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176 Cards in this Set

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1. How did Bransford and Johnson's experiment relate the long-term memory?
They found that what we remember is affected by what we already know
2. How did Bransford and Johnson come to their conclusions?
-Found that if subjects read an abstract paragraph and tried to re-write it, they could not
-If the subjects were given the title of the paragraph or had knowledge of the theme/topic their memory for the passage improved
3. What weakness of the memory system was demonstrated by Roediger & McDermott?
False Memory
4. How was Roediger & McDermott's experiment conducted?
-Participants studied 12-item lists of associated words (bed, rest, awake, etc.)
-Participants did recall and recognition task
-In recognition task a critical lure ("sleep") was used
5. What is a critical lure?
A word that is highly related to all the other words in the list but that never appeared in the list
6. What were the results of Roediger & McDermott's experiment?
40% of participants recalled "sleep" from the list and later recognized it with a high degree of confidence (False Memory)
7. What is the main conclusion drawn from Roediger & McDermott's results?
These two experiments showed that episodic and semantic memory are related
8. Summarize the "reconstructive" nature of long-term memory

Three chunky points
1. Existing knowledge can exert a tremendous influence on our memory for meaningful material
2. We relate new information to general knowledge already stored in memory
3. Subsequently our performance in a memory task is based both on the new info and on general knowledge
9. What were Bransford and Frank interested in looking at?
They were interested in how people acquire and remember ideas (semantic ideas not just individual sentences)
10. What was the design of Bransford and Frank's experiment?
-Subjects listened to 24 sentences
-After a short distractor task they answered questions about the sentences
11. What was done during the second test in Bransford and Frank's experiment?
-They made yes/no recognition judgments about whether sentences were seen before
-They also gave a confidence ratings on their recognition decision
12. In Bransford and Franks experiment, how did the sentence in recognition differ?
Original sentences in recognition differed in the number of idea proposition they contained
13. What were the results of Bransford and Franks experiment?
-Subjects overwhelmingly judged 3 and 4 idea proposition sentences as old
-Furthermore, they were very confident in their rating when the number of propositions increased
14. What conclusions were drawn by Bransford and Franks from the results?
-People easily did semantic integration
-Subjects were reporting a composite memory
15. What does technical accuracy stress?

What does content accuracy stress?
-Technical accuracy stresses verbatim memory

-Content accuracy stresses memory of concepts and ideas, the meaningful, semantic content of the material
16. What is the integrative memory tendency?
-Store separate bits of info together to the extent that those separate bits are related to each other

-Use what we already know to understand new experiences in a conceptually driven fashion
17. What is a negative consequence of integrative memory tendency?
Separate bits of info may not match our existing knowledge completely, leading to certain kinds of distortions when we attempt to remember
18. What is a positive consequence of integrative memory tendency?
Content accuracy is enhanced so we can remember and understand complex meaningful events and episodes
19. What do propositional theories attempt to account for?
Our mental representation of the meanings of sentences as networks of interconnected propositions
20. What are the five semantic cases?
1. Relation
2. Agent
3. Patient (or recipient)
4. Location
5. Time
21. What is an alternative format for representing propositions?
A relation (proposition) where there is a verb followed by the arguments (variables) of the relation
22. What are four strengths of propositional theories?
1. Accurately reflect the meaning of the sentence
2. A proposition is unaffected by superficial aspects of the sentence
3. Nodes/pathways are flexible and powerful enough to rep complexity
4. Able to relate propositions to one another in a single representation (hierarchical structure)
23. What notion about memory was Sachs testing?
The notion that people tend to remember meaning rather than superficial, verbatim information in sentences
24. What was the experimental design Sachs used?
-Subjects heard passages
-Tested on one critical sentence in passage 0,80, or 160 syllables after the critical sentence had been heard
-Test was recognition test with four alternatives
25. What were the three alternatives in the recognition task?
1. Verbatim repetition
2. Change in both surface form and meaning
3. Two sentences with only surface changes
26. What did Sachs observe if subjects were tested immediately?
Technical accuracy was good, meaning they recognized the verbatim sentence
27. What did Sachs observe as time progressed?
-After 80 syllables, subjects could only accurately reject alternatives that changed meaning
-After 160 syllables, subjects showed no preference for the repetition over the paraphrase
28. What three conclusions did Sachs draw from the results?
1. Quickly lose verbatim info
2. Do retain overall meaning
3. Good at semantic integration
29. When do we retain surface form verbatim as part of our ordinary memory?
In situations where there is something "special" about the verbatim
30. What did Ratcliff and McKoon test?
The possibility of priming effects within the propositions formed when we comprehend sentences
31. What two types of priming where they attempting to demonstrate?
1. Episodic priming

2. Priming between things that aren't semantically related but co-occur in the same sentence
32. What was the experimental design used by Ratcliff and McKoon
-Subjects learned sentences each containing two propositions
-Distractor task interval
-Recognition task: saw running sequence of words and indicate whether words were in prior sentences
33. How was the priming manipulated in the experiment by Ratcliff and McKoon?
The priming manipulation was in the sequencing of the trials during recognition
(looked at distance between prime and target)
34. What were the three priming manipulation conditions in the expt by Ratcliff and McKoon?
1. Prime/target from same sentence, same proposition

2. Prime/target from same sentence, different proposition

3. Prime/target from different sentence (unprimed condition)
35. What were the results of Ratcliff and McKoon's experiment?
-Unprimed condition (baseline) had largest RT
-Shortest RT for prime/target in same sentence, same proposition condition
36. What accounts for the unprimed condition have the largest RT in the expt by Ratcliff and McKoon?
In the unprimed condition, unrelated propositions from different sentences wouldn't be stored together during learning
37. What accounts for the facilitation seen in the other two conditions in the expt by Ratcliff and McKoon?
Words from the same sentences should be represented together in propositions that are stored in memory
38. In short what did Ratcliff and McKoon conclude?
-As words are closer together, more facilitation
-The is episodic priming
39. What are scripts in memory?
-Mental representation of what is suppose to happen in a particular circumstance

-Schema about a sequence of events
40. How do scripts help in memory?
-Can form generalized representation of events
-Invoke script when new experience matches old script to provide context w/in which new experience can be understood
41. What are two structures of scripts?
1. Headers

2. Frames, default values, von Restorff effect
42. How many headers does it take to determine which script to activate?
Two headers
43. What is a frame?
Single events stay together to form script
44. By having default values, what is allowed when telling a story?
We don't have to mention every detail

Listeners will fill in unmentioned details with default value
Von Restorff effect
If one item is distinct, it is easier to remember
46. Describe the following sentence in terms of propositions/relations/arguments
"John bought some candy because he was hungry?
3 arguments

X:Bought[relationship] (John/agent, candy/object)

Y:Hungry (John/recipient)

Z:Because (X,Y)
47. What are the seven "sins" of memory?
1. Transience
2. Absent-mindedness
3. Blocking
4. Persistence (false-bulb memories, PTSD)
5. Mis-attribution
6. Suggestibility
7. Bias
48. What is meant when we say seven sins of memory?
There are seven ways in which our LTM lets us down
49. What is transience?
Tendency to loss access to information over time
50. What is absent-mindedness?
-Losing track of info, details, intended activities, so on

-Largely a failure of attention during encoding, esp b/c we may have relied on automatic processing
51. What is blocking?
Temporary loss of access to info, say in a stressful situations

Example is TOT (tip of the tongue)
52. What three sins are sins of "commission?"

What three sins are sins of "omission?"
COMISSION: transience, absent-mindedness, and blocking

OMISSION: mis-attribution, suggestibility, and bias (top-down processing)
53. What sin did the experiment by Loftus and Palmer illustrate?
Suggestibility: specifically leading questions and memory distortion
54. How did Loftus and Palmer examine leading questions?
-Showed short traffic films of car accidents
-Asked participants to describe accident by answering series of questions
-Varied verb in question (hit, smash, collide, bump, or contact) when asked "how fast cars were going when they "verb" each other?"
55. What were the results seen from Loftus and Palmer's leading question experiment?
Subject who got stronger verbs such as smashed gave higher estimate of speeds
56. What conclusions did Loftus and Palmer draw from the results?
-The phrasing of the question leads you to respond based on your semantic interpretation

-Combo of mis-attribution, suggestibility, and bias
57. In the second part of Loftus and Palmer's experiment how did participants demonstrate memory distortion?
Subjects in the smashed group said yes to "Did you see any broken glass" more than those in hit group (no broken glass was shown in film)
58. What is worrisome about misinformation acceptance?
-People become quite certain about these "secondhand" memories

-Tendencies grow stronger as more and more time elapses since original event and original memory becomes less accessible
59. What are two factors for the overconfidence we have in the accuracy of our own memories?
1. Source memory

2. Processing fluency
60. What is source memory?
-Serious flawed

-Can't accurately distinguish whether the source of some piece of info was original event, some later event, or even our own general knowledge of the relevant situation
61. What five beefy chunks cause stronger memory distortion effects?
1. Repeated exposure to misinformation
2. Repeated retrieval of misinformation strengthens later recall and confidence of misinformation
3. Repeated questioning about an event
4. Imagination inflation
5. Social aspect (suggestions from others)
62. Is human memory awful?

Why do we feel it is?
No!

-We underestimate complexity and volume of info stored in memory
-We fall into trap of equating remembering w/ recall
-We focus on failure of retrieval
63. What are flashbulb memories?
Extremely accurate and very detailed memories of particular events, esp when the events are unusual
64. What is important for flashbulb memories?

Three things...
1. Distinctiveness of event
2. Level of importance attached to event
3. Level of affective response (emotional response)
65. How accurate are flashbulb memories?
Only general info is recalled with accuracy
66. How do flashbulb memories change over time?

What do people believe about them?
They decline in consistency across time

Subjects believe though that their flashbulb memories remain highly accurate
67. What is language?

Three points...
1. Most common and universal feature of human society
2. Gives us power!!!
3. Based on usually arbitrary connections between linguistic elements
68. How did linguistics influence psychology?
-Major turning point in development of cognitive psy due to the rejection of behaviorism's explanation of language
69. What are three important aspects of language?
1. It's symbolic
2. The symbol system is shared by all speakers of a language culture
3. The system enables communication
70. What are 4 of the 13 linguistic universals proposed by Hockett?
1. Semanticity
2. Arbitrariness
3. Displacement
4. Productivity (generativity)
71. What does semanticity mean?
Sounds of human language carry meaning
72. What does arbitrariness imply about knowledge of language
-Language must involve learning and remembering the arbitrary connections

-It is in this sense that we speak of language as being a shared system
73. What are two important consequences of the arbitrariness of language?
1. Flexibility of symbols

2. Principle of naming
74. How does an iconic system compare to a flexible system of symbols?
-In an iconic system each unit has a physical resemblance to its referent

-There is no flexibility in an iconic system

-The human language that comes closest to being an iconic system is sign language
75. Why do we invent new terms?
Because we need to talk about new things, new ideas, and new concepts
76. What does displacement allow us to do in communication?
By conjugating verbs to form past, present, future, and so on we can communicate about objects, events, and ideas that are not present but are remembered or anticipated
77. Why is productivity the most important of all the linguistic universals?
Because it gives language its most notable characteristic: NOVELTY
78. According to productivity, what type of system is language?
A creative system not a repetitive system
79. Describe animal communication systems
-Have arbitrary connections but these connections are inflexible
-Beyond arbitrariness, they don't exhibit the characteristics that appear to by universally true of human language
80. What are the five linguistic levels of analysis?
1. Phonology
2. Syntax
3. Lexical/semantic
4. Conceptual
5. Belief
83. What three levels are studied by both linguists and psycholinguists?
1. Phonology

2. Syntax

3. Lexical/semantic
84. What critical distinction is there between a linguist and a psycholinguist?
A linguist relies on competence that can be exhibited (knowledge of language)

A psycholinguist is interested in the aspect of performance as well (actual use of language)
85. What did Chomsky rely on to determine people's competence?
-Relied on speaker's linguistic intuitions
-Had people judge whether a sentence was acceptable or a "good" sentence and used their judgments as reflecting their competence
86. What is the strongest version of the Whorf hypothesis?
The hypothesis claims that language controls both thought and perception to a large degree; that is you cannot think about ideas or concepts that your language does not name
81. What is the level of conceptual?
-Study of phrase and sentence meaning usually w/ reference to semantic memory
-Whorf hypothesis (debate about language and thought)
82. What is the level of belief?
How sentence and discourse meaning are affected by one's belief and one's belief about a speaker's motivation and intent
87. What is the weaker version of the Whorf hypothesis?
The hypothesis claims that your language influences and shapes your thought, for instance making it merely more difficult rather than impossible to think about ideas w/o having a name for them (Rosch expt with Dani tribe confirms this version)
88. How many possible phonemes are there?

How many do most languages use?
200 possible beefy phonemes

-Most languages use fewer than 50 phonemes
-English uses about 46 phonemes
89. In Glucksberg and Danks experiment how did they study phonemes?
Based on the characteristics of their pronunciation
90. What three variables did Glucksberg and Danks find relevant for consonants?
1. Place of articulation
2. Manner of articulation
3. Voicing
91. What is place of articulation?
The place in the vocal tract where the disruption of airflow takes place
92. What is manner of articulation?
How the airflow coming up from the lungs is disrupted
93. What is voicing?
Refers to whether vocal cords begin to vibrate immediately w/ the obstruction of airflow or whether the vibration is delayed until after release of air
94. What two dimensions did Glucksberg and Danks find vowels to differ in?
1. Placement in mouth (front, center, or back)

2. Tongue position in mouth (high, middle, or low)
95. What does phonemic competence mean?
We learn about phonology through exposure (not just taught)

No one ever explicitly teaches you the rules but abstract from you language and environment
97. How does categorical perception of phonemes differ among languages?
You can insensitive to the phonemic differences of other languages if your own language doesn't use the distinguishing differences
96. What is the "voice-voiceless" rule?
-English usually does not use a voice-voiceless sequence of two constants w/ the same pronounced syllable
-It is an example of phonemic competence
98. What is the problem of invariance in language?
Even when the "same" sound is being pronounced, its not physically identical to other instances of that "same" sounds
99. How does sounds "change" or vary in format frequency?
-Change from speaker to speaker
-Change from one time to the next within the same speaker
-Most prominently they change from one word to the next depending on what sounds precede and follow
100. What is a spectograph?

How does it depict the problem of invariance?
Spectographs measure physical energy of sounds (each constant or vowel)

We can see different physical energies for the same constant ("c") when in two different words ("cat" vs "cab")
103. What is co-articulation?
-Each phoneme changes the articulation of each other phoneme and does so differently depending on what the other phonemes are

-Graph of spectrographic patterns illustrates physical energy of phonemes differing w/ surrounding words
104. What type of process leads us to identify new, incoming sounds?
Conceptually driven process (based on context, not entirely data-driven)
105. What is the integrative approach?
-Combination of data-driven and conceptually driven processing in speech recognition
-Higher levels of knowledge and analysis operate in parallel w/ phonemic analysis
101. Describe the mis-perception of spaces between words
-There is almost no consistent relationship between pauses and the ends of words
-Gaps in physical energy are at random places, not in between words like we naively believe
-Happens with native language
102. Why does this mis-perception of spaces between words occur?
-Happens b/c of top-down processing
-Since we have an extensive knowledge of our native language we insert blanks perceiving silence bwt words even though it's not there
106. What about phonemes did the Liberman et al. experiment examine?
Categorical perception
107. What was the method and logic of the Liberman et al. experiment?
-Used a phoneme discrimination task
-Subjects had differentiate between two phonemes ("b" and "p")
-They varied the voice onset delay
108. What were the two main results of the Liberman et al. experiment?
-If voice onset delay was 20ms or less heared "b"

-If voice onset delay was 30ms or more heard "p"
109. What did Miller and Isard examine about phonemes?
How phonemes are identified
110. What was the method of the Miller and Isard experiment?
-Presented subjects three types of sentences
-They varied the loudness of background noise from -5 difficult (noise louder) to +15 easy (speech louder)
-Participants shadowed sentences they heard
111. What were the three types of sentences used in the Miller and Isard expt?
1. Fully grammatical sentences
2. Semantically anomalous sentences
3. Ungrammatical string of words
112. What were the results of the Miller and Isard experiment?
-Overall accuracy increase as went from -5 to +15 noise to speech ratio
-Dramatic improvement for grammatical sentence
-Even with speech 15x's greater fewer than 60% of ungrammatical strings could be repeated correctly
114. What are three examples of syntax?
1. Morphology (inflection)
2. Word order
3. Phrase order
113. How is the psycholinguistic study of syntax different from the school of grammar?
The study of syntax is descriptive where its goal is a description of the rules by which words are arranged to form sentences
115. What is meant by word order? Give a sentence example to explain.
-"Tom loves Jan"
-"Jan loves Tom"

-English relies heavily on word order to specify meaning
-Meaning of the sentence is more than the meaning of the individual words
116. What is meant by phrase order? Give a sentence example to explain.
-"Tom told the man to deliver the piano Monday"
-"Tom told the man on Monday to deliver the piano"

-Rely on ordering of larger units such as phrases or clauses to convey meaning
117. What is meant by morphology? Give an example to explain.
-Morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning

-Dog is 1 morpheme
-Dogs is 2 morphemes
85. According to Chomsky what can performance reveal?

Two things...
1. Performance can reveal imperfections

2. He said that dysfluencies can be attributed to the language user
118. What is Chomsky's Transformational Grammar?

Two points...
1. Describes the universal aspects of syntactic knowledge
2. Theory of competence on how we produce and understand language
119. What are the two assumptions of Chomsky's Transformational Grammar?
1. Language has a hierarchical structure (phrase)

2. Phrases can be transformed to express thought
120. What is the hierarchical order of language?

Four levels...
1. Phrase structure rules
2. Deep structure
3. Surface structure
4. Transformational structure
122. What are phrase structure rules?
Re-write rules

Rules humans have that allow generation of sentences

Allow generativity (infinite number of sentences)
123. What is the first rule of phrase structure grammar?

Two parts...
1. Entire sentence is symbolized by an S

2. S can be broken down into noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP)
124. What is the second rule of phrase structure grammar?
NP can be rewritten as determiner (D) plus a noun (N)

NP -> D + N
125. What is a determiner?
A determiner is an article such as "the" or "a"
126. What is the third rule of phrase structure grammar?
VP can be rewritten as a verb (V) plus and noun phrase (NP)

VP -> V + NP
62. What did the study by Conway, Cohen, and Stanhope examine?
Examined students' memory of concepts, specific facts, names, and so on from a cognitive psychology course taken up to 12 years earlier
62. What were the results from Conway, Cohen, and Stanhope's study?

Two main results...
1. Recall of material dwindled across 12 years from 60% to 25% for concepts

2. Recognition of the same material dropped only a bit, from 80% to around 65 or 70%
127. What two other components join phrase structure grammar?
1. Lexicon

2. Lexical insertion rules
128. What is the lexicon?
Storage place for word information
129. What is are the lexical insertion rules?
Rule pertaining to how individual words can be inserted in phrase structure
130. What forms the deep structure representation?
The lexicon and lexical insertion rules generate the first representation of the sentence in the deep structure representation
131. What would the deep structure representation be described as?
-Abstract syntax
-Bare bone information of lexical words (core meaning)
132. Why is the deep structure viewed as critical?

Two reasons...
1. It's the representation that is passes to the transformational "fix-it" rules to yield the surface structure of the sentence

2. Also the representation submitted to a semantic component in the model
133. What three beefy things does the semantic component of Chomsky's Transformational Grammar do?
1. It "computes" sentence meaning
2. Produces a semantic representation of the sentence
3. The representation reflects the true meaning of the sentence being constructed
134. Is a sentences true meaning always accurately reflected in the surface structure?

Why or why not?
True meaning may not always be accurately reflected in surface structure

This is due to the separate treatment of the semantic component and the fact that surface structure may be ambiguous
135. What is the purpose of the transformational rules?
Solve problems such as ambiguous surface structure (problem previously stated)
136. What were the limitations of the Transformation Grammar approach?

Two things...
1. Heavy syntactic focus

2. Never dealt satisfactory with meaning
137. What is the purpose of syntax for the listener?

Helps with two things...
1. Help figure out meaning

2. Minimize the processing demands of comprehension
138. How is the syntax related to the speaker?
It's related to the speakers' mental effort, the information processing involved in producing the sentence
139. How do we plan the syntax we will use in speech?

Two examples...
1. Phrases that contain more accessible info tend to occur earlier in the sentence

2. Shift heavy NPs to the end of sentences and insert material bwt the subject and NP
140. What does recent research show about the planning process and flexibility of syntax?

Two points...
1. Syntax is flexible

2. Planning process is interactive
141. What does this interactive planning process and flexibility of syntax mean in terms of sentence production and utterance?
We begin utterances when the first part of the sentence has been planned by before the syntax and semantics of the final portion has been worked out or selected
142. What two categories fall under semantics?
1. Morphemes

2. Case grammar
143. What are four morpheme distinctions?
1. Inflectional morphology
2. Derivational morphology
3. Bound morphemes
4. Unbound morphemes
144. What is inflectional morphology?
Morphological change that preserves the meaning of the base morpheme

-Tense change or pluralization are examples
(run -> ran; dog -> dogs)
145. What is derivational morphology?
-Changes the meaning of the base form of the morpheme

-Example: beauty -> beautiful
146. What are bound morphemes?
Morphemes that have to be attached to another morpheme for meaning

-Examples: "s", "ing", "ed"
147. What are unbound morphemes?
Morphemes that can stand alone and still have meaning

-Example: "dog"
148. Why was case grammar developed?
It was developed as a psycholinguistic alternative to the heavily syntactic approaches in linguistics
149. According to case grammar, what does sentence processing involve?
Sentence processing involves a semantic parsing in which we focus on the semantic roles played by the content words in the sentences
150. What are the semantic roles called?
Semantic cases or case roles
151. What does semantic parsing rely upon?

Two things...
semantic knowledge

and

lexical knowledge
152. How do we build a conceptual structure, understanding of the sentence?
We use syntax of the sentence and a set of correspondence rules
153. What do the correspondence rules do?
They translate from syntactic roles (e.g. noun, verb) into semantic roles (e.g. agent, patient)
154. What do each lexical entry in this system include?

Two things...
1. Meaning of word

2. For a verb there is also a list of arguments or semantic cases that go along with it
157. In short what happens when we perceive words in according to these lexical-semantic grammars?

Three things...
1. Look concepts up in lexicon
2. Access word's meaning
3. Also access word's syntactic and semantic case roles along with any case restrictions
158. What causes semantic characteristics to occasionally overpower the syntax of the sentence?
Top-down processing

-We comprehend what we expect to see or hear not what is actually said or seen
159. What two notions does the psycholinguistic approach to lexical and semantic factors rely on?
1. Conceptually driven processing

2. Mental representations (propositions)
160. Case grammar, propositions, and comprehension require listeners to do what three things?
1. Retrieve basic word meaning from mental lexicon and conceptual info from semantic memory

2. Assign words to various case roles

3. Relate propositional structures to one another within sentences as well as across
161. What causes aphasia?
Physical injury to the brain
162. What are symptoms of Broca's aphasia?

Two symptoms
1. Speech that is hesitant and effortful

2. Speech that is phonemically distorted
163. What do patients with Broca's aphasia not show trouble with?
Less impairment of comprehension for both spoken and written language
164. Where is the site of damage for Broca's aphasia?
Site of brain damage is area toward the rear of the left frontal lobe (Broca's area)
165. What is another name for Broca's aphasia? Why?
-Agrammatic aphasia

-Because patients lack grammatical form but have normal semantic comprehension
166. What is characteristic of people with Wernicke's aphasia?
Can generate speech fluently and grammatically, but the semantic aspects of the speech are severely impaired
167. Where is the site of damage for Wernicke's aphasia?
Left-hemisphere region is damaged (Wernicke's area)
168. What can people with conduction aphasia do? What is their impairment?
-They can understand and produce speech well

-They are unable to repeat what they have just heard
169. Where is the site of damage for conduction aphasia?
Primary pathway between Broca's and Wernicke's area is damaged (arcuate fasciculus)
170. What are other types of aphasia?

Three types...
1. Alexia (Dyslexia)
2. Agraphia (unable to write)
3. Pure word deafness (cannot comprehend spoken word)
171. What do all of these aphasia disorders give evidence of?
They give evidence of the separability of several aspects of language performance
172. What did Reichle, Carpenter, and Just use fMRI to look at?
They looked at brain activity while subjects verified sentence-picture stimuli (e.g "star is above plus")
173. What brain regions were active when subjects were asked to use verbal strategy to make their decision in Reichle's expt?
Brain regions associated with language processing (esp Broca's area)
174. What brain regions were active when subjects were instructed to use a visual strategy in Reichle's expt?
Regions in th parietal lobe were active (the same regions active when visual-spatial reasoning tasks are given)
175. What did Reichle find out about high-verbal subjects?
Their language area activity was somewhat lower
176. What did Reichle find out about subject with high visual-spatial abilities?
Their visual area activity was somewhat lower