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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
frontal lobe
Broca's area - controls motor aspects of speech
temporal lobe
language comprehension, Wernicke's area (left), audition, facial recognition (inferior temporal)
Squires - medial temporal lobe responsible for declarative memory
parietal lobe
sematosenses, reading, attentional behavior, damage to R causes visual neglect
occipital lobe
visual processing
Hebbian learning (synapse)
attributed to D.O. Hebb; when repeated stimulation from one or two neurons onot another results in increased synaptic efficiency; could explain classical conditioning
long-term potentiation
refers to increase in the voltage of a graded potential at the post-synaptic neuron due to previous rapid firing of the pre-synaptic neuron --> simple form of memory
visual agnosia
inability to recognize common objects in the absence of blindness and amnesia, associated with occipital and temporal lobe damage
inability to recognize normally familiar faces in the absence of blindness or amnesia, associated with inferior temporal lobe damage
CT (CAT) scan
computerized axial tomography of horizontal slices of brain
PET scan
radioactive isotopes injected and absorbed by brain
brain potential images (BPI)
color coded images of brain electrical activity at the scalp
Left visual field
project to right hemisphere if offset from central fixation point by at least 2 degrees of visual angle
right visual field
project to left hemisphere if offset from central fixation point by at least 2 degrees of visual angle
cerebral commissurotomy
surgical severing of the neural-fiber system connecting the 2 hemispheres between the longitudinal fissure
left hemisphere-based processing
'verbal' in nature
right hemisphere-based processing
anterograde amnesia
inability to learn new info after major brain insult
retrograde amnesia
inability to remember info learned prior to brain concussion
Broca's area
Left frontal lobe, motor movements of speech
Wernicke's area
left temporal lbe, semantic understanding
Korsakoff's syndrome
neurological disease produced by long-term alcohol abuse and Vitamin B deficiency - retrograde and anterograde loss of memory
Iconic store (sensory register)
short-lived (100-500msec) sensory register or pictorial memory for visual stimuli; b/c retinal receptors can reatin image for longer than what is present in environment
Echoic store (sensory register)
analogue of the iconic store for audition, persist for longer periods (2 sec)
3-component model/Multi-Store model
originally proposed by Broadbent, refined by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)
Sensory Register (1 sec) --> encode into short-term store (10-20sec) --> long-term store (permanent)
Info from STM stored in LTM by rehearsal
hierarchial network model
model of semantic memory, concepts are stored in sptial arrangements according to nature of relationships, cognitive economy - high level not repeated at low levels
Association by Co-occurance
words which have frequently occured together in the past verbal history of the organism will serve as semantic primes for each other
Spreading Activation Network Model
semantic storing and processing is based on complex network in which simple associations are linked together
Strong associations are stores near each other so activated together
maintenance rehearsal
reinterative verbal behavior (overt or covert) which protects the integrity of information in STM
elaborative rehearsal
rehearsal with the objective of semantically associating new info with previously learned information
Levels of Processing Model (Craik)
degree to which new info is meaningfully associated with learned info.
Semantic coding is 'deeper' code than acoustic coding (rote repitition) b/c requires greater resources of knowledge than sound recognition processes
transformation of information into formats (codes) that can be stored. Formats may be modality dependent. Include auditory/verbal, pictorial, propositional formats
spread of encoding
long term storage of new information depends on the associative links made with existing long-term storage
encoding distinctiveness
refers to enhanced ability to retrieve info which is uniquely encoded, such that there is minimal interference with competing information
attentional resources
durability of memory is porportional to the amount of attenion devoted to information at the time of encoding
a trace, a collection of neural charges, and/or synaptic growths that represent a specific memory or learned behavior
Lashley, Thompson...
Law of Mass Action
Lashley, memory deficients are proportional to the amount of brain damage.
Doesn't matter where, but how much of cortex is damages
Law of Equipotentiality
Lashley, memory is distributed throughout the brain and is not localized
Flashbulb memory
vivid memory associated with some emotional event, unusual amounts of detail
Serial Position Effects
list of info retreived non-randomly, such that early info in list is remembered (primacy effect) and info at terminal end remembered (recency effect) but info in middle is forgotten
Proactive interference
inability to remember recent info die to previously (older) learned info
retroactive interference
inability to temember previously learned info due to recently learned info
Landmark test
test for position-memory using objects to cue future position of food. Parietal monkeys fail to benefir from cue for future position
Delayed non-matching to sample test
test for object recognition. Subjects must discrimination between new and familiar objects in order to determine location of food. Food always nearest to new object. Inferior temporal lobe damage fail at task
cognitive map
first proposed by Tolman, internal represenation of the environment
mental rotation
mental/physiological manipulation and movement of pictorial information by memory processes
Descriptive (or propositional) representation
symbolic language capable of representing logical and spatial relations between entities. Propositions require definate syntax, lexicon for interpretation, and 'assembler' for execution of propositinal commands. Representaional format not limited to images but can be used in all forms of cognition
categorical image of representation
used by Kosslyn for codes which brain uses to process 'letter' info. Letter segments and represtive positions in space are thought to be stored separately. Individual segments are stored pictorially, when retrievaed are assembled by propositional (verbal) instructions about location to form letter images. Left-hemisphere based
coordinate-based image representation
precise pictorial representaion which is retreived and analyzed much like images on a computer CRT. Each part of the image corresponds to some part of an external referent. Images are generated from a particular perspective or point of view. Memory representaion is limited and can overflow, just like ZOOM mode
basic acoustic units of spoken language distinguished by the place and manner of articulation. removal of phoneme from word can go unnoticed
basic unit of meaning, removal of a morpheme changes the meaning of the word
categorical perception
perception of phonemes as discrete states
classical conditionins
Pavlov's dogs, different form of neural circuitry
Law of Effects
rewarded behaviors
Procedural memory
behavior recur, punished
Decay 'forgetting'
Ebbinghaus (1885)
Primacy Effect
first words remembered b/c repeated lots
Recency Effect
last words remembered b/c still in STM
Proactive interference
old info interferes with new info
retroactive interference
new info interferes with old
Loftus & Palmer (1974)
eyewitness testimony altered by word choice, change in response/memory depending on how frame event - accurancy of long-term memory
semantic memory
'encyclopedic' memory of facts, vocab, meaning
Craik and Tulving (1975)
physical, rhyme, semantic questions - test memory for target words = semantic easily correct, then rhyming, then pysical
Craik and Watson (1973)
Memorize word sets, told last 4 were most important, at end, lask 4 remembered least
short-term memory
Hebb, reverberating circuits (passive electrical flow), last for a few seconds
Long-term memory
Hebb, consolidated changes in neural circuits, new growth permanent
anterograde amnesia
1. Can retain new material for years
2. can remember life before surgery
3. cannot put STM into LTM
4. can learn simple procedures
5. can be classically conditioned
Retrograde amnesia
concussion interferes with old
anterograde amnesia
concussion interfers with new
Alzheimer's Disease
1. beta-amyloid plaques - protein deposits (build up)
2. neurofiberilary tangles
3. slow memory degeneration: onset 50 years
4. aware of performance decrements5. severe loss of Ach (actecholine) in cortex
5. no cure, no know cause
Squire (1991) - medial temporal lobe memory
Declarative (working, conscious recollecion) = semantic and episodic; 4 parts surrounding hippocampus and amygdala - para-(surrounding) and Peri-(covering, around)
Interpositus nucleus (of cerebellum) lesion
Thompson, beleive found classical conditioning engram - temporal pole (faces, people), mid-inferiotemporal (animals), posterior inferiortemporal (tool)
non-declarative memory
non-conscious learning; habits, classical conditioning, associative priming
Squires conclusions amnesia with medial temporal lobe
1. STM is spared
2. procedural memory is spared
3. memory deficit is made worse by rentention delays
4. impairment evident in all sensory modalities
5. impairment is permanent
Zola-Morgan and Squire (1990)- 2 choice discrimination tasks
Monkey's trained in word pairs, H+ (hippocampus and surround) removed, retest on discrimination task = accuracy decrease except for last task
every level of hierarchy has same items of thinfgs below - redundant storage
majornodes in heirarchy linked - only unique items associated with nodes so no repeats
clusters organized by category
Collins & Quillan (1969) - heirarchial network model
further along path/level = increased reaction time = support heirarchial model
1. Knowledge stored heirarchialy
2. cognitive economy without redundant information
3. RT increases as distance in semantic relationship increases
confouding of co-occurance
words which appear together freqently will prduce faster primed responses
Conrad (1972) - co-occurance and frequency
high vs. low frequency along level. High has slower RT
Collins and Loftus (1975) - spreading activation model
info linked by co-occurance, abandon heirarchial model, introduce idea of 'semantic distance'
Shepard & Meltzer (1971) - rotation
1. Rotation is at constant speed
2. Rotation can be performed in all dimensions

more rotations = increased reaction time
Brooks (1968)- visual and auditory interference
sentence scan - aloud longest RT, tap/point quick RT
figure scan - aloud quickest, longest is point
Tolman & Hunzik (1930)
cognitive maps? laten learning? purposive behavior?
mirrow neurons - Rizzolatti et al (1996)
beleive activated with goal-oriented beavior
Pylyshn's concerns about image/mental imagry
1. People do not to lose/forget 'peices' like torn corners, they lose the most meaningful aspects of an image
2. Mental pics need 'minds eye'
3. subject behavior does NOT refelct properties of images, but properties of instructions
Potential criticism of split-brain studis
1. patients have long term of epilepsey
2. patients rare, so used in multiple experiments
3. not all split-brain subject used - how reprsentative are patients who are used?
4. Phenomena is now very famous - Do patient respons based on prior knowledge ot demand characteristics