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108 Cards in this Set

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Microgenetic Development
chnges that happen over brief periods of time (hours, weeks)
Ontogenetic Development
change over a lifetime(level most devl. psychologists use)
Phylogenetic Development
changes over evolutionary time--like the devel. of a species
sociohistorical development
changes in a culture through history (changes in norms, values, technology) ex. world wars, internet
Infants are born with what type of mental functions
Elementary--attention, sensation, perception, memory
Elementary funtions are transformed ito higher fuctions by what (Vygotsky)
Culture
Tools of intellectual adaptation
methods and strategies from thinking and problem solving that children internalize from more competent memers of their society
Piagets assumes that children learn what about their skills first
how to use them in their heads, and then how to use them in a social context
General genetic law of cultral development
every function in development appears first in a scoial setting and then in an internal mental/psychological way
Private or egocentric speech
Children who talk to themselves alone, or if one other person is there--they are having two completely different convos- speech used to for yourself, not to commun w/ others
Piaget's explanation on ego speech
They are ego--they have to learn that spech is supposed to be used to commun with others
Vygotsky's explanation on ego
they learn to use speech socially first and then they learn to use itinternally to guide themselves and their thoughts
How to understand cognition from Vygotsky view
focus on social, culturally relevant situations, not just an isolated individual independent of the contet of the skill
How does a child learn according to Vygotsky?
-adult models activity and supplies verbal instructions
-the child interacts with the adult to perform a task
-eventually the child internalizes the info and can do this on their own w/o help
-what child can do alone is different than what child can do w/ help
Zone of proximal development
the difference between what a child can do alone and what he can do with help. A child learns the most when provided with help that is aimed at this level--the level just above what he can do alone
Scaffolding
offering developmentally appropriate guidance, hints and advice in a new task
what is the importance of context?
what the child is capable of is dependent on the context and the task-it might not always be the same.
Assumptions of Piaget's theory
-development occurs in stages-qualatative, and not just quantitative changes
-each new ability build on older, already existing abilities
-domain general abilities-changes occur as a result of underlying changes in the mental structures
Structures
unobsevable ental systems that underlie intelligence
what type of activity is crucial to children's learning about the world and the development of their structures?
instrinsic-they are naturally motivated to interact w/ their enviro to give them the experienes they need to learn about the world. CHILDREN ARE CENTRAL ACTORS IN THEIR DEVEL.
Constructivism
children construct their own reality out of their experiences. this constructed reality then influences how they interpret new events and how these new events are incorporated into their reality
functional invariants
processes that all people have that operate throughout the lifespan
organization
structures are organized and integrated to form higher order stuctures (legos)
adaptation
the ability to adjust and change structure to fit the environment
assimilation
incorporating new information into an existing scheme
accommodation
a current scheme is chagned to include new information
4 major factors that contribute to development (PIAGET)
-maturation
-physical environment
-social transmission (knowledge acquired from others)
-equilibration: an organisms's attempts to keep its cognitive structures in balance
Sensorimotor ages and general characteristics
Birth-2 years
intelligence is action-based, not symbol-based
Preoperations ages and gen. characteristics
2-7 years
intelligence is symbol based. thought is intuitive and egocentric (rather than logical)
concrete ages and gen. characteristics
7-11 years
intelligence is symbolic and logical. thinking is limited to the concrete, not the abstract
Scaffolding
offering developmentally appropriate guidance, hints and advice in a new task
what is the importance of context?
what the child is capable of is dependent on the context and the task-it might not always be the same.
Assumptions of Piaget's theory
-development occurs in stages-qualatative, and not just quantitative changes
-each new ability build on older, already existing abilities
-domain general abilities-changes occur as a result of underlying changes in the mental structures
Structures
unobsevable ental systems that underlie intelligence
what type of activity is crucial to children's learning about the world and the development of their structures?
instrinsic-they are naturally motivated to interact w/ their enviro to give them the experienes they need to learn about the world. CHILDREN ARE CENTRAL ACTORS IN THEIR DEVEL.
Constructivism
children construct their own reality out of their experiences. this constructed reality then influences how they interpret new events and how these new events are incorporated into their reality
functional invariants
processes that all people have that operate throughout the lifespan
organization
structures are organized and integrated to form higher order stuctures (legos)
adaptation
the ability to adjust and change structure to fit the environment
assimilation
incorporating new information into an existing scheme
accommodation
a current scheme is chagned to include new information
4 major factors that contribute to development (PIAGET)
-maturation
-physical environment
-social transmission (knowledge acquired from others)
-equilibration: an organisms's attempts to keep its cognitive structures in balance
Sensorimotor ages and general characteristics
Birth-2 years
intelligence is action-based, not symbol-based
Preoperations ages and gen. characteristics
2-7 years
intelligence is symbol based. thought is intuitive and egocentric (rather than logical)
concrete ages and gen. characteristics
7-11 years
intelligence is symbolic and logical. thinking is limited to the concrete, not the abstract
Formal Op ages and gen characteristics
11-16 years
thinking is abstract. children cn make and test hypotheses and introspect about their own though process
Sensorimotor Stage is characterized by
acting on the environment and learning through the senses throgh motor activity
infants have no what during sensorimotor?
mental representation--so using senses and acting on enviro is all they can do learn and solve problems
schemes
cognitive structures that can be used in a variety of sitations- sucking scheme, reaching scheme, looking scheme
Substage 1: Reflexes Age and Characteristics
0-1 month
using innate reflexes (sucking, kicking, grasping) and accomodating these refelexes to new objects **ACTIONS ARE NOT INTENTIONAL HERE**
Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions-Ages and Characteristics
1-4 months
the baby is not consciously deciding to try to repeat the action here--piaget did not consider this true intentionality
Circular (2)
an action that occurs at first by accident, and then is repeated
Primary (2)
involves the infants own body ex: thumb sucking, kicking
Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions: Ages and characteristics
an action involving an external object happens at first accidenty, then is repeated. not a good ideal of causality yet--this causality is after the fact
Circular (3)
action that occurs at first by accident and then is repeated
Primary (3)
involves objects in the external environment
Substage 4: Coordination of secondary reactions: ages and characteristics
8-12 months
coordinating 2 schemes-push an obstacle out of the way to reach for a toy they can see behind it. this shows MEANS-END behavior, which is clear intentionality/goal directed behavior.
Substage 5: Tertiary Circular reactions: ages and characteristics
12-18 months
infant can alter schemes to create a different effect. intentional trial and error behavior--could be to solve a problem or just to see what happens. they are good physical problems solvers but dont have representation yet. in order to find something ot, they have to try it out--can't just think through it
Substage 6: Beginnings of representational thought: ages and characteristics
18-24 months
infant show evidence of mental representation. infant shows spontaneous insight that helps them solve a problem. infant also begins using language, deferred imitation, symbolic play--which all require mental rep.
Object permanence
the knowledge that an object exists even whn we are not looking or acting on them
OP Substage 1 and 2
objects only exist when infant can see or act on object. even if partially hidden, infant looks away as if forgotten object existed
OP stage 3
infant will uncover an object that is only partially covered--if completely hidden will not search
OP stage 4
infant will uncover a completely hidden object. but no op because they still make a not be error--piaget believes child thinks they create object by lifting cover---don't realize that it's just moving
OP stage 5
infancts successfully do a not b--but still can't do invisible displcement task--look where saw it last
OP stage 6
infants have mental rep--they can do invisible displacemet taks
Evolution
the process of change in gene frequencies in a population that over many generations produces a new species
Evolution can only?
only affect changes that happen--can't design new changes
natural selection
some members of a species reproduce ad some do not-due to an interaction of individual genetic variation and changes in the environment
reproductive fitness
the likelihood that an individual will successfully reproduce and have their genes passed on to future generations
what questions do we ask about behaviors in species?
why is it adaptive--what problem did it solve?
biologically primary abilities
abilities that were selected for in evolution
biologically secondary abilities
abilities that build on primary abilities, but that are mainly cultural inventions
models of gene-environment interaction
Developmental Systems Approach and the Genotype-environment-theory
epigenesis
the emergence of new structures and functions during the course of development
all levels of biological and experiential aspects (DEVSYS)
interact with eah other-every relationship goes both ways
genetic activity <-> structural maturation<-> function
critical period
the necessary experience must fall during this particular time period in order for a skill to develop
genotype-enviroment theory
genes affect which environments and which experiences a person has
"genes drive experiences"
passive
genetically related parents provide the rearing environment for the child (strongest early in development and then diminish)
evocative
tempermental characteristics of the child evoke certain responses from others in the environment(remain constant through devel)
active
children seek out environments consistent with their genotype
good enough parents theory
because of the strong genotype-environment effects, individual differences in parenting within the normal range shouldn't affect a child's development
Both models propose
bidirectional influences of biologic and environmental factors
models differ
in the degree to which experiences shape the organism vs. the child shaping his/her own
Neural tube
beginning of all our thoughts and feelings--brain on top, spinal cord bottom
unlike other cells in the body, neurons
have to travel/migrate long distances to their places in the brain
Migration
cells move to correct locations via the glial cells--neurons know where to go--can recognize where they are in the brain
stem cells
can transform themselves into any type of cell in the body--turns into cells around it---affected by enviroment
Use it or lose it
if connections are not used, they weaken and are lost/pruned out in order to strengthen appropriate connections
plasticity
flexibility of the brain
Why important to treat infant cateracts
because their vision hasn't developed fully yet---need to patch good eye so that it doesn't develop stronger/faster than weak eye
College entrance exams are designed to
test for individual differences in academic achievement
if a researcher uses different methods to test the same cognitive structure in two different ages she must
-make assumptions about how that structure functions at both ages
-evaluate whether those two diff methods might test two diff abils
-acknowledge the assumptions while interpreting the results
Changes add up in a linear way in what type of development
continuous
parents eager for their child to begin to comunicate often teach their child "baby signs" children who are taught baby signs start to use these words to commun an average of 2 months earlier--this is an example of
facilitation
bidirectionality
the reciprocal relationship between a structure and its actions
a theory of development in which children progress through a predictable order of transitions whih are qualitatively different from each other is called a
stage theory
cognition
knowing things
-explicitly and implicitly
acquiring knowledge
using knowledge
cognitive development
age related changes over time in acquiring, processing and using knowledge
quantitative
incremental changes/increases in knowledge or capactiy
qualitative
thinking that differs by kind/type of thinking # of ways you can think
continuity
changes are slow and gradual-differences among individuals are stable
discontinuous
changes are abrupt and quick--differences among children are not stable
Stages
thinking during one stage is qualitatively different from thinking during the next or the previous one
-thinking during one stage is homogenous
-may be incremental changes in one stage in order to move from one to another
domain generality
general cognitive processes that apply to many domains of cognition--statistical learning and imitation
domain specificity
cognitive processes that are specific to few types of inforation--physical properties of objects
operations
short for operational scheme--operations are as much of a scheme as sensorimotor scheme is a scheme
-cognitive schemes that describe the ways children act on world
4 characteristics of operations
symbolic: a symbol and a referent are separate to an operational child
internalized: physical actions now become mental actions
integrated: organized in complete homogenous structure
rule governed: a system of logical rules is applied to thinking
reversibility
compensation: if change on aspect of something, another aspect of it will take over
inversion: ablility to go forward and backward in though ex: 4+6=10 6+4=10