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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
principle of encoding specificity
the way that an item is retrieved from memory depends on the way that it was stored in memory
episodic memory
the memory system concerned concerned with personally experienced events
semantic memory
the memory system concerned with knowledge of words, concepts, and their relationships
recency bias versus primacy bias
a tendency to recall experiences from the recent past compared to a tendency to recall experiences from the relatively distant past
procedural memory
the memory system concerned with knowing how to do things
tacit knowledge
knowing how to do something without being able to say exactly what it is that you know
explicit knowledge
knowing that something is the case
anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic
three levels of consciousness corresponding to procedural, semantic, and episodic memory systems
prefrontal leucotomy
a surgical procedure whereby the connections between the prefrontal lobes and other parts of the brain are severed
evolution of memory
ways in which memory systems possibly evolved include natural selection exaptation and the baldwin effect
chronosthesia
our subjective sense of time
butcher-on-the-bus phenomenon
a feeling of knowing a person without being able to remember the circumstances of any previous meeting or anything else about the person
implicit memory
memory without episodic awareness-the expression of previous experiences without conscious recollection of the prior episode
method of opposition
pitting conscious (explicit) and unconscious (implicit) tendencies against one another
perceptual representation system
the memory system containing very specific representations of events that is hypothesized to be responsible for priming effects
mental chronometry
measuring how long cognitive processes take
moses illusion
people who will respond to questions with embedded errors by assuming a piece of learning that is irrelevant, for example, by answering the question how many animals of each kind did moses take on the ark? by saying two
spreading activation
searching a semantic network activates paths spreading from the node at which the search begins
involuntary semantic memory (mind popping)
whenever semantic memory pops into your mind without episodic context
propositional network
a network that specifies the relations between a set of concepts
fan effect
the more a person knows about a particular concept, the longer it takes to recognize specific information about it.
phenological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad
temporary stores of linguistic and non-verbal information, respectively.
episodic buffer
the ability to move information both to and from episodic and long-term memory
fluid systems
cognitive processes that manipulate information
crystallized systems
cognitive systems that accumulate long-term knowledge
working memory
the temporary storage and manipulation of information that is necessary for various cognitive activities
central executive
the function of the brain that co-ordinates information that may be represented in the subsystems of working memory
excitatory and inhibitory connections
a neural network is made up of connections that either enhance or diminish the associations between units
associative deficit hypothesis
older adults have a deficiency in creating and retrieving links between single units of information
Korsakoff's syndrome
a form of amnesia typically due to chronic alcoholism combined with thiamine efficiency
disconnection syndrome
amnesiac patients may be able to acquire new information and yet not be aware of the fact that learning has taken place
prospective memory
the intention to remember to do something at some future time
method of vanishing cues
amnesiac participants learned the meaning of computer commands by being presented with definitions of the commands and fragments of the command's names. Additional letters were presented until the participant guessed the word. Then letters were progressively removed until the patient was unable to gibe the name of the command upon being presented with its definition
errorless learning
the subject in a learning situation is allowed only to perform the task correctly to prevent the opportunity of learning to do something incorrectly