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6 Cards in this Set

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CBT; what underlying thought process are they trying to change? What are some of the techniques they utilize? How does CBT compare in effectiveness to pharmacotherapy?
Negative schemas..way we see the world based on family, experiences, etc. Goal: modify thinking to reduce stress
Techniques- socratic questioning, homework, behavioral monitoring, guided imagery (going back in time)
role-playing
CBT is at least as effective as pharmacotherapy. Used in combo!
What does psychodyanmaic therapy focus on? Mechnisms utilized? Is there an substantial evidence supporting or refuting psychodynamic therapy?
Focuses on emotions, thoughts, and motivations... problems are not necessarily the symptoms, but looking to figure out the underlying causes
Explore old, painful relationships and scenarios
Increased
Look for repetitive patterns of behavior
Cochrane and many meta analysis show that in the short term it is very effect for many mood disorders and slighlty effective in the medium/long term
Addiction and its relation to tolerance/withdrawal? Is there a cure? Can you have tolerance/withdrawal to a prescription substance?
No such thing as a cure. It starts as a volitional practice and moves to an involuntary behavior. Tolerance is a diminished response to repeated doses. Withdraw is blah blah blah. ADDICTION needs 3 of many criteria. Tolerance/withdrawal not enough!
YES
What neurotransmitter is behind reward in the brain? Where? How does Cocaine and amphetamines utilize this? What 3 factors are behind the decision to Not use, use, abuse, or be addicted?
Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens
Cocaine- inhibits DOPA reuptake at nerve terminals
Amphetamines- stimulate DOPA release at terminals
Factors...drug itself...how cheap is it, available
Host genetics...how tolerant are we initially, how do we metabolize it, what "reward" do we get"
Environment...PEER PRESSURE
Cross tolerance? Why useful in withdrawal?
Common tolerance seen with in drug classes such that tolerance to one implies tolerance to the the other. Look at methadone treatment of opiate addiciton
What is sensitization? Compulsions? Conditioned responses on PET scan?
Sensitization is the opposite of tolerance..where you see an increase in effect from the same concentration of drugss
Compulsions are behaviors that are incredibly driven by cravings/reward...contribute to relapse...see these responses on PET scans when flash cues