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15 Cards in this Set

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How does Mere Exposure Explain how Attitudes are Formed?
*Being repeatedly exposed to an object increases your liking of it
*Works best with neutral objects
*If we dislike someone, mere exposure will make us dislike them more
*The more we are exposed to someone, the more we like them, unless they make us angry
How does Operant Conditioning Explain how Attitudes are Formed?
*We hold attitudes that we are reinforced for holding and drop attitudes that we are punished for holding
How does Modeling Explain how Attitudes are Formed?
*Many attitudes are developed through vicarious learning and imitation of others
*Influential models are similar to us, competent, provide rewards, belong to our group, or are successful
*Needs to be someone we would like to emulate (someone like us)
*We model competent people
*Leaders can emerge in the workplace that others look to model - if they are unhappy, others who model them are likely to be unhappy too
How does Balance Theory Explain how Attitudes are Formed?
*Inconsistency in our attitudes lead to attitude change
*Consistency must exist between a person (p), other person(o), and an object (x)
*Balance exists if all relationships are positive or if two are negative and one is positive
*Inconsistencies lead to:
-A change of attitude toward the object or person
-Denial that there is an inconsistency
-Differentiation, which is a fragmentation of your opinion
How does Cognitive Disssonance Explain how Attitudes are Formed?
*If inconsistencies exist between your attitudes and behaviors than you will change you attitudes to be consistent with your behavior
How does Perception Theory Explain how Attitudes are Formed?
*When attitudes or beliefs are not accessible, consumers may form inferences about attitudes from their behavior
*'If I am engaging in this behavior, I must really want that'
*'if I am talking to a recruiter, I must not like my job'
What is the Fundamental Attribution Error?
*We attribute the failures or embarrassmens of others to their dispositional traits (personality traits)
*We attribute our own failures to situational causes
How does Augmentation and Discounting Explain Attitude Formation?
*Augmentation: the tendency to attribute greater importantce to a potential personal cuase of behavior that occurs in the presence of inhibitors (yelling in church - crazy)
*Discounting: the tendency to discount potential personal cause of behavior that occurs in the presence of facilitators (yelling during a basketball game - normal)
Explain the Central Route to Persuasion.
*Central route to persuasion; uses strong arguments, and provides reasons that support or justify the position
*It requires elaboration
Explain the Types of Elaboration in the Central Route to Persuasion.
*Types of elaboration:
-Source derogation: if the consumer dislikes or distrusts the source delivering the persuasive message, the listener is likely to think of reasons to doubt what is being said
*Counterarguments: reasons for not believing a message regardless of who delivers the message (used if the message is consistent with your beliefs)
*Supporting arguments: used if the message is consistent with our beliefs or is perceived as compelling and convincing
*Curiosity statements: thoughts that are only tangentially related - the listener does not focuse on the main points
Explain the Peripheral Route to Persuasion.
*Little thought or effort is used
*Peripheral or background cues such as attractiveness, source expertise, or anything that creates a positive mood
When should you use a two-sided message?
*Two-sided messages works best with an unfavorable, more knowledgeable audience or one that creates a positive mood
What are influence heuristics?
*Influence heuristics work becuase of the automacity principle
*We behave in a mindless manner with little conscious effort
*Automatic behavior is prevalent because it is efficient
Explain the types of influence heuristics.
*Types of influence heuristics:
-Becuase heuristic: the use of the word because it increases compliance even when it conveys no real information (xerox example)
-Price-quality heuristic: expensive = good, higher price means better quality - this is generally true but people over estimate its strength, ease of measurement, price is concrete, readily accessible and familiar, effort and satisfaction - if you expend more effort for something you later infer that you enjoy it more, snob appeal - we purchase the most expensive product because it gives us prestige and social recognition, and perception of risk: the higher priced product is seen as less risky
How are Comprehension and Belief Related?
*Gilbert et al (1990) - refer to study
*We initially believe what we comprehend, but later after more processing we may judge the message to be false
*Disbelief requires evaluation
*Belief is automatic
*Distractions make it less lieky you will evaluate the message - will lead to being more truthful
*Repetition increases familiarity which leads to believability
*If it is repeated, it must be true