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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A process by which learning can occur in a connectionist network, in which the error signal is transmitted backward through the circuit. This backward-transmitted error signal provides the information needed to adjust the weights in the circuit to achieve the correct output signal for a stimulus
Back propagation
In Rosch's categorization scheme, the level below the superordinate level that would correspond to "table" or "chair" for the superordinate category of "furniture". According to Rosch, the basic level is psychologically special because it is the level above which much information is lost and below which little is gained
Basic level
The process by cwhich objects are placed in categories
Groups of objects that belong together because they belong to the same class of objects, such as "houses," "furniture," or "schools."
Neurons in the temporal lobe that respond best to objects in a specific category
Category-specific neurons
A feature of some semantic network models in which properties of a category that are shared by many members of a category are stored at a higher-level node in the network.
Cognitive economy
A mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions, including memory, reasoning, and using and understanding language.
A network model of mental operation that proposes that concepts are represented in connectionist networks, which are modeled after neural networks.
The type of network proposed by the connectionist approach to the representation of concepts.
Connectionist networks
The idea that we can decide if something is member of a category by determining whether the object meets the definition of the category
Definitional approach to categorization
During learning in a connectionist network, the differenct between the output signal gereated by a particular stimulus and the output that actually represents that stimulus
Error signal
members of a category are judged against exemplars, which are examples of members of the category that the person has encountered in the past
Exemplar approach to categorization
in categorization, members of a category that aperson has experienced in the past
things in a particular category resemble each other in a number of ways. This approach can be contrasted with the definitional approach, which states that an object belongs to a category only if it meets a definite set of criteria
Family resemblance
Disruption of performance due to damage to a system, which occurs only gradually as parts of t he system are damaged. This occurs in some cases of brain damage and also when parts of a connectionist network are damaged
Graceful degradation