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169 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
If each person who is described in the introduction to the module is considered to be intelligent, what does that say about the concept of intelligence?
there is more than one way to be intelligent
At a career fair, you stop by Dr. Ibanez's booth to talk about her career. Her professional interests include how to best assess people's abilities, skills, beliefs, and personality traits. You guess that Dr. Ibanez specializes in
A focus on measuring the cognitive factors or abilities that make up intellectual performance is characteristic of the _________ approach to intelligence.
Howard Gardner defines intelligence as composed of:
many separate mental abilities
If you wanted to develop a school based on Gardner's theory of intelligence, you would provide students with training in:
a variety of areas, which are not traditionally associated with IQ tests
Name a problem with the multiple intelligence approach
not knowing how many intelligences there are
The triarchic theory approach to intelligence emphasizes the ________ processes people use to solve problems
According to recent research, the correlation between head size and intelligence is:
Alfred Binet differed from many of his predecessors, in that he did not believe that intelligence could be measured by assessing
head or brain size
________ gives an indication of a child's intelligence by comparing her score on an intelligence test to the scores of average children her same age.
Mental age
On an intelligence test, a 5-year-old child is able to answer the questions that the average 4-year-old can answer, but is not able to answer the 5-year-old questions. The child's IQ would be:
According to your textbook, who has the highest IQ?
Marilyn vos Savant
As Gwen reviews her performance on the WAIS-III, she asks the psychologist who administered the test what subtests make up the performance scale. What are some examples of subtests on the performance scale?
digit symbol, block design
Psychological tests must have two characteristics and they are
reliability and validity
A math teacher, wishing to include a practical question on a test, asks students to calculate how many games out of first place a baseball team is, given its won/lost record and that of the first-place team. After the test, a student complains that the question tested knowledge of baseball, not math. The student is criticizing the __________ of the question.
A test is said to be reliable if it gives __________ results for any given person
"Each time I enter this command on my computer, it does different things." This person ought to toss this computer because it has low
If you were to describe a normal distribution as a shape, you would say that it resembles:
a bell
Judith has an IQ of 65 and has problems and limitations in communication and self-care. Judith might be considered to be:
mentally retarded
Dr. Smith diagnoses a child as having genetic brain damage. This probably means that the child has:
organic retardation
Terry, after reading about the correlation between job performance and IQ scores, says to Randy, "There is a positive correlation in the .20 to .30 range between job performance and IQ. Since you're intelligent, you'll be successful in your career." What should Randy's educated response be?
You can't predict my personal job performance from my specific IQ."
Terman's longitudinal studies of gifted individuals indicated that, compared to the general population, gifted individuals tend to be
better adjusted
the judge ruled in the class action suit against the San Francisco school system that IQ tests used to determine mental retardation were biased against people of
The problem with IQ tests is that they are sometimes used to ______people and __________against them
label; discriminate
______ are noncognitive factors that may help or hinder performance on tests.
Non-intellectual factors
If genetic factors contribute to IQ scores, then fraternal twins should have _________IQ scores than identical twins
less similar
Because she did not want to raise her child in poverty, Alice put her baby up for adoption. If Alice's baby is raised by a middle-income family that provides a good home It may be as much as _____________higher than IQs of children who stay in the disadvantaged setting
10-15 points
Two friends are debating about the nature of IQ. Sam claims that it measures innate abilities. Joseph says that it is influenced strongly by environmental factors. Joseph could truthfully support his arguments because it has been estimated that IQ can vary up to
15 points depending on environment.
The American Psychological Association Task Force on the racial differences in intelligence found no evidence that _________play a primary role in IQ differences among races
genetic factors
In an attempt to raise the IQs of children in its district, an inner-city school board opens a number of preschools designed to enrich the environments of these children. Psychologists would call this an:
intervention program
Alan has been enrolled in the Head Start program. If he is like most children in the project, his parents can expect Alan to show an improvement in IQ score, but that effect will
fade in the next two or three years
According to the textbook, are Head Start and other intervention programs a good deal for the American taxpayer?
Yes - intervention programs can stop the cycle of poverty
A psychologist employed by a company that develops and publishes intelligence and personality tests is most likely to have a degree in:
What historical figure is most closely associated to the two-factor theory of intelligence?
Charles Spearman
Charles Spearman's two-factor theory says that intelligence is:
general factors (g) plus specific mental abilities (s)
Dr. Clark is a noted authority on the two-factor theory of intelligence. When asked what is the best predictor of performance in school and academic settings, Dr. Clark correctly responds
Separate types of intelligence such as musical intelligence and spatial intelligence are the focus of Howard Gardner's ________ theory.
multiple intelligence
For Sternberg, intelligence is measured by
analyzing the steps that people take in solving problems
You take part in a study in which you are asked to talk out loud as you solve a series of difficult problems. The researcher takes notes on your strategies in order to study the mental processes you use to solve various problems. This researcher is using the _______ approach to the study of intelligence
Binet believed that intelligence was ___________ and that it could be measured by _______________.
a collection of mental abilities; assessing a person's ability to perform cognitive tas
Bethany has a mental age of 3. This means that she must:
have answered test items that could be answered by an average 3-year-old
The average fourteen-year-old will have a ratio IQ score of:
What IQ test for children has a similar test for adults?
the Wechsler test
With what part of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale would a person for whom English is a second language have the most difficulty?
If a test measures what it is supposed to be measuring, then we can say that the test is:
Handwriting analysis to measure intelligence may have ______, but definitely lacks _______.
reliability; validity
How could a test's validity be checked?
Correlate subjects' scores with their scores from a test with
proven validity
A psychologist tries out a new intelligence test on a child. One month later, she administers the same test to the same child and finds little correlation between the two administrations of the test. In testing terminology, it would be said that the test is:
The average IQ score in a normal distribution is:
What type of retardation is most likely to occur from greatly impoverished environments?
cultural-familial retardation
IQ scores have the lowest correlation with
job performance
What was Binet's original goal in developing an intelligence test?
to identify children who were mentally retarded and needed special help and education
What is the status of IQ testing in California K-12 schools?
IQ tests cannot be the only basis for placement in special education classes
If you are developing a culture-free test, you are developing a test that does not contain ____ _______ ______that are very different from the cultural experiences of the individual taking the test
vocabulary, experiences, or social situations
Juan doesn't do well on tests. His mother believes that nonintellectual factors are the reasons for Juan's poor performance. What is an example of a nonintellectual factor?
attitude, experience, shyness
The median correlation in IQ scores for identical twins reared together is ____, while for fraternal twins reared together it is ___.
.85; .60
A study of French children who had been abandoned as babies by their lower-class parents and adopted by upper-middle-class families found that the adopted children had IQs that were as much as _______higher than those of children raised by their own lower-class parents
You have set up a web site describing the contributions of nature and nurture to intelligence. To accurately describe the contributions, you select the most appropriate web site address. What is it?
One shortcoming of the book The Bell Curve was its assumption that
skin color is a good way to identify different races
The goal of the Abecedarian Project was to provide _______ and ________needed for success in school to high-risk children
cognitive and social skills
The IQ scores of children who participated in intervention programs typically _________ once they leave the program
Charles Spearman developed the _______________ theory, which termed the general intelligence factor as "g" and specific factors as "s".
The most generally agreed upon aspects of intelligence are:
general intelligence, specific factors
Spearman is to Gardner as _________ is to ____________.
single; multiple
An advantage of both Howard Gardner's multiple intelligence theory and Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory is that they:
take into account abilities not covered by standard IQ tests
Robert Sternberg's model of intelligence differs from the traditional psychometric model in that Sternberg believes that intelligence includes how people _________to solve problems in the real world
process information
Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory has the advantage of:
giving credit to people for abilities that are not normally measured by standard tests of intelligence
Francis Galton believed that intelligence was
inherited or biological
What would a positive correlation between brain size and intelligence mean as revealed by MRI scans?
there is a relationship between brain size and intelligence
Name the individual who revised Binet's test and developed the formula for intelligence quotient score
If you were to take an intelligence test, your IQ score would actually be called:
deviation IQ
which test is the most widely used IQ test today
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
The Wechsler scales of intelligence are administered:
one on one
What was added to the Wechsler tests of intelligence to rule out cultural or education problems that might hinder a person's score?
performance scale
This question measures your understanding of an important concept in an intelligence test because it is designed to. This refers to the question's:
A psychologist says that a verbal aptitude test that he developed is quite valid. His statement is true only if his test
correlates with another measure of verbal aptitude that is valid
Based on the definition presented in your text, reliability means the same thing as:
Scores on the verbal scale of the WAIS-III is stable from age 20 to 74. This suggests that the scale has:
high reliability
In a normal distribution of IQ scores, what percentage of people have a score between 70 and 130?
Laura has an IQ of 87 and has problems with self-care, social skills, and safety. Is Laura considered mentally retarded?
no IQ is not subaverage
To be classified as severe/profoundly mentally retarded, one of the requirements is an IQ of
Maggie is mildly mentally retarded, but shows no signs of brain damage or genetic abnormality. However, Maggie was born into an impoverished family environment. She would probably be diagnosed with:
cultural familial retardation
A moderately gifted child has an IQ between:
Binet's warnings about intelligence tests said:
they don't measure innate abilities
or natural intelligences, and should not be used to label people
When IQ items test information that is more common in the experience of certain social groups than other groups, the test is said to be:
culturally biased
The ecological approach studies how:
people solve problems in their usual employment settings
What terms summarize the debate on the contributions of genetics and environment on intelligence?
Based on twin studies, evidence regarding the influence on IQ scores indicates that 50%is due to _______and 50% is due to ________
genetics; environment
______ is a number than indicates the amount or proportion of some ability that can be attributed to genetic factors.
Herrnstein and Murray argued that the ___ point difference in average IQ scores between Caucasian-Americans and African-Americans was due primarily to ________:
15; inherited or genetic factors
Lewis Terman recommended that IQ scores be used to:
place people in various occupational classes
The major drawback of the Abecedarian Project is that ithas not been able to bring about
long-lasting effects
What is one reason for the decline in IQ scores once children leave an intervention program?
they return to less stimulating environments
If you argue that children are genetically "prewired" physiologically and neurologically to make speech sounds and learn language, you argue for ________ factors in language acquisition
__________ argued that children acquire language through the principles of operant conditioning. A problem with that argument is that children:
B.F. Skinner; understand language before they've received reinforcement
Deductive reasoning consists of reasoning:
from the general to the particular
Inductive reasoning consists of reasoning:
from the particular to the general
Professor Anderson has discovered a primitive tribe in the Amazon rainforest and has studied their language. She has found that this tribe has only seven emotions. She reasons that they should only perceive these seven emotions. She is basing her hypothesis on:
theory of linguistic relativity
Dyslexia can be defined
difficulities in reading, spelling and writing that can be caused by reversing or skipping letters and numbers
Training dyslexic children using computer games to distinguish sounds very quickly has been found to:
increase language ability equal to 1 to 2 years worth
Using MRI scans, research has revealed that when males are doing certain word processing tasks, their brain activity occurs:
only in the left hemisphere
The research involving the chimp named Nim has indicated that Nim:
was primarily imitating or responding to cues
A "concept" can best be defined as a(n):
way to group items such as events based upon common characteristics
You are playing a guessing game with a child and you want the child to guess "cat." You give clues that the animal has four legs, fur, and whiskers, but the child guesses wrong each time. Then you give the hint that the animal purrs and the child correctly guesses "cat." In terms of concept formation, you supplied the child with a(n):
defining property
Bill likes to invent. Today he is inventing a new car. He says to himself, "I can visualize what this new car should look like. An average car has an engine, wheels, and so on." His approach to inventing uses the _____ theory of forming concepts.
Tim is developing a concept of an "office." According to _____ theory, Tim should list all the essential features of an office. According to _____ theory, however, Tim should construct an ideal office which is an average of all offices.
definition; prototype
When asked to think about the movie he saw last night, Mel reports that he remembers the car chases because he liked those the most, yet he has forgotten about the poor dialogue and plot. For Mel, the car chases represent a(n):
availability heuristic
Functional fixedness is defined as:
the inability to see new uses for old objects
After spending hours trying to fix a bug in his computer program, Chris suddenly realizes the solution by remembering steps his mother took to can beets. This is an example of:
using an analogy
You've accepted a new job that will start in two months, but you have to move to a new city. The idea of moving doesn't appeal to you since it is a very big task. A useful strategy is to break up the task into:
This individual you know solves problems on a regular basis in very innovative ways that influence other people. This person is:
This type of test question requires:
convergent thinking
When you begin with a problem and devise many solutions, it is called __________, but if you come up with the one correct solution, it is called __________.
divergent thinking; convergent thinking
Howard Gardner's case study of Sigmund Freud revealed that Freud was very poor in
musical and spatial ability
If you were to examine the personalities of creative people, you would find one of the negative characteristics to be:
insensitivity to the needs of others
A "morpheme" is defined as a:
combination of sounds that have meaning
When a person says "boy rides bike," the meaning is different than if the person says "bike rides boy." This is an example of the rules of:
As you read a novel, it occurs to you that you have never before read these sentences in your entire life. What allowed the author of this novel to create so many different, brand new combinations of words?
mental grammar
The sentences "Ann kissed Jack" and "Jack was kissed by Ann" have different
surface structures
We learn to shift back and forth between surface structure and deep structure by using:
transformational rules
When a child has reached the single word stage, what percent of single words refer to objects and to actions?
50 % to both
According to the textbook, from two years through adolescence, a child learns an average of one new word every:
2 hours
When a child applies a grammatical rule to cases where it should not be used, the child has committed:
The notion of a critical language period supports the idea that _______ factors are involved in language acquisition.
The notion of a critical language period supports the idea that _______ factors are involved in language acquisition.
In inductive reasoning, we use _______ to decide the likelihood of some conclusion being true.
our past experiences
It has been suggested that dyslexia is basically:
a neurological problem
Jenny is participating in a study where her brain is being studied with MRI. She is currently doing a language task. Which area of her brain is especially active?
activity is spread out equally in both hemispheres
The most widely used series of IQ tests are the _________Intelligence Scales
The Weschler tests organize items into two subtests which are called_____and ________ scales
verbal, performance
In an attempt to rule out cultural problems, Wechsler added the ____ scale
A good psychological test has two characteristics. It should give about the same score over time, which is called ______ and it should measure what it is supposed to measure, which is called _____
reliability, validity
If IQ scores can be represented by a bell-shaped curve, the pattern is called a _____.
normal distribution
An individual who has a combination of limited mental ability difficulty functioning in everyday life is said to have some degree of ___
mental retardation
If the condition results from genetic problems or brain damage, it is called
organic retardation
If the condition results from a greatly impoverished environment, it is called
cultural-familial retardation
Individuals who have above-average intelligence as well as some superior talent or skill are said to be
If the working of test questions and the experiences on which they are based are more familiar to members of some social groups than to others, the test is said to have a
cultural bias
The approach that measures intelligence by observing how people solve problems in their usual settings is called
If the working of test questions and the experiences on which they are based are more familiar to members of some social groups than to others, the test is said to have a
cultural bias
The approach that measures intelligence by observing how people solve problems in their usual settings is called_________ psychology
When we ask how much genetic factors and how much environmental factors contribute to intelligence, we are asking the _____ question
There is good evidence that genetic factors contribute about _____and environmental factors contribute about ______ to the development of one's intelligence
50%, 50%
The extent to which IQ scores may increase or decrease depending on environmental effects is called the ________
reaction range
A subarea of psychology that is concerned with developing psychological tests to assess an individual's abilities, skills, beliefs-school, industry or clinic, is called_______
Spearman's two-factor theory of intelligence says there is a general factor called___that represents a person's ability to perform complex mental work, such as abstract reasoning and problem solving. The general factor underlies a person's performance across tests..
There is a second factor according to Spearman called ______ which represents a person's specific mental abilities such as math or verbal skills
Sternberg's triarchic theory says that intelligence can be divided into three ways of gathering and processing info. The first is using ______ skills which are measured by traditional intelligence tests.
analytical, cognitive or logical
The second is using _____ skills that require creative thinking, the ability to deal with novel situations and the ability to learn from experience
the third is using ____ skills that help a person adjust to, and cope with, his or her sociocultural environment
In trying to measure intelligence, researchers through the years have learned that neither skull size nor brain weight is an accurate predictor of ____
The first intelligence test, which was developed by _____, measured vocabulary, memory, common knowledge and other cognitive abilities.
Binet and Simon
By comparing a child's score with the scores of average children at the same age, Binet was able to estimeate a child's _______
mental age
The Binet-simon Intelligence Scale gave its results in terms of mental age, while the IQ score was later developed by _______
Terman devised a formula to calculate an individual's intelligence quotient, the formula is written as IQ=______ divided by _______ x 100.
Mental Age; Chronological Age
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale have subtests for general info, vocabulary and verbal comprehension which are part of the _____ section and arranging pictures in order, assembling objects are examples of subtests in the _________section
verbal; performance
A separate score is given for each of the subtests on Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and are then combined into a single score which is called a_____ score
There are two general causes of mental retardation; genetic problems or brain damage give rise to _________ retardation and greatly impoverished environments give rise to ______ retardation.
organic; cultural-familial
Binet warned that intelligence tests should not be used to measure _____ mental abilities because intelligence tests measure cognitive abilities, which are influenced by both heredity and environment.
Binet also warned that intelligence tests, by themselves, should not be used to ______ people.
label or classify
Current IQ tests have been criticized for including wording or experiences that are more familiar to a particular culture, which is called _______
cultural bias
One way to avoid bias is to measure intelligence by observing people as they solve problems in natural settings; this is called______
ecological psychology
One reason individuals may do poorly on IQ tests is noncognitive factors, such as attitude, experience and emotional functioning which are called _____
nonintellectual factors
The _______question refers to the relative contributions that genetic and environmental factors make to the development of intelligence.
The idea that about half of one's intellectual development is dependent on environmental factors has resulted in _______ programs that give impoverished children increased social-educational opportunities.
There is little or no cause-and-effect evidence that the average difference in IQ scores between African Americans and Whites is caused primarily by ______ factors
In early 1900, Terman believed IQ tests did measure _______ intelligence and he wanted to use IQ tests to sort people into categories.
Yerkes adapted Termans view and Yerkes wanted to use IQ tests to rank the intelligence of ______ entering the US.
In using PET scans to identify neural activity in the living brain, researcher found that when subjects solved verbal and spatial problems, the greatest neural activity occurred in the _______
lateral prefrontal cortex