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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Memory for dated events in a person's life. Autobiographical memory is a type of episodic memory
Autobiographical memory
An explanation for the reminiscence bump, which states that memories are better for adolescence and early adulthood because encoding is better during periods of rapid change that are followed by stability
Cognitive hypothesis
The creation of outlandish false memories. Confabulation is associated with damage to the prefrontal, and sometimes temporal, lobes
An event that has important consequences for a person's life. It has been hypothesized that this quality is a characteristic of events that become flahbulb memories
The tendency for people to perceive their basic attitudes and behaviors as remaining fairly consistent over time. This bias can affect people' memory for events in their lives.
Consistency bias
The idea that what people report as memories are constructed by the person based on what actually happened plus additional factors, such as expectations, other knowledge, and other life experiences.
Constructive approach to memory
The tendency for people to see themselves in the best possible light. This bias can affect people's memory for events in their lives.
Egocentric bias
As proposed by Conway, individual events in a person's life that happen on a time scale of minutes or hours.
Event-specific knowledge
Testimony by eyewitnesses to a crime about waht they saw during commission of the crime
Eyewitness testimony
Memories of emotionally charged or especially memorable events that have been claimed to be particularly vivid and accurate.
Flashbulb memories
The misleading information that causes the misinformation effect
Misleading postevent information (MPI)
an explanation for the reminiscence bump, which states that memories are better for adolescence and early adulthood becasue people assume their life identities during that time
Life-narrative hypothesis
as proposed by Conway, events in a person's life that span many years.
Lifetime periods
The explanation of the misinformation effect that states what misleading postevent information impairs or replaces the memories that were formed duringthe original experiencing of an event
Memory impairment hypothesis
Occurs when misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes that event later.
Misinformation effect
the idea that we remember some life events better because we rehearse them. This idea was proposed by Neisser as an explanation for "flashbulb" memories
Narrative rehearsal hypothesis
The tendency for people to perceive that "things are getting better."
Positive-change bias
A term used to refrer to the situation in which memories of traumatic experiences, such as childhood abuse, are recalled after many years during which the person was not aware of these memories. The idea that these memories are "recovered" due to a special mechanism is controversial; many psychologists interpret this effect in terms of normal mechanisms of forgetting and remembering.
Recovered memory
The empirical finding that people over 40 years old have enhanced memory for events from adolesecence and early adulthood, compared to other periods of their lives.
Reminiscence bump
A method of measuring memory in which a person recalls a stimulus on repeated occasions so his or her memory is tested at longer and longer intervals after the original presentation of the material to be remembered
Repeated reproduction
A person's knowledge about what is involved in a pertiular experiance. For example, a person's knowledge about what usually happens when they go to the dentist's office is their "dentist office" schema.
A type of schema. The conception of the sequence of actions that describe a particular activity. For example, the sequence of events that are associated with going to class would be a "going to class" script.
Errors of souce monitoring in which people attribute something they remember to the wrong source.
Source misattribution
the process by which people determine the origins of memories, knowledge, or beliefs. Remembering that you heard about something from a particular person would be an example of source monitoring
Source monitoring
A situation that occurs in which eyewitnesses to a crime tend to focus attention on a weapon, which causes poorer memory for other things that are happening.
Weapons focus