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38 Cards in this Set

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Question
Ans
aquire knowledge through experience and observation.
Empiricist
use of logical analysis
Rationalist
(Wilhelm Wundt) Identify the basic elements of thought
Structuralism
William James) Believed that psychology should investigate the FUNCTION or purpose of CONSCIOUSNESS rather than its structure
Functionalism
sefulness of knowledge “What can you do with it?”
Pragmatists
learning as a form of association with
other ideas and events in the mind.
Associationism
John Watson, B.F. Skinner) Based on the premise that scientific psychology SHOULD STUDY ONLY OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR
Behaviorism
look at items as a whole (organized structures)
gestalt Psychology
results should apply to naturally occurring behavior
Ecological Validity
Process with no conscious control; Performed in parallel
Automatic Processing
processes requiring conscious control; performed serially.
Controlled Processing
A search involving scanning the environment for particular features
Feature Search
involves using a combination of features to search for items
Conjunction search
Overtime as we become accustom to a stimulus, we pay less attention to the stimulus.
Habituation
becoming accustommed to a particular sensation resulting in not noticing it to as powerfully.
Sensory Adaptation
One form of preconscious processing
Subliminal Perception
demonstration of selective attention. Subjects take longer to name the color when they are distracted by another feature of the stimulus
Stroop Effect
attending to stimuli for a prolonged period of time searching for a target stimulus of interest
Vigilance
Hit, false alarms, misses, correct rejections
Signal-Detection Theory
(PHYSICAL CUES; Pictorial Cues - cues to Depth): are depth or distance cues that can be seen WITH ONE EYE.
Monocular Depth Cues
are clues about distance Retinal Disparitthat one obtains by comparing the differing views of the two eyes.
Binocular Depth Cues
your two eyes send increasingly differing images to your brain as objects approach you. your brain interprets the degree of difference as an indication of distance from you.
Retinal Disparity
your two eyes increasingly turn inward as objects approach you, the brain interprets these musular movements as indidcations of distance from you.
Convergence
Helps us organize and interpret stimuli (enables us to recognize an object as far away or viewed from a different angle)
Perceptual Constancy
we tend to group elements that combine to form a good figure.
LAW OF PRAGNANZ
Whole maybe greater than the sum of its parts.
GESTALT
(data driven processing): Stresses the
importance of the stimulus in pattern recognition.
Bottom-Up Theories
[bottom] (Gibson): suggests we do not needed our previous experience; just the information in the sensory receptors and sensory content.
Direct Perception
comparison of a stimulus to a set of specific pattern that you have stored in memory
Template Theories
more flexible versions of template matching theories.
Prototype Theories
we make discriminations between letters on the basis of a small number of characteristics
Feature Theories
(Biederman): a given view of an object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-D shapes called geons (geometrical ions).
RECOGNITION-BY-COMPONENTS THEORY
This view stresses how a person’s concepts and higher level processing influence pattern recognition
Top-Down (Conceptually driven processing
intelligent perception): Higher order thinking plays a role in perception.
Constructive Perception
the conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of responses by the nervous system
sensation
is an ACTIVE PROCESS. It involves recognizing, identifying, and assigning meaning to stimulus events.
perception
- “Computer Metaphor”
- Humans actively seek information about the world
- Information processed sequentially (serial)
information processing approach