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39 Cards in this Set

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In a study, college students performed two tasks simultaneously:
1) read stories silently
2) copy dictated words

at first they had difficulty, but after six weeks of training they could read quickly and well and take dictation legibly at the same time. With even more training the could read and categorize the words dictated.

What is this an example of?
Divided attention
Responding to certain sources of information while ignoring others.
Selective attention
In a study, participants wear headphones and each ear is presented with a different message at the same time. Sometimes participants are asked to pay attention to only one message. What is being studied?
Dichotic listening
Listening to a message and repeating it out loud is an example of what?
Shadowing
In a study of dichotic listening people could answer questions about shadowed or non-shadowed messages more easily and quickly.
Shadowed messages.
In a study on dichotic listening, name an ocurrances where participants did not notice a change in stimuli
When the language changed from English to German
In a study on dichotic listening, name an ocurrances where participants did notice a change in stimuli
When the voice changed from male to female.
In a study, participants must attentd to two or more simultaneous messages, responding to each as needed. This is an example of what?
A divided attention task
multitasking, a.k.a
divided attention task
What is the cocktail party effect?
When participants notice if their name is mentioned in a dichotic listening task, when the name is spoken into the ear they not being shadowed.
What decade was Anne Treisman prominent in?
1960s
Which researcher told participants to shadow one message while it is continued in the opposite ear?
Anne Treisman
In a study where participants were told to shadow a message from one ear while it was suddenly switched with the message in the other ear, and the participants did not notice and continued shadowing a coherent message, what was the conclusion?
There must be processing of meaning to some degree.
What sort of study concluded that there must be processing of meaning to some degree even in the unshadowed ear?
A 1960 Anne Treisman study in which participants were told to shadow one message while it was continued in the other ear.
People take longer to name the color of a stimulus when it is printed as an incongruent color name than when it appears as a solid patch of color. This is known as what?
Strupe effect.
Schizophrenics do worse or better than non-schizophrenics in a strupe task?
Worse
Who was the first researcher to show the Stroop effect?
John Ridley Stroop
Who was John Ridley Stroop?
The first researcher to show the stroop effect.
In a stroop task, who does better, young adults or older adults?
Young adults
People with phobias name the color of ink of words related to things they fear slower than for non-phobia words and slower than people not suffering from the phobia. This is an example of what?
the Emotional Stroop Effect
PDP
Parallel Distributed Processing
In this explanation for the Emotional Strupe Effect, two pathways are activated at the same time.
1) naming colors
2) reading words

They compete for attention resulting in poor performance
Parallel Distributed Processing
In this explanation for the Emotional Stroop Effect, naming colors and reading words are ______ rocesses?
Automatic. Words are more automatic so it interferes with naming colors.
In this theory of attention, we can only process a limited amount of information at a time.
Bottleneck theories
In this theory of attention, the amount of attention used depends on how easy the task is; automatic --> easy & familiar;
Automatic processing
This theory of attention is used on difficult tasks or tasks that use unfamiliar items
Controlled processing
Anne Treisman coined what theory?
Feature Integration Theory
What is the basic premise of Feature Integration Theory?
There is distributed attention and focused attention on a continuum, and we usually lie somewhere in the middle
Distributed attention is similar to what?
Automatic processing
It registers features automatically, we are often unaware of it, and it uses PDP
What is focused attention used for what and is like what?
Complex tasks, serial processing, it is very effortful and it is like controlled processing
What is the feature present / feature absent effect?
A search is faster when looking for a feature that is present than for one is absent.
An innapropriate combination of features, a.k.a
Illusory conjunction
Name two places in the brain thought to be responsible for illusory conjunction:
1) Posterior parietal lobe
2) Anterior frontal lobe
The posterior parietal lobe is responsible for what malfunction in the brain and does what?
Illusory conjunction. It is responsible for visual task searches. People who have brain lesions demonstrate spatial deficit for one half of the visual vield. (Topic from Illusory conjunction!)
What part of the brain is responsible for both illusory conjunction and the stroop effect?
The anterior frontal lobes. They are involved with inhibiting responses to attend to other stimuli. (Stroop effect because you are inhibiting the meaning of words)
brief, immediate memroy where material currently being processed is located. Also coordinates ongoing mental activity
Working memory
In 1956 this researcher published "The magical number seven, + or - 2: some limits on our capacity for processing information
George miller
What is a chunk?
A well learned cognitive unit made up of a small number of components representing a frequently occuring and perceptual pattern (miller)
What is a crack in the classical view of short-term memory?
The capacity of short term memory was found to be affected by more than just the number of chunks of information