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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who?
McCarthyism
Joseph McCarthy
What?
McCarthyism
period of intense paranoia and scrutiny
When? and Where?
McCarthyism
1950s USA
Why?
McCarthyism
During this period people from all walks of life became the subject of aggressive "witch-hunts," often based on inconclusive or questionable evidence.
Who?
civil defense
civilians around the world
What?
civil defense
Effort to prepare civilians in case of attack
When? and Where?
civil defense
1950s and 60s
United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union
Why?
civil defense
People are what rebuilds a country after its destruction and it is therefore important for the economic security of a country to protect its people. Also, reducing fear and uncertainty via civil defense helps people's quality of life and has positive economic benefits.
Who?
Berlin Blockade
United States, Soviet Union, West Berlin
What?
Berlin Blockade
a land and water blockade of the city that had been instituted by the Soviet Union in the hope that the Allies would be forced to abandon West Berlin.
When? and Where?
Berlin Blockade
1948-49 West Berlin
Why?
Berlin Blockade
This is the first serious crisis of the Cold War.
Who?
Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill
What?
Iron Curtain
Term that refers to the boundary that symbolically, ideologically, and physically divided Europe into two separate areas
When? and Where?
Iron Curtain
1945-90 Europe
Why?
Iron Curtain
Served to keep people in and information out – this metaphor enjoyed wide acceptance in the West
Who?
Sputnik
USSR
What?
Sputnik
First artificial satellite put into orbit
When? and Where?
Sputnik
Oct 1957 Kazahkstan
Why?
Sputnik
Coming at the height of the Cold War, this caught the West by surprise, and in the U.S. led to a wave of self-recriminations, the beginning of the space race, and a movement to reform science education.
When? and Where?
Berlin Blockade
1948-49 West Berlin
Why?
Berlin Blockade
This is the first serious crisis of the Cold War.
Who?
Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill
What?
Iron Curtain
Term that refers to the boundary that symbolically, ideologically, and physically divided Europe into two separate areas
When? and Where?
Iron Curtain
1945-90 Europe
Why?
Iron Curtain
Served to keep people in and information out – this metaphor enjoyed wide acceptance in the West
Who?
Sputnik
USSR
What?
Sputnik
First artificial satellite put into orbit
When? and Where?
Sputnik
Oct 1957 Kazahkstan
Why?
Sputnik
Coming at the height of the Cold War, this caught the West by surprise, and in the U.S. led to a wave of self-recriminations, the beginning of the space race, and a movement to reform science education.
Who?
Invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, U.S.S.R., USA
What?
Invasion of Afghanistan
USSR invaded to support a pro-Soviet communist government
When? and Where?
Invasion of Afghanistan
1979-88 Afghanistan
Why?
Invasion of Afghanistan
The war in Afghanistan had a major impact on domestic politics in the Soviet Union. It was one of the key factors in the de-legitimization of Communist Party rule. Civil society reacted to the intervention by marginalizing the Afghan veterans. The army was demoralized as a result of being perceived as an invader.
Who?
Strategic Defense Initiative
United States, President Reagan
What?
Strategic Defense Initiative
Space-based systems to protect the US from attack by strategic nuclear missiles (use lasers to shoot down incoming missiles)
When? and Where?
Strategic Defense Initiative
March 1983 USA
Why?
Strategic Defense Initiative
Contributed to or at least accelerated the fall of the Soviet Union because they could not afford a suitable countermeasure.
Who?
Iran-Contra Affair
Ronald Reagan’s administration, Hezbollah, Contras of Nicaragua
What?
Iran-Contra Affair
Political scandal – US sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy; U.S. diverted proceeds from the sale to the Contras, anti-Communist guerrillas engaged in an insurgency against the elected socialist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. Both the sale of weapons and the funding of the Contras violated stated administration policy as well as legislation passed by the Congress.
When? and Where?
Iran-Contra Affair
1980s
USA, Iran, Nicaragua
Why?
Iran-Contra Affair
Raised several questions concerning separation of powers
Who?
Perestroika
U.S.S.R., Mikhail Gorbachev
What?
Perestroika
Restructuring of the Soviet economy from a command economy to one with aspects of a market economy
When? and Where?
Perestroika
1985-86
USSR
Why?
Perestroika
contributed to the economic decline and eventual destruction of the Soviet Union
Who?
Glasnost
U.S.S.R., Mikhail Gorbachev
What?
Glasnost
the main goal of this policy was to make the country's management transparent and open to debate, to change the former situation where major political and management decisions were made by a narrow circle and were beyond criticism
When? and Where?
Glasnost
1985
USSR
Why?
Glasnost
Considered a step toward real democracy in Russia
Who?
Tiananmen Square
Peoples’ Republic of China (PRC)
What?
Tiananmen Square
Series of student-led demonstrations denouncing China’s economic instability and political corruption
When? and Where?
Tiananmen Square
April – June 1989
Beijing, China
Why?
Tiananmen Square
After ignoring government calls to order, the use of military force to resolve the crisis was ordered; many died or were arrested and imprisoned
Who?
Solidarity
Lech Walesa
What?
Solidarity
Originally a trade union that would grow into a broad-based anti-Communist social movement
When? and Where?
Solidarity
1980s
Poland
Why?
Solidarity
Its success sparked off a series of peaceful anti-communist counterrevolutions in Central and Eastern Europe.
Who?
Guatemala (Operation PBSuccess)
Guatemala (Arbenz), United States (CIA), United Fruit Company
What?
Guatemala (Operation PBSuccess)
a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala – Arbenz whose government put forth a number of new policies that the US intelligence community deemed to be Communist in nature, and, suspected that the Soviet Union was pulling the strings
When? and Where?
Guatemala (Operation PBSuccess)
1954
Guatemala
Why?
Guatemala (Operation PBSuccess)
This operation became the de facto model for the overthrow or destabilization of a unfavourable government by the US.
Who?
Korean War
North Korea, South Korea, USA, China (PRC)
What?
Korean War
Conflict between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea
When? and Where?
Korean War
1950-1953
Korean Peninsula
Why?
Korean War
First armed confrontation of the Cold War; created the idea of a limited war, where the two superpowers would fight without descending to an all out war that could involve nuclear weapons
Who?
Marshall Plan
USA and countries of Western Europe
What?
Marshall Plan
Main plan for the reconstruction of Europe after WWII
When? and Where?
Marshall Plan
1947-51
Western Europe
Why?
Marshall Plan
allowed the nations of Western Europe to relax austerity measures and rationing, reducing discontent and bringing political stability.
Who?
Bay of Pigs
USA (Kennedy), Cuba (Castro)
What?
Bay of Pigs
U.S. backed invasion by Cuban exiles intent on overthrowing the Communist government of Fidel Castro
When? and Where?
Bay of Pigs
1961
Cuba
Why?
Bay of Pigs
the invasion failed miserably and proved to be a major international embarrassment for the Kennedy administration
Why?
Marshall Plan
allowed the nations of Western Europe to relax austerity measures and rationing, reducing discontent and bringing political stability.
Who?
Bay of Pigs
USA (Kennedy), Cuba (Castro)
What?
Bay of Pigs
U.S. backed invasion by Cuban exiles intent on overthrowing the Communist government of Fidel Castro
When? and Where?
Bay of Pigs
1961
Cuba
Why?
Bay of Pigs
the invasion failed miserably and proved to be a major international embarrassment for the Kennedy administration
Who?
Cuban Missile Crisis
USA (Kennedy), Cuba (Castro), USSR (Khrushchev)
What?
Cuban Missile Crisis
tense confrontation between the USSR and the USA over the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba.
When? and Where?
Cuban Missile Crisis
Oct 14 – Nov 20, 1962
Cuba
Why?
Cuban Missile Crisis
regarded as the moment when the Cold War was closest to becoming nuclear war, and which could have turned into World War III.
Who?
USS Pueblo
North Korea and U.S.
What?
USS Pueblo
environmental research ship that is famous for being boarded and captured by soldiers of North Korea
When? and Where?
USS Pueblo
January 23, 1968
the Tsushima Straits in the Sea of Japan
Why?
USS Pueblo
Although all but one of the men thus eventually came home safely, the incident itself symbolized a broader failure of American foreign policy in Asia-an almost casual assumption, evident also in Vietnam, that American military might was invulnerable to the challenge of Asian communists.
Who?
SALT I and II
USA (Nixon, Carter) and USSR (Brezhnev)
What?
SALT I and II
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks - froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.
When? and Where?
SALT I and II
1969-1972 and 1972-1979
Helsinki and Vienna
Why?
SALT I and II
the military and political leadership on both sides had an incentive to reduce their arsenals; however, massive amounts of mistrust on both sides contributed to difficulties with the treaty process.
What?
Apollo 11
United States (Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins)
Who?
Apollo 11
First manned lunar landing
When? and Where?
Apollo 11
July 16, 1969
southern Sea of Tranquility on the surface of the moon
Why?
Apollo 11
The United States won the space race.
Who?
Chilean Coup of 1973
United States (CIA) and Chile (Allende)
What?
Chilean Coup of 1973
US opposed Allende’s socialist economic policies; growing closeness with Fidel Castro
When? and Where?
Chilean Coup of 1973
Sept 11 1973
Chile
Why?
Chilean Coup of 1973
Another example of U.S foreign intervention in the internal politics of other countries - The U.S. provided material support to the military regime after the coup, although it criticized them in public.
Who?
Vietnam War
North Vietnam, South Vietnam, United States
What?
Vietnam War
Communist North Vietnam attacked the southern Republic of Vietnam
When? and Where?
Vietnam War
1965-73
Vietnam peninsula
Why?
Vietnam War
The Vietnam war had many long term repercussions for US society and foreign policy; significant in encouraging the belief that mass mobilization and protest can influence government policy.
Who?
Truman Doctrine
President Harry Truman
What?
Truman Doctrine
Part of the U.S. political response to perceived aggression by the Soviet Union in Europe & the Middle East
When? and Where?
Truman Doctrine
Mar 12, 1947 until the end of the Cold War

worldwide response
Why?
Truman Doctrine
American foreign policy now shifted to that of containment of communism - was prepared to send any money, equipment or military force to countries which were threatened by the communist government