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45 Cards in this Set

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Cognitive Psych views
1.Human Behavior is product of the environment AND way bain processes info
2. Brain is general purpose processor of symbols
3. Goal of research is to establish sequence of process whic underlie behavior
4. Chronometric measurements - timing
5. 'mind' is limited by physical operations and structure of brain
Cognitive Psychologist Ignore
1. individual differences
2. role of emotion/motivation
3. social influences
4. behaviorist
Cognitive psychology is...
deterministic, empirical, experimental, mathematical, S-R oriented
Computer Analogy
ROM (internal memory), RAM (allows variety), central processing unit
Alan Turing key contributions
1. proved mathematically that binary code could represent all numbers, grammar, ideas
2. proved binary computer could solve all math problems step by step
3. helped break German Enigma code in WWII
4. Turing Test
Turing Test
how to determine when a computer is conscious/intelligent - computer and human provide written responses, if judge cannot tell difference, then computer is intelligent
Rene Descartes
Rationalism/Dualism, "Cogito ergo sum"
David Hume
Empiricism, extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence
rationalism/empiricism, brain has pre-existing structures and sensory experience fills in structures (experience filtered by categories of mind); we have innate moral sense (categorical imperatives); science of mind not possible
Why is 'science of the mind' not possible for Kant?
1. Mind is affected while studying it
2. Pure thoughts have no way to be measured - if can't measure then not science
3. science requires manipulation of the subject matter but can't manipulate brain b/c so complex
Wilhelm Wundt
father of psychology, 1st lab in 1879 (focus to understand nature of consciousness); mind broken down into sensations, images, simple feelings, used introspeculation
Critiques of Wundt
1. Introspecualtion not reliable
2. no real world application
3. consciousness is continuous stream experience, not discrete
4. percetual whole greater than sum of parts
J. Fodor
"The Modularity of the Mind"; brain like computer
Fodor, Modules are:
1. domain specific
2. mandatory operation
3. fixed neural architecture
4. innate
Occipital lobe
primitive vision
Inferior Temporal lobe
complex vision - recognize objects
Superior Temporal lobe
audition, language comprehension
Parietal lobe
spatial processing, primary somatosensory cortex, post-central gyrus (skin sensations)
Frontal lobe
motor movements (goal oriented), pre-central cortex(fine motor movements), Left = Broca's (grammar, language production), short-term memory
regulate aggressive response, stress
spatial processing, convert short to long term memory
P.D. McLean
"The Triune Brain" (evolution simplified), oldest part of brain = Reptilian brain = core (brainstem, midbrain), most primitive; 2nd = limbic, Mammalian brian, newest= neo-cortex
Mental Chronometry
Von Helmholtz
nerve conduction experiments - nerves conduct at finite speed
Factors that effect nerve conduction
mylination and diamter (high speed = big diamter and mylenated)
Fransciscus C. Donders
Basic Model = S-->detection-->recognition-->response selection-->R
Donders Task A
simple detecion/simple RT - detection only
see 'x', press button
Donders Task B
simple discrimination/choice - detection, recognition, selection
see 'x' press R, see 'Y' press L
Donders Task C
Odd-Ball target discrimination/simple RT - detection, recognition
see 'x', press button, see'y' don't press
Subtraction Method
Recognition = 'C' RT- 'A' RT
Selection = 'B' RT - 'C' RT
Criticism of Subtraction Method
1. Task 'c' involves selection (respond or not)
2. no clear distinction between detection and recognition
3. taks not really change one at a time - Pure Insertion problem (can't know is step by step)
Von Tschisch
Are visual processes as fast as auditory processes?
auditory faster by 1/12sec (83 ms), 80-100ms difference between auditory and visual response
Sternberg Task
measure speed of comparisons - subject memorize memory set then asked if probe/stimulus in set
Sternberg brain steps
detecting probe + recognixing probe (Sensory-stable) + memory compare scan (Cognitive - varies) + selecte response + execute response (Motor-stable)
Sternberg 2 hypothesis
1. Self-Terminating search - end scan with match then respond - 2 parallel lines (no on top)
2. Exhaustive search - scan entire set regardless of match, then respond - 1 line
serial processing
step by step
parallel processing
grab all and compare all at once - horizontal line
Sternberg conclusions
1. Linearity: RT = intercept + comparison speed + set size
2. Fast processing: slope at 40ms
3. Parallel slopes - yes/no response don't differ
4. no serial position effects of probe (doesn't matter where probe is)
5. subject unaware of processing details (how make decision) - deliberate covert regearsal is 130ms
6. Basic findings hold for wide variety of groups
7. exhaustive serial search - simplest model to explain results
Accurace vs. Reaction Time
inverse relationship with RT and accuracy

Implications: 1. fast, inaccurate responses suggest a premature decision prior to completion of the 'recognition' stage
2. slow, inaccurate response suggest an intrinsically difficult judgment after all initial processing
Signal detection goal
statistic quantifies perceptual difficulty
Semantic memory
memory for book learning, facts
Pinker - Blank Slate - which fields have strognest contributions to study of the mind
evolutionary psychology, cognitive neuroscience, behavioral genetics, cognitive psychology
Donders conclusion based on Helmholtz
if impulse at finite speed, then brain and mental processes at finite speed
Episodic memory
memory for lfie evetnts, personal information linked with dates/places
Procedural memory
memory related to actions and responses