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36 Cards in this Set

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Humean variables (contiguity, precedence, and covariation)-
Contiguity- the events occurred close together in time and space. Infancy.
Precedence- the event labeled the "cause" preceded the "event." Maybe by age three, definitely by age five.
Covariation- The cause and effect consistently occured together. After age five.
Means-end Analysis
comparing the goal we would like to attend with the current situation and reducing differences between the two until the goal can be met. 12 months of age. The process dmenadssimultaneously keeping several items in mind: subgoals, procedures for metting the subgoals, and discrepencies between the current state and the overall goal.
Tool use in Chimps (from video, Chimp Minds)-
-we thought that we were the only ones who were able to use tools, but when jane goodall went to observe chimps she saw that they used sticks in the hole of a hill to "fish" for termites. They took branches and stripped them of their leaves. they not only use tools but they have behavioral traditions that differ between groups and are passed down from generation to generation. The chimp mom isnt teaching, they are observing. They learned but not taught. Male chimps focus later than the females. Girls - 1.5 want to learn. Boys- about 3 years old.
Lagattuta's research on cognitive cuing (how past emotional events can change your current feelings
Children depending on their age can tell if the little girl was reminded of the past event by the cue. Some children didnt know why the girl was sad and others attributed her sadness to a situational event like something hurt her that had nothing to do with the emotional cue.
Stream of consciousness-
Stream of consciousness- children to not know about this. they dont understand that there is a constant flow of ideas and thought of someone else. It is not until they are 6-8 years old that they understand that while doing a cognitive task, people are thinking.
What Preschoolers know about thinking-
What Preschoolers know about thinking- mental entities like thoughts and images are internal, in the head affaris that differ from physical actions or other external objects. A person can thin of something she connot see or touch. The content of thoughts are not physical or tangible. A person is thinking if they look like they are thinking.
Repacholi and Gopnik's research on early understanding of desires
Experimentor showed affection for the broccoli or the cracker and the infant gave the experimentor the food that was the positively appraised by the experimentor. Not the food that they liked better or the one that they would want to get rid of.
Flavell's research on the appearance-reality distinction
- Three year olds have the hardest time with differenciating appearane from reality. Shown a sponge that looks like a rock, they are unable to say that it looks like a rock but it is really a sponge. They will say that it looks like a rock and it is a rock
Can understand this by age twelve.
Meltzoff's research on intentional actions-
Meltzoff's research on intentional actions- children who are 18 mos old watch a experiementor do an intended action (pull balls off the end of stick), but fail to do the action. They then give the infant the stick and they succeed in the intended action concluding that 18 month olds understand the intentions of others even though they never actually see the intended action.
False-Belief Tasks-
- Sally/ Anne: Sally puts her marble in the cubboard and then goes outside, while she is outside, Anne comes in and moves the marble from the cupboard to the basket. When Sally comes back, where will she look for her marble? In the basket or in the cupboard? Children who pass the task understand that there are beliefs that they themselves have and that there are beliefs that other people have, the answer would be that sally would look in the cupboard because although we know that the marble is in the basket, she does not. Three year old will not understand that Sally doesnt know that the marble is in the basket.
-Smarties Task- the box with the smarties label on it is placed in front of the child and the child is asked what they think is inside of the box, the reply will be smarties. they are then shown that the box doesnt contain smarties it actually contains pencils. The child is then asked what they think their friend will say when THEY are asked what is inside the box. Three year olds will say pencils. Four-Five year olds will say smarties.
Why young children fail to plan-
it requires inhibiting urge to act immediately. Children are overoptimistic. Possibility of wasted effort. Requires coordination with others. Other people are around to save the day.
Development of tool use in infants-
6-13 month olds use mothers to obatin toys. The look, gesture, vocalize. Start using inanimate oljects as tools around 18 months. Toddlers choose appropriate tool to retreive toy.
DeLoache's "magic shrinking machine" studies-
Difficulty of achieving dual representation. Here children were showing the big troll and the experimentor hid the troll and showed the child where the troll was being hidden. Then the experimentor showed a different smaller model of the house and told the child to find the "little troll" and that it was hidden in the same place as the big troll. Another non-symbolic procedure was done with a shrinking machine. This shrinking machine made things small and larger. The experimentor again showed the child where the troll was being hidden and then the child was taken out of the room to wait and when they returned the model of the house and troll were smaller/larger. The children were then asked to find the troll "in the same place as they had put him earlier." Children were better at the shrinking machine (non symbolic) task because there was no need to dual realities. In the first procedure, it was a challenge to detect and use sumbolic realtions from the inherent dual reality and the necessity of achieving dual representation. The shrinking machine eliminated that the need for it.
Behavioral criteria for diagnosing autism (triad of impairments)-
1. Lack of pretend play 2. Social imcopetence 3. Poor verbal and nonverbal communication skills.
Mind-blindness hypothesis (studies showing performance in autistic subjects vs. normal subjects - sally/anne task, smarties task, false photographs, sabotage vs. deception)-
Mind-blindness hypothesis (studies showing performance in autistic subjects vs. normal subjects - sally/anne task, smarties task, false photographs, sabotage vs. deception)- The intuitive ability to underand that other people have minds, is missing. Autistic children lack a Theory of Mind. Social/communication impariments. They lack a variate mind, no ability to debate beliefs.
Phonological recoding-
sounding out- converting visual information to speech then determining word. - Slower, more correct. Use for harder words.
Visually based retrieval-
Visually based retrieval- preceding from visual to meaning. - Quicker, less correct. Use for easier words. (Recall).
Prereading skills (knowing letters of the alphabet and phonemic awareness)-
Text is read from left to right. After finishing a line of a text, go to the extreme left of the next line. Words are seperated by spaces. ABC's before First grade. mastery of letter names and later reading achievement-correlation between knowing letter names and later reading achievement. Phonemic awareness- highly predictive of childrens ability to sound out words. Hearing nursey rhymes- emphasize phonemic awareness and phonemic difference.
Dyslexia
Dyslexia- problems with reading, phonological functioning. Normal intelligince, just cant read. Poor ability to differenciate phonemes, poor short term memory for written material, slow recall of names of objects. Letter sound correlation, problems with sounding it out. Two parts of the brain that are decreased vs normal adults. One is phonological processing and one controls the comparison of visual materials. Treatment would be to teach them strategies to help them sound out. Draw analogies with words that are similar. Hat and Bat. Peeling off the suffix and prefix to get root word.
Chall's stages of reading development-
0- prequisites, letters, phonemic awareness, identify sounds within a word
1- phonological reading skills- translate letters into sounds- sounding it out.
2- reading simple material-really beginning to read.
3-acquire new information from print- read to learn.
4-coordinate multiple perspectives- can appreciate subtleties, different perspectives
Influences on reading comprehension-
Influences on reading comprehension-
Basic Processes- encoding, automazation (executing a process without really thinking about it)- not completely comprehending. Those who dont use resources to identify words, leaves them with more for comprehension. Better word identity=better comprehension.
Strategies- good readers go slow when it is important and faster when infomation is irrelevant.
Metacognition- monitoring comprehension-understanding of what they are reading. If you didnt understand then you go back and re read.
Content Knowledge-(Greatest influence)- easier to read topic if you already know about it. Allows children to draw inferences from previous exposure.
Amount of Reading- Fifth graders in the 90th percentile read 200x who scored in the 10th percentile.
Influence of Parents- Isreal- in affluent areas 96% of parents read on daily basis, poor area about 15% read to their children every day. If they are read to- increase in comprehension.
Arithmatic stages (decomposition, retrieval, counting from 1, counting from the larger addend)
Decompostition- dividing a problem into two simpler problems. Common but complicated. 10+5= 5+5+5.
Retrival- Comes after counting from one, its the memorazation and automatic retrieval of simple equations. 2+3=5 not 2+3= "one.. two.. three.. four.. FIVE"
Counting from one- "one.. two.. three.. four.. five.. six.. seven.. etc"
Counting from the larder addend- 100 plus 5.. you start from the 100 and then add five, not take the five and add one hundred.
Mathmatical equality-
understanding what the equal sign means. Some children do it but they really dont understand. 3 + 4 + 5 = ___ + 5 <-- up until fourth grade children will still get it wrong. They will put twelve in the blank. They incorrecting externalize a proces that usually works but here it doesn't.
General approaches to defining play-
Play as a disposition- how to distinguish from other behaviors-
1. no external reward, they want to do it.
2. the goals are self imposed- not others or the finished product.
3. exploration is usually driven with a question like "what does this do" vs "what can it do"
4. not serious rendition of reality. Fantasy play.
5. Distinguishable between games that have rules.
6. Play requires active engaging vs. daydreaming etc.
Play as observable behavior- Piajet-assimilation- morphiing what is in the world to what is in your head.
1. Practice Play- infants
2. Symbolic Play- Preoperational (Preschool) "pretend play" ej. Banana phone.
3. Games- concrete operational- help children with practice with rules.
Play as a context- Situation that is likely to yield play- set up context. Piaget/Vygotsky- Play assimilation. uses thoey that addressed other things. disequilibrium. the three things are conterpart to his stages. Childs sense of control. language is considered play. Vygotsky- childs creation of an imaginitive situation. SOcial play of the childre zone of proximal development. Child creates her own. CHild will use rules. Children with encouragement will be more skillful socially. Better sharing.
REM sleep (percentage of REM sleep in infants, children and adults)-
Infants spend half of their sleep in REM. Children about 20% and Adults at about 15%.
Sleep Disorders-
Sleep Onset Disorders- common in younger children, hard for them to go to sleep. Nighttime Waking Disorder- wake up and then go to parents bed in the middle of the night. Obtrusive Sleep Apnea- when people snore but airway gets blocked, common with children with downs- tonsils taken out. Enuresis- betwetting, 4 yo twice a month, or 6 yo once a month = disorder. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Leg Syndrome- feels like something is crawling on your legs, or the jerking around of the legs. Parasomnias- Sleepwalking, Sleep Talking, Night terrors, Sleepwalking is more common in children, terrors are waking up and screaming or talking, children dont remember in the morning. Narcolepsy- loss of muscle tonw, awake can't do anything about it. Not that funny.
Humean variables (contiguity, precedence, and covariation)-
Contiguity- the events occurred close together in time and space. Infancy.
Precedence- the event labeled the "cause" preceded the "event." Maybe by age three, definitely by age five.
Covariation- The cause and effect consistently occured together. After age five.
Means-end Analysis
Means-end Analysis- a formalized problem-solving heuristic that uses a set of rules about when to work forward or backward and when/how to set sub-goals.
Tool use in Chimps (from video, Chimp Minds)-
-we thought that we were the only ones who were able to use tools, but when jane goodall went to observe chimps she saw that they used sticks in the hole of a hill to "fish" for termites. They took branches and stripped them of their leaves. they not only use tools but they have behavioral traditions that differ between groups and are passed down from generation to generation. The chimp mom isnt teaching, they are observing. They learned but not taught. Male chimps focus later than the females. Girls - 1.5 want to learn. Boys- about 3 years old.
Lagattuta's research on cognitive cuing (how past emotional events can change your current feelings
Children depending on their age can tell if the little girl was reminded of the past event by the cue. Some children didnt know why the girl was sad and others attributed her sadness to a situational event like something hurt her that had nothing to do with the emotional cue.
Stream of consciousness-
Stream of consciousness- children to not know about this. they dont understand that there is a constant flow of ideas and thought of someone else. It is not until they are 6-8 years old that they understand that while doing a cognitive task, people are thinking.
What Preschoolers know about thinking-
What Preschoolers know about thinking- mental entities like thoughts and images are internal, in the head affaris that differ from physical actions or other external objects. A person can thin of something she connot see or touch. The content of thoughts are not physical or tangible. A person is thinking if they look like they are thinking.
Repacholi and Gopnik's research on early understanding of desires
Experimentor showed affection for the broccoli or the cracker and the infant gave the experimentor the food that was the positively appraised by the experimentor. Not the food that they liked better or the one that they would want to get rid of.
Flavell's research on the appearance-reality distinction
- Three year olds have the hardest time with differenciating appearane from reality. Shown a sponge that looks like a rock, they are unable to say that it looks like a rock but it is really a sponge. They will say that it looks like a rock and it is a rock
Can understand this by age twelve.
Meltzoff's research on intentional actions-
Meltzoff's research on intentional actions- children who are 18 mos old watch a experiementor do an intended action (pull balls off the end of stick), but fail to do the action. They then give the infant the stick and they succeed in the intended action concluding that 18 month olds understand the intentions of others even though they never actually see the intended action.
False-Belief Tasks-
- Sally/ Anne: Sally puts her marble in the cubboard and then goes outside, while she is outside, Anne comes in and moves the marble from the cupboard to the basket. When Sally comes back, where will she look for her marble? In the basket or in the cupboard? Children who pass the task understand that there are beliefs that they themselves have and that there are beliefs that other people have, the answer would be that sally would look in the cupboard because although we know that the marble is in the basket, she does not. Three year old will not understand that Sally doesnt know that the marble is in the basket.
-Smarties Task- the box with the smarties label on it is placed in front of the child and the child is asked what they think is inside of the box, the reply will be smarties. they are then shown that the box doesnt contain smarties it actually contains pencils. The child is then asked what they think their friend will say when THEY are asked what is inside the box. Three year olds will say pencils. Four-Five year olds will say smarties.