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103 Cards in this Set

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Ultradian
Less than one day; basic rest activity cycle (BRACT cycle)
Ciradian
one day; e.g. Sleep-wake cycle
Infradian
More than one day; e.g. menstrual cycle (28 days)
Circannual
One year; e.g. seasonal affective disorder, hibernation
Pacemaker cells
Cells in the heart that determine when an aciton potential will take place.
Clock and cycle cells in fruit flies
clock cells set off reactions to regulate or re-set the circadian sleep-wake cycle.
"Master Pacemaker"
Located in the hypothalamus, the Suprachiasmatic nucleus, or SCN, controls circadian rhythms. Damage to this area can cause random sleep patterns.
Zeitgeber
an external stimulus that synchronizes an organism's 24 hour clock with Earth's 24 hour day. examples are: light, temperature, or eating/drinking patterns
Free-running clock
Our body's cycle is not exactly 24 hours, but this gives us the ability to reset to outside stimuli and stay synchronized with the day and night of Earth over our lifetimes.
Pineal Gland
endocrine gland that releases hormones affecting sleep, waking, and behavioral regulation such as Melatonin
Basic rest activity cycle
90-minute cycle of different levels of excitement and rest.
The different stages of sleep
Stages of sleep – REM: a period of desynchronized EEG activity during sleep, at which time dreaming, rapid eye movements, and muscular paralysis occur; also called paradoxical sleep. Slow-wave: non-REM sleep, characterized by synchronized EEG activity during its deeper stages. Cycles are 90 minutes long and each contain 20-30 minutes of REM sleep, or dream sleap. Stages 1 through 4 are non-REM, and stages 3 and 4 are slow-wave sleep. Delta activity increases from stage 1 to stage 4.
How stages of sleep change with age
REM sleep % decreases along with the overall hours of sleep per day
Beta waves
alert state; low amplitude, high frequency
Alpha waves
relaxed state; low amplitude, slightly less frequent
Hypnagogic sleep (stage 1)
between wakefulness and sleep; may experience the sensation of falling or vivid visual images
Theta waves
Stages 1 and 2; slightly lower frequency, still low amplitude
Delta waves
Stages 3 and 4; high amplitude, low frequency
Stage 2 sleep
sleep spindles will occur (brief bursts of rapid brain energy); increased theta waves
Stage 3 sleep
Increase in delta waves (20%)
Stage 4 sleep
"deep sleep"; increased delta waves (50%); difficult to rouse, confusion; may experience bedwetting, sleep walking and talking, and night terrors
Circadian theory of sleep
sleep forces us to conserve energy; prevents us from harming ourselves or being harmed by predators
Recuperation theory of sleep
Sleep restores/replenishes us
Theory that sleep promotes learning
Reverse-Learning Theory:
dreams are meaningless, just a way to rid us of unnecessary information accumulated during day. Housekeeping
magnocellular nucleus
a nucleus in the medulla; involved in the muscular paralysis that accompanies REM sleep
peribrachial area
involved in the initiation of REM sleep
carbachol
a drug that stimulates acetylcholine receptors
medial pontine reticular formation (MPRF)
a region that contains neurons involved in the initiation of REM sleep; activated by acetylcholinergic neuron of the peribrachial area
hypocretin
a peptide, also known as orexin, produced by neurons whose cell bodies are located in the hypothalamus; their destruction causes narcolepsy.
locus coeruleus
a dark-colored group of noradrenergic cell bodies located in the pons near the rostral end of the floor of the fourth ventricle; involved in arousal and vigilance.
raphe nuclei
contain serotonergic neurons
ventrolateral preoptic area
a group of GABAergic neurons n the prooptic area whose activity suppresses alertness and behavioral arousal and promotes sleep
melatonin
a hormone secreted during the night by the pineal body; plays a role in circadian and seasonal rhythms
Sexually dimorphic behaviors
building nests, caring for the young, foraging for food, nursing, and so on can take two different forms in females and males. Birdsong
What role do hormones play in human male and human female sexual behavior? What other factors are important?
anti-mullerian hormone: inhibits the development of the female internal sex organs. Female is default. Androgen: male sex steroid hormone, includes testosterone
-The SRY gene on the Y chromosome dictates the development of what factor?
instructs the undifferentiated fetal gonads to become testes
What is the precursor system of the internal female sex organs? male sex organs?
Mullerian system, Wolffian system
Turner's syndrome
only one X chromosome; normal female but lacking ovaries.
Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome
In a male, causes development of both male and female internal sex organs; caused by lack of anti-Mullerian hormone or receptors for this hormone
What are some cognitive differences between males and females? What about anatomical differences in terms of
hemispheric lateralization?
There is a sexually dimorphic nucleus in the medial pre-optic/anterior hypothalamic area that is significantly larger if the animal is interested in females
What are the six universal emotions?
fear, anger, sadness, happiness, suprise, and disgust
What is the James-Lange Theory of emotion?
emotions are the result of physical changes rather than the cause of them.
What is the Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion?
suggests that people feel emotions first and then act upon them
What is Schacter's Two Factor Theory of emotion?
integrates the role of both physiological arousal and cognitive factors in determining emotion
Amygdala
responsible for learned emotion (fear response) located right under the cerebellum, shaped like an almond
Input and output of amygdala
thalamus --> amygdala --> hippocampus
What is the Hebb Rule? What is its relationship to LTP?
Long Term Potentiation. Hebb rule states that if two neurons fire at the same time, their strength of firing increases
NMDA Receptors
-What are the necessary conditions for Ca++ channels to open?
Depolarization of the cell and the binding of glutamate to the ion channels.
What are some short term effects of NMDA activation? What are longer term changes that take place in the
cell?
Ca++ comes into the cell, which causes a chain reaction that can lead to these changes:
ST - shortening of dendritic spines
- positive feedback loop (making the presynaptic cell produce more neurotransmitters)
LT - increase in the number of synapses
How could NMDA receptors facilitate formation of associations between different sensory stimuli?
Feedback loop: one function is grouping of sights, smells, and sounds of an event
How can one artificially induce LTP?
activation of synapses and depolarization of the post-synaptic neuron
Squire's Taxonomy of Memory
-Can you identify/supply examples of the general categories?
Declarative
-facts, events
Non-declarative
-Skills and habits
-Priming
-Simple classical conditioning
-Non-associative learning
Brain areas associated with declarative memory
hippocampus, temporal cortex. Primarily the diencephalon, which is made up of the thalamus and the hypothalamus. Also, the peripheral cortex and the amygdala.
Brain areas associated with non-declarative memory
cerebellum and basal ganglia
Amygdala
responsible for learned emotion (fear response) located right under the cerebellum, shaped like an almond
Input and output of amygdala
thalamus --> amygdala --> hippocampus
What is the Hebb Rule? What is its relationship to LTP?
Long Term Potentiation. Hebb rule states that if two neurons fire at the same time, their strength of firing increases
NMDA Receptors
-What are the necessary conditions for Ca++ channels to open?
Depolarization of the cell and the binding of glutamate to the ion channels.
What are some short term effects of NMDA activation? What are longer term changes that take place in the
cell?
Ca++ comes into the cell, which causes a chain reaction that can lead to these changes:
ST - shortening of dendritic spines
- positive feedback loop (making the presynaptic cell produce more neurotransmitters)
LT - increase in the number of synapses
How could NMDA receptors facilitate formation of associations between different sensory stimuli?
Feedback loop: one function is grouping of sights, smells, and sounds of an event
How can one artificially induce LTP?
activation of synapses and depolarization of the post-synaptic neuron
Squire's Taxonomy of Memory
-Can you identify/supply examples of the general categories?
Declarative
-facts, events
Non-declarative
-Skills and habits
-Priming
-Simple classical conditioning
-Non-associative learning
Brain areas associated with declarative memory
hippocampus, temporal cortex. Primarily the diencephalon, which is made up of the thalamus and the hypothalamus. Also, the peripheral cortex and the amygdala.
Brain areas associated with non-declarative memory
cerebellum and basal ganglia
What are the different types of amnesia?
Anterograde - amnesia of events after injury
Retrograde - amnesia of events that occured before the injury
What are some of the basic functions of the hippocampus?
consolidation of short-term memories into long-term. Hippocampal feed-forward loop.
Could you describe the inputs to the hippocampus? The outputs? The Tri-synaptic circuit?
Tri-synaptic feed-forward loop:
Sensory cortex
- Entorhinal cortex
-Sensory Cortex
-limbic circuit
-dendal gyrus (feedback)
-CA3 (feedback)
-CA1
-Subticulum
- Entorhinal cortex
What is a feedforward loop (synonymous with positive feedback loop)? What could one be useful for?
Short term memory; groupings of sights, smells, sounds of an event
-Are there any documented cases of lesioned hippocampi?
Prevents Spatial Relational Learning in Adult Macaque Monkeys
*What are some cell types unique to the hippocampus that aid in spatial navigation?
place cells
*Can you recall any studies that shows some similarity in hippocampal function and size across species?
animals that hide their food have larger hippocampi than other animals
-What is the role of the Amygdala pertaining to learning?
Learned emotion (fear response)
What types of sensory input does the amygdala receive?
Directly from the thalamus before being processed by the sensory cortex
-What does the amygdala output to?
Hippocampus, reflexes
What are tasks normally relegated to the left hemisphere? The right?
the left side of the brain is the seat of language and processes in a logical and sequential order. The right side is more visual and processes intuitively, holistically, and randomly.
What is a test that can determine the lateralization of functions, such as language?
Wada test – determines which side of your brain language is located, used to determine the safety of performing surgery on epileptic patients. If language and the source of the seizures is in the same area, surgeons will take an MRI scan before commencing.
-Do talking birds possess language faculties?
no, only imitation
Where is broca's area? What does the surrounding cortex do?
-What functions does it perform?
-How does Broca's aphasia happen? What are some common symptoms?
frontish middle. Surrounding cortex is the motor cortex (mouth and hands). Broca's aphasia - no "the"s or "ands" but words make sense/are meaningful. Located in the pre-motor cortex.
Wernicke's area
-Where is this located? What are surrounding cortical areas responsible for?
-What does it do?
-What happens during Wernicke's aphasia?
Located on ventral visual pathway (which is responsible for matching names with objects), Wernicke's aphasia - fluent nonsense talk.
What is the name of the axon bundles between Broca's and Wernicke's areas? What do people have difficulty
doing if these fibers are severed?
Arcurate Fasciculus. If severed, results in severe non-fluent aphasia
What is prosody? Where in the brain is this coordinated?
Rhythm, tone, and emphasis in speech. Coordinated in the right hemisphere; is a way to express emotion. More associated with Broca's area.
Sign Language
-What are similarities to spoken language? Differences?
-How is signer Aphasia characterized?
Broca's area is activated when imitating the hand movements of others. Based on three dimentional movements. Word-for-word translation is impossible. Like written and auditory language, appears to rely primarily on the left hemisphere for comprehension and expression.
pure alexia
pure word blindness. Loss of the ability to read without the loss of the ability to write; produced by brain damage
Know the positive and negative symptoms seen in schizophrenia.
Positive –
Delusions: How do we define them?
• What are the different types of delusions seen in schizophrenics?
Positive - thought disorders, hallucinations, delusions.
Negative - absence or diminution of normal behaviors; flattened emotional response, poverty of speech, lack of initiative and persistence, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure), social withdrawal.
Delusions - beliefs that are obviously contrary to fact. Persecution, grandeur, control.
Hallucinations:
• What are they and what are some common types seen in schizophrenics?
perception of a nonexistent object or event. Voices talking to the person, giving directions, scolding for unworthiness, utter meaningless phrases.
Olfactory hallucinations - contribute to the delusion that others are trying to kill the person with poison gas.
-What types of thought and motor disturbances are seen in schizophrenics?
disorganized, irrational thinking; choose words for rhyme rather than for meaning
Negative: in general, what are negative symptoms of schizophrenia like?
Describe some of the specific negative symptoms seen:
• Anhedonia, Avolition, Alogia, Asociality, Flat Affect
Anhedonia - inability to feel pleasure
Avolition - lack of drive
Alogia - poverty of speech
Asociality - inability to feel close to others
What do studies of siblings and relatives tell us about the genetic nature of schizophrenia?
Either several genes are involved, or having a Schizophrenia gene imparts a succeptability to develop schizophrenia, the disease itself being triggered by other factors
What is the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia? What are some of its supporting data and what findings seem to contradict it?
the positive effects of schizophrenia are a result of overactivity of synapses between dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala.
What are some environmental factors associated with a higher incidence of schizophrenia?
high stress levels
What are the
Breeder Hypothesis and Social Drift Theory?
Breeder Hypothesis - There are higher instances of Schizophrenia in areas of lower socioeconomic areas because there are more stressors in that environment.
Social Drift Theory - When people develop Schizophrenia, no matter where they live, they may have to move to a lower-skill job and a lower-income neighborhood.
What is opponent process theory as it pertains to drug abuse?
The good feelings diminish as usage increases if there is not time allowed to recover.
-What are positive and negative reinforcement?
Negative - the removal or reduction of an aversive stimulus that is contingent on a particular response, with an attendant increase in the frequency of that response.
Positive -
Know the positive and negative symptoms seen in schizophrenia.
Positive –
Delusions: How do we define them?
• What are the different types of delusions seen in schizophrenics?
Positive - thought disorders, hallucinations, delusions.
Negative - absence or diminution of normal behaviors; flattened emotional response, poverty of speech, lack of initiative and persistence, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure), social withdrawal.
Delusions - beliefs that are obviously contrary to fact. Persecution, grandeur, control.
Hallucinations:
• What are they and what are some common types seen in schizophrenics?
perception of a nonexistent object or event. Voices talking to the person, giving directions, scolding for unworthiness, utter meaningless phrases.
Olfactory hallucinations - contribute to the delusion that others are trying to kill the person with poison gas.
-What types of thought and motor disturbances are seen in schizophrenics?
disorganized, irrational thinking; choose words for rhyme rather than for meaning
Negative: in general, what are negative symptoms of schizophrenia like?
Describe some of the specific negative symptoms seen:
• Anhedonia, Avolition, Alogia, Asociality, Flat Affect
Anhedonia - inability to feel pleasure
Avolition - lack of drive
Alogia - poverty of speech
Asociality - inability to feel close to others
What do studies of siblings and relatives tell us about the genetic nature of schizophrenia?
Either several genes are involved, or having a Schizophrenia gene imparts a succeptability to develop schizophrenia, the disease itself being triggered by other factors
What is the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia? What are some of its supporting data and what findings seem to contradict it?
the positive effects of schizophrenia are a result of overactivity of synapses between dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala.
What are some environmental factors associated with a higher incidence of schizophrenia?
high stress levels
What are the
Breeder Hypothesis and Social Drift Theory?
Breeder Hypothesis - There are higher instances of Schizophrenia in areas of lower socioeconomic areas because there are more stressors in that environment.
Social Drift Theory - When people develop Schizophrenia, no matter where they live, they may have to move to a lower-skill job and a lower-income neighborhood.
What is opponent process theory as it pertains to drug abuse?
The good feelings diminish as usage increases if there is not time allowed to recover.
-What are positive and negative reinforcement?
Negative - the removal or reduction of an aversive stimulus that is contingent on a particular response, with an attendant increase in the frequency of that response.
Positive -