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82 Cards in this Set

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What does the principal of cognetive economy say?
we have a definitional hierarchy and we look for the first criterea that clearly puts something into a category.
What is the prototype theory of concepts?
-Concepts represented as central tendecies.
-Concepts are made of features.
-Family resembelence (no single feature necessary.)
-The more shared features= better category member
What are some advantages of prototype theory?
-Explains sentence varification results
(Faster at Robins than Penguins)
-Explains category membership effect.
-membership is graded, not absolute.
-Explains induction results.
(If something is true about a typical member we assume it is true for the group...not the case with atypical members.)
What does the exemplar model of concepts say?

What does exemplar model do well?
-Concepts are a collection of instances.
-Not averaged like prototypes.

-It preserves variablitiy info (we know that rulers are usually 12 inches, but that pizzas vary.)
-Explains contextual influence.(peacocks
how do we create categories? Blunk example...
We say that an unusual one that similar to one example is a blunk at the beggining of training (we use exemplars)
-tend to use prototype model after we have more experience.
What are Piaget's ages and stages of development?
1. sensory-motor intellegence birth-2

2. preoperational 2 to 7 yrs.

3. concrete operations 7-11

4. formal opperations 11+
Piaget's theories about child development...
-children navagate the world and adapt to new info
-develop schemas
-new info interacts with established schemas in one of two ways...
-Assimilation-interpreting events in terms of present schema
-Accomidation-modifying schema to fit reality.
What are the characteristics of the sensory-motor stage?
-everything is transient and disconnected at first.

-develop object permenence. Don't realize that thier actions are irrelevant to whether or not an object exsists.
-A not B error
explain the A not B effect
baby has seen an object hidden underneath a cloth in the same spot a few times. Later the spot is switched, but the baby doesn't look in the new spot.
-piaget says that the baby sees the location as part of the object, so they get confused when it is moved.
What are the charateristics of the pre-opperational stage?
Children unable to connect representations of the world into a coherent whole. Can't- conserve mass, volume or number.
Developed in this stage...
-ability to attend to more than 1 dimension of a situation
-transformations for one event to another-connected
Concrete operations
-able to hold several representations and transform them, but cannot form abstractions.
At the end of the stage they can derive abstractions and test them, and generate and test theorems.
Rejoinders to Piaget: some skills might be innate.

-object permenence Occluded objects.
-depth perception.
-face recognition
-four month olds prefered looking at person with holes in them.

-Kids wouldn't walk off visual cliff after 6 months.
-newborns will turn thier heads further to look at something that looks like a face than a non-face
Juice Problem.

Which juice will taste the most orangy.
3-4 only right if OJ is in One and water in the other.
5-6 judges on the basis of which pitcher has the most OJ in it disregaurding the water.
7-8 accounts for water for the first time. Can tell if one pitcher has more OJ than water (in terms of number) and the other has more water than oj
9-10 takes difference between OJ and w.
What is a theory of mind?
-The ability to represent a representation
-The ability to reason about another's thoughts.
Are there any parts of theory of mind that might be innate?
-face recognition/preference
-Gaze-following
-Joint attentional states
What are two false belief tasks?
Sally Ann task and smartie's pencil task.

-Child has difficulty resoning about others' beliefs as well as thier own.
-start to reason about beliefs at around 4.
some evidence for toddlar theory of mind
-understand that people are happy when they get something they wanted when they are very young.
-Can engage in pretense and decieve starting around age two almost as soon as they can talk.
What is the theory of theory of mind?
-Metarepresentations develop over time.
-all of these other things are precursers to understanding another's feelings.
what are autistic kids like?
-Abnormal social relationships
-impaired language development
-rigid behavior
-lack of imaginination
-repetitive behaviors.
-fail false belief test.
what are we concious of? Dan's theory.
we are conscious of things in thier whole after thier parts are put together (IE word's not phenoms)
-conciousness comes after we reach the level of objects, after we've parced things into objects.
-consciousness occurs at an intermediate level of processing
possibility for two kinds of consciousness.
a-consciousness- consciousness we have access to. Can be used in reasoning and rational action.

P-Consciousness- the ability to feel something without being able to reason or take action about it
Blind sighted Patients..what can they do/not do and what does this tell us?
-can determine motion, location, and direction from guess, can shape hand to grasp an object
-cannot innitiate action towards a stimuli-have to be prompted to guess.
-tells us that consciousness may improve performance and may facilitate intiation of behaviors.
Turing Test
-if you can't tell the difference between a computers answers and a persons's answers does the computer have consciousness? Is that enough for consciousness?
Qualia
The properties of a sensory experience by virtue of which there is something it is like to have them
What does Denet say about Qualia?
That if you know everything about something then it's real to you and you are fully conscious of it. The trick is there is no way you could possibly know everything about something. (no Qualia)
split-brain research spoon
-have severed corpus colosium- so two hemaspheres don't speak to eachother.
-information from one side only goes to opposite hemasphere and does not cross over.
-if the object is on the right side they say that they see a spoon.(the left part of the brain controls langauge.)
-If it's on the right side they say that they didn't see anything, but can pull spoon out of a bag.
split-brain research (scarey picture)
Shown scarey picture on left side. Can't tell what they saw, but they know they are scared Says that they don't like the room or the interview is making them nervous.
-seems like left brain enterperates the physiological emotional response, and then attempts to rationalize it.
-rooster-shovel say they were going to clean the chiken pen. Ex-postfacto rationalization by the left brain.
-left brain seems important as a synthesizer and an interperetor in normals.
Necker cubes
two precepts possible, but you can only be conscious of one at a time. Study the neural correlates of when their consciousness switches.
Sheinberg and Logothetis (1997)
two sets of images, one to each eye. Could only be conscious of one at a time. Paid attention to when thier consciousness switched and what part of thier brain was working.
what areas of the brain seem correlated to consciousness at least with this test?
-Superior temporal suicus (STS)
-Inferior temporal suicus (IT)
-both areas deal with objects and project directly to prefrontal cortex.
What are some Heuristics we depend on when we are attempting to reason in uncertain conditions?
-Recognition Heuristic
-Availability Heuristic
-representativeness Heuristic
what is the recognition Heuristic?
-Recognition Heuristic: If one object is recognized and another is not the recognized object has a higher value. Germans better at judging relative size of san diego and san antonio than Americans, cause they used this
principal. (Works for predicting sports and the stock market)-Turkish students better at predicting British soccor games than were british students.
what is the recognition Heuristic?
-Recognition Heuristic: If one object is recognized and another is not the recognized object has a higher value. Germans better at judging relative size of san diego and san antonio than Americans, cause they used this principal. (Works for predicting sports and the stock market).
Availability Heuristic
In judging event frequency we sample in our minds for instances that are relevant. -easier to come up with words starting with R than 3rd letter R.
-judging gender composition on sample in which one gender was famous and the other wasn't...people overestimate the number of famous gender. Famous people are more salient to us
Availability Heuristic
In judging event frequency we sample in our minds for instances that are relevant. -easier to come up with words starting with R than 3rd letter R.
-judging gender composition on sample in which one gender was famous and the other wasn't...people overestimate the number of famous gender.
Rare events
We over judge the frequency of rare events if they are depicted in the media often, or are more salient to us.
what is a probability? What is a frequency?
p (0.8)=80%
p (0.25)=25%
What is a joint probability?
-The probability of two independent events co-occuring.
p(heads twice in a row)
p(70% freethrower makes two freethrows)
conditional probability
-Probability of A given B
Representativeness heuristic
-A memeber of a category is assumed to have all traits associated with that category.
-This heuristic minimizes the role of individual differences and noise.
-prison guard in video assumed to represent all prison gaurds.
Gambler's Fallacy
assumes that if he's gotten heads six time in a row the 7th time is more likely to be a heads or tails...
-using representativeness heuristic and sample size neglect
Similarity Heuristic
description that was similar to switzerland. People more likely to think it is in switzerland than in Europe, because it is more similar to thier image of switzerland than Europe.
Sample size neglect
-people ignore the fact that we tell them the nice prision guard in the video is atypical, because the representative heuristic is so strong.
Base rate neglect
If people hear that a women with brest cancer will get a positive reading 80% o of the time they will assume that a person with a positive test has an 80% chance of having cancer. They don't consider the fact that there is only a .01 chance of having breast cancer all togther, so only an 8% of having of having breast cancer if you have a positive test.
what makes stats easier to understand for people?
people prefer frequencies to probabilities. Much better at solving problems in the frequency format.
What does Newll and Simon's theory of human problem solving say?
people try to develop a problem space of all of the possible moves.
-people search this space to find the goal state, and then try to make a path to get to the goal state.
how we represent a problem is important
-we are better at understanding the tower of Hanio problem than the Himalayan Tea Ceremony problem even though they are esentially the same task.
Algorithim's vs. Heuristics
-in chess for instance there are approximatily 10 to th 40th possible moves which is more than a computer could do in trillions of years. As such humans must genreally reley on heuristics over algorithims, (a set of systematic rules that would allow us to search the entire problem space), in the interest of efficency.
One Heuristic-Difference reduction
-all moves are designed to get most directly to the goal state. This doesn't always work, because sometimes you have to move away from your goal to get to it more quickly.
-One piece of evidence for this cup problem where in many cases difference reduction actually takes you away from your end goal.
local maximum-minimum
moving away from your goal state to move forward.
Means-End's Heuristic way of dealing with the need to get across country
-compare current state to goal state
-find best opporator to reduce this difference.
-break task down into subgoals.
-create and carry out subgoals until you arrive at your goal state.
-requires finding appropriate operators (Airplanes, Taxis)
One Heuristic-Difference reduction
-all moves are designed to get most directly to the goal state. This doesn't always work, because sometimes you have to move away from your goal to get to it more quickly.
-One eveidence for this cup problem where in many cases difference reduction actually takes you away from your end goal.
how do people locate operators?
Memories for objects have functions (operators) associated with them. Search proceedural memories

-Airplane Schema.
-Parts: Wings, Wheels, Windows.
-Function: Rapidly travels long distances.
What does functional fixidness mean?
We have trouble using an object for a
different function than we usually associate it with, because it doesn't fit in with our schema.
-it's difficult to inhibit proceedural memory
-attach the candle to the wall using a matchbox and thumbtacks.
-tie one string to another given a chair and a wrench.
-takes people a long time to solve these problems because of functional fixidness.
Kohler Canary Island Studies
-found that monkeys seemed to have insight. They stacked boxes and put sticks together to reach bannanas.
-may not really be insightful, or at least more gradual insight. Monkey's played with stuff for 3 years.
Kohler Canary Island Studies
-found that monkeys seemed to have insight. They stacked boxes and put sticks together to reach bannanas.
-may not really be insightful, or at least more gradual insight. Monkey's played with stuff for 3 years.
Paul Schiller's Replication of Kohler:
-monkeys did the same things even when no reward was in sight and none had ever been taught to be rewarded for these tasks.
-Same true of pigeons. They put together a group of behaviors that they already learned for an effect. No quite ah-ha insight.
do experts have better memories or a better representation of the problem space than the rest of us?
-Seems like they have better organizational methods.
-S.F. organized random digits
-Had normal working memory
-used mnemonic associations (running times) and retrevial structures.
-Used chunking with subgrouping. Groups triggered memory of subgroups.
-did average on strings that were not associated with running times.
eye-movements in chess task
novices and chessmasters asked to copy chess pieces from one board to the other.
-After each glance masters put out 4-5 pieces in a tactical grouping.
-novices put out 1-2 pieces.
what do experts seem to do differently from the rest of us?
-chunk in ways that narrow the problem space.
-Can pick out and focus on relivant possibilities rather than all possible.
-they seem to develop what they are good at into a language-like structure with patterns and sub-patterns.
chess pieces= letters
Tactical Grouping= words
whole board- Sentences
Lexicon
-the properties of words
-The sounds of words (phonology)
-The meaning of words (Semantics)
Grammer
The structure of words.
-How they combine together.
-What the combination means.
what is true about languages?
-All languages follow systematic patters or rules for putting words together, and these patterns convey meaning.
-Grammer= the rules.
What did skinner think about language?
-Langauge= a complicated habit
-utterences associated with stimulus.
-Grammer= associations betwen sequences of words.
Skinner on grammer
-Grammer may be a complicated word chain order.
-Associations are built between words orders that we hear.
-These associations constrain the orders that we later produce.
Are grammer and meaning independent?
Chomsky showed that they are with his non-sensical grammaticly correct sentence.
what are some nessisary components of langugage according to Chomsky?
-levels of representation (hierarchy)
-Rules for these representations.
Symbolic approach to languge
-some behaviors look like we've learned a rule.

I wug every day. So yesterday I must have wugged. Wug + ed
Words have syntactic categories
-we store what part of speech a word is and organize them accordingly.
"the"- determinant
"man"-noun
"colorless"-adj
-we also have level of representations by phrases, ie verb or noun clauses.
Grammatical rules permits the productivity of langauge.
-We also subcategorize verbs according to acceptable combinations.
-Because of this structure we can create new sentences, new words, and new sequence of sounds.
what is evidence that we build langauge on the fly using grammer rules.
slips of the tounge occur within a level between objects of the same type.
nouns-nouns -verbs-verbs (Syntatic)
vowels with vowels consinents with consients (phenomic category rule)
-this planning goes on one clause at a time. We don't usually make mistake across clause boundaries.
on-line language comprehension
-listeners and readers don't wait till end of sentence to interpret meaning
-this leads to garden-path sentences where we get hung up on temporary ambiguities.
what are the two theories about the causes of garden-path phenomenon?
-syntactic explination
-minimal attachment
-right association- we prefer to attach the verb to the rightmost node on the tree (object or subject)
-Lexicalist explanation
-we look at the meaning of individual verbs and have expectations.
minimal attachment
minimal attachment predicts that will we understand the simpelist structural information, but this isn't always true. We take context into account.
Referential cue
when there are two possibile interpretations adults use context to make the correct judgement, but kids under 5 do not. They are more dependet on the lexical properties.
-put the frog on the napkin in the box
using verb-bias and referential scene
kids under 8 seem to have a strong lexical/verb preference bias when parsing phrases.
tickle the frog with the feather (instramental bias)
Feel the frog with the feather (equal bias)
Choose the frog with the feather (modifier bias)
Wernicke's Aphasia
output-grammaticly fluent nonsense
impaired understand of content of questions.
content words mostly eliminated
Broca's aphasia
difficulty speaking not understanding
-use almost exclusivly content words
-grammer is lost
where are Broca and Werniki's area?
wernicki's area is where lexicon is controlled from so that explains why thier grammer is still intact, but the meaning is lost.
Broca's area is the structure/grammer area.
what else do we use beyond prototypes and exemplars?
we also consider an object's history...ie the lemon or the marmot.
-we also sometime use a defintional understanding when we need to be percise (dual theory)
-A grandmother is the parents of my dad
false photo tasks
children see a person sitting on a mat and then a picture taken and then see another person sit on the mat. They then ask the child which person was in the picture. Autistic children seem to be better at this task. (Are they taking the prespective the camera better than the perspective of a person)
German Soccor study
Americans were shown pairs of german cities in which they recognized one but not the other.
-They were told that bigger cities were more likely to have soccor teamsm but they completly ignored this info and guessed the cities they recognized were bigger