
What happens Days 14-15 in menses
estrogen levels increase which causes LH to be secreted. Ovulation occurs
Which day of menses?
Graafian follicle converts to corpus hemorrhagicum which converts to corpus luteum
What does corpus luteum do during days 15-16
secretes high levels of progestrin and lower levels of estrogen to help built uterine wall for successful implantation
What is importance of corpus luteum building up uterine wall
successful implantation
How does corpus luteum respond when a woman is pregnant
continues hormonal secretions to maintain pregnancy until placenta is intact
When does a placenta become intact during pregnancy
3 mo
How does corpus luteum respond if a woman is not pregnant
becomes corpus albicans and dies. p and e secretions decrease and menses begin
How long are fallopian tubes
How long does it take and at what rate does oocyte travel through fallopian tubes
4 days at 1"/day
What 2 structures in fallopian tubes aid in mvt of oocyte
cilia and sm muscle
2 regions of fallopian tubes
isthmus and ampulla
How much of fallopian tubes made up of isthmus
How much of fallopian tubes made up of ampulla
Where is the entry site of the secondary oocyte in the fallopian tubes
in the ampula's distal opening called infundibulum
What are finger like projections that cover the infundibulum in the ampulla of the fallopian tubes
How does fallopian respond to inc estrogen levels upon ovulation
bend close to ovaries, fimbrae undulate and entice sec oocytes entry
Where is site of ectopic pregnancies
in infundibulum of the fallopian tube's ampulla
Why do ectopic pregnancies occur
3 functions of uterus
site of menses, site of labor, hosts fetus
Where is uterus located?
in hypogastric region of pelvis
Where/how is uterus positioned in pelvis
in a flex forawrd pos superior to bladder and anterior to rectum
L/W/thickness of uterus
3" L x 2" W x 1" thick
Shape of uterus
3 regions of uterus
fundus, body, cervix
Most muscular region in uterus
Part of uterus that is site of menses and hosts fetus
2 things that body of uterus does
site of menses, hosts fetus
Narrowest region of uterus
How does uterus enable better sperm penetration
the cervix secretes cervical mucus that thins in response to increased estrogen
Outer to inner tissue layers in uterus (3)
perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
Purpose of perimetrium tissue layer in uterus
This tissue layer in uterus is a uterine muscle which in is the thickest in the fundus section of uterus
Where is myometrial tissue thickest in uterus
2 layers in endometrium of uterus
stratum basalis, stratum functionalis
Permanent layer in uterus which manufactures the other temp layer called ______
stratum basalis, stratum functionalis
Layer in uterus that is sloughed off in menses each month (temp layer)
stratum functionalis
Uterus has a blood supply char by what
high vascularity
Uterine artery supplies what part of uterus
arouat arteries supply what part of uterus
perimetrium tissue
What artery supplies myometrium tiss layer in uterus
radial artery
Straight arteriole supplies what part of uterus
stratum basalis
What artery supplies stratum functionalis in uterus
spiral arteriole
3 anchoring devices in uterus
broad ligament, uterosacral ligament, round ligament
This anchors the uterus to lateral walls of pelvis and is largest ligament in uterus
broad ligament
This anchors uterus to posterior sacrum
uterosacral ligament
What does the round ligament in uterus anchor
anterior of uterus to internal labia
How long is vagina
Where is site of which doctors fit diaphragm in females
Folded muscle in vagina
Where does vagina end
vaginal oriface located on vestibule of vulva
Function of vagina?
passageway for sperm/birth
External female genitalia called?
6 regions of vulva
mons pubice, vestibule, vaginal oriface, labia, clitoris, perenium
What is the mons pubice in a female
raised ridge of fat housing pubic hair
Function of female pubic hair
protects uterus
This part of vulva houses orifaces
smallest oriface in vestibule of vagina
urethral oriface
Purpose of skene's glands
constantly secretes thin mucus which serves as lubricant and protection of orifaces
largest oriface of vestibule in vulva
Which oriface in vulva houses skene's glands
This oriface in vestibule of vulva is surrounded by Batholin glands
purpose of batholin glands
secretes thick mucus in response to sexual stim which aids in penile entry
2 liplike structures of labia from inner to outer
labia minora, and labia majora
2 Purpose of 2 liplike structures in labia
cover vestibule awhich serves as protection to orifaces and maintains moisture
female organ homologous to male penis
female part housing blood sinuses that fill during erection due to tactile stim
What is the prepuce of a female
foreskin that covers clitoris
What is the perinium?
diamond shaped area between thighs of male and female
Site of episiotemy in female
What is an episiotemy
surgical enlargement of vaginal orifice to ease in birth
Another name for breasts
mammary glands
Breasts comprised of 15-20 what
fat filled lobules
This separates each lobule in breast and gives support to breast tissue
cooper's ligament
purpose of alveoli in lobules of breast
milk prod cells
hormone that allows for milk prod in breasts
Abbrev for prolactin
Milk travels via ducts through which 5 structures to reach the nipple
alveoli, secretory ducts, mammary ducts, lacteriferous sinuses, lactiferous ducts
part of breasts that serve as holding tanks for milk
lacteriferous sinuses
Milk letdown occurs under influence of which hormone
OT is abbrev for which hormone
darkened region that surrounds nipple
What are modified sebaceous glands
glands surrounding periphery of areola that produces oil (sebum) that lubricates the nipple
2 hypothalmic hormones in female
This female hormone stims gonadotroph cells to produce FSH or LH
This female hormone encourages prolactin release from lactotroph cell of anterior pituitary
What does PRH do
encourages prolactin release from lactotroph cell of anterior pituitary gland
PRH stands for
prolactin releasing hormone
Adenohypophseal hormones come from where
ant pituitary
FSH stands for
follicle stim hormone
What does FSH do in female
acts on ovaries to encourage oogenesis
LH stands for
luteinizing hormone
What does LH do in female
surges and causes ovulation of 2ndary oocyte and development of the corpus luteum
When LH is secreted what happens to e and p
inc progesterone and dec estrogen
Where is prolactin secreted from
lactotroph cell
Purpose of prolactin
acts on alveoli to cause milk production
PRL stands for
Where do neurohypophyseal hormones come from
posterior pituitary
OT stands for
What is OT produced by
neurosecretory cells in hypothalmus
2 Functions of OT
provide for milk letdown and uterine contractions for birth
Where is estrogen secreted from
theca cells of ovarian follicles
female hormone that is a protein anabolist
Hormone that is an electrolyte and water balancer
What happens when the amt of estrogen decreases in the body
increased fluid retention and inc stim of nervous sys
Female hormone that maintains primary and secondary sex char
Where is progestrin secreted from
Purpose of progesterone
inc uterine lining and breast tissue development
What secretes inhibin in female
Purpose of inhibin during menses
inhibits FSH secretion towards end of menses
Relaxin is secreted by what 2 things
corpus luteum and placenta
Function of relaxin
relaxes synthesis pubis to loosen hips for birth and cervix which begins cervical dilation
3 placental hormones in females
What does HCG stand for
Human Chorionic Gonadotropic Hormone
What is HCG secreted from in women
What is trophoblast
future chorionic outer membrane of placenta
When is HCG secreted in a woman
upon succesful implantation
Purpose of HCG in woman during childbirth
encourages corpus luteum to cont its secretion of inc progesterone and lower levels of estrogen to maintain preg until placenta is intact
What does HCS stand for
Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin
What is HCS secreted by
Purpose of HCS?
encourages breast tissue development
What does HCT stand for
Human Chorionic Thyrotropin
What secretes HCT
Purpose of HCT in childbirth
inc maternal metabolism
Def of development
period between fertilization and birth
2 stages of development
Embryonic and fetal
When does embryonic devel occur
between fert and 2 mo
When does fetal devel occur
3 mo to birth
Where do coagulating enzymes necessary in semen come from
What is the first thing that happens upon ejaculation
for 15-20 min sperm acclamate to new acidic environ and become better swimmers
AFter coagulation, what happens to semen