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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Right of Way Mnemonic
Generally Anchoring Our Red Tugboat Diligently Minimizes Surge Loads
Red over Red
This boat is dead.
vessel not under command
Red over Green
Sailing machine.
Sailboat not under power
Red over White
Fishing tonight.
fishing boat, not trolling
Green over White
Trawling tonight.
White over White
Short Tug-tow in sight.
< 200m
White over White over White
Long Tug, Tow in sight.
> 200M
Red over Red over Red
Rudder Rubbing Rocks.
Vessel constrained by her draft
White over Red
Pilot Ahead
Pilot boat ahead
Red over White over Red
Red When Restricted.
Vessel Restricted in ability to manouver.
Stern Light:
Yellow over White
My tow line is tight.
Red Right Returning
When proceeding upstream or into port, Red marks are kept on the right.
Green Going Out
When proceeding downstream or out of port, Red marks are kept on the right.
Sound Signal:
One Blast Short *
Away from Port
Turn to Starboard
Sound Signal:
Two Blasts Short **
Turn to Port
Sound Signal

Three in Turn ***
Power Astern
Sound Signal

Blast Quick Five *****
To Stay Alive
(Danger or confusion)
Fog Signal:
Power boat underway
One long blast Q2min _
Fog Signal:
Sailboat, Fishing, Towing, Restricted, Not Under Command
one long blast and two short blasts Q2min _**
Convert from True to Compass
Timid Virgins Make Dull Companions Add Whiskey
Convert from Compass to True
Can Dead Men Voate Twice At Elections
Rule for Handbearing Compass
Do not comopensate for Deviation
Beam Bearings
bearing to marks change more quickly as they approach the Beam. Take them last if possible.
Bearings change as the boat moves. bearings on the beam change faster then off the bow or stern. Closer bearings change faster then distant ones
Angles of Bearings
90 degrees is good, btw 60 - 120 degrees works well.
Basic Fix
first bearing on the slowest changing object - farthest ahead or astern, then the second, faster changing object, then do a check on the first (Average)
Order of Bearings
Take in order of Rate Of Change, slowest changing first.
Forward/Aft then Abeam/Near
Time averaged to the middle of the sequence.
Running Fix
Observe and Plot a LOP. Travel a known Distance and take a second bearing. Advance or Retire the Course. Acurrate Course and Speed Over Ground are needed.
Distance, Speed and Time Calculations
60 x D = SxT
60 D ST gives you your address
Bow and Beam Bearings
Take a bearing of mark @ 45* off bow, then as it passes your beam @ 90* - the Distance to the mark is the same as the Distance that you traveled btw them (reciprocal works to)
Doubling The Angle On The Bow
Take Bearing off the bow 20*, time your passage through a second bearing at 40*.
Distance travelled is equal to the distance from the mark @ the second observation.

Collision Bearings
If you see a vessel on a constant bearing in relation to yourself, YOU ARE ON A COLLISION BEARING. Alter your Course and Speed to let the other vessel know what you are doing.

Action to avoid collisiions

Action by the Give-Way vessel
Take early and substantial action to keep well clear of the Stand-On vessel.

Action by the Stand-On Vessel
Maintain course and speed, unless it becomes apparent that the Give-Way vessel is not taking appropriate action to avoid a colission.

Masthead or Steaming light
White, over the centerline, 225 degrees forward. Seen from ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam.

What are Dayshapes
vessels required to show specila light at night must show special signals during the day. They are black, cylinders, diamonds, balls or cones strung in the rigging.

Sailboats on opposite tacks
Vessel on the PORT Tack is the Give-Way Vessel

Sailboats on the same tack
Vessel to WINDWARD is the Give-Way Vessel

Sailboat on a port tack that cannot determine the other vessels tack
You assume the roll of the Give-Way Vessel
Sailboat vs Powerboat Exceptions:
Overtaking a powerboat. Can't navigate in a narrow channel. In a Traffic Lane. Not Under Command. Restricted Manuvering. Fishing or Trawling. Towing

Define Overtaking
Comming up on a vessel from a direction more then 22.5 degrees abaft her beam. At night you would only be able to see the Stern Light, not the Sidelights

Overtaking vs Crossing
White light only = Overtaking
Sidelight Arc = Crossing
When in doubt, assume you are Overtaking and act accordingly

Overtaking Right of Way
Any vessel Overtaking any other vessel shall keep out of the way of the vessel being Overtaken.

Head-on situation
Vessels meeting Head-on MUST turn to Starboard.

Give-Way vessel should NOT ALTER COURSE TO PORT and cross behind the Stand-on Vessel
Danger Zone
Any vessel approaching you from the area covered by Your Starboard sidelight (dead ahead to 22.5* abaft your beam) is in your Danger Zone.
Vessel Orientation at Night:

Red and Green Off your Beam
Either side, you are crossing in front of another vessel.
Vessel Orientation at Night:

Red to your Portside or Green to Your Starboard
Vessel is going away from you.
Vessel Orientation at Night:

Red off the Starboard Bow
Is a vessel crossing you (and in your Danger Zone) and is a Stand-On vessel. You must keep clear
Conduct in Restricted Visibility

Two situations to avoid!
1 An alteration to Port for a vessel forward of the Beam (except when overtaking)
2 An alteration toward a vessel Abeam or Abaft the Beam.
Rules of the Road Mnemonic:
Nuclear Restrictions Constrain Fishing and Sailing, People Say.
Not under command - Restrained by manuverability - Consrtained by Draft - Fishing - Sailing - Power driven - Seaplanes
When proceeding down a narrow channel, which side should you stay closer too?
As close to as is safe and practical to the starboard side.
What considerations should be taken when manuvering around Anchored or Grounded vessels, Wrecks, Dreges, Tows, Rowboats or Canoes?
Your speed and the effects of Wake and Wash, Suction and Cavitation, and Bank Effect.
What considerations should be taken when manuvering around Shorelines, Docks, Floats or Wetlands; other users of the waterways like Swimmers or Divers.
Your speed and the effects of Wake and Wash, Suction and Cavitation, and Bank Effect.
If a collision bearing remains constant, what should you do?
Take action immediately by changing course enough to allow the other vessel to understand what you are doing.
Lateral Bouy General Lights
Red or Green
Flashing every 4 seconds (Fl)4s
Quick flashing (Q)1s
Lateral Bifurcation Bouy Lights
Red or Green in the Dominant color
Central Channel or Fairway Bouy Lights
White light
Morse Code A - Mo(A)6s
Isolated Danger Bouy Lights
White light
What is the easiest way to remember the light system on Cardinal Bouys?
White flashing lights that match up with a clock face Fl1s for North, Fl6 plus a long (to help count) for South, Fl3 for East and Fl9 for West.
Special Purpose Bouys:
All Yellow
Solid White With Orange Markings
Solid White
- Cautionary, Scientific, Large Vessel Anchorage.
- Information, control, Hazard, Keep Out or swimming.
- Swimming, Diving with a flag
Special Purpose Bouys:
What color Light so they display and how often does it flash?
Yellow lights
One Flash every 4 seconds
EXCEPT Scientific bouys5 Flashed every 20 seconds fl(5)20s
Special Purpose Bouys:
All Yellow
- Cautionary, Scientific, Large Vessel Anchorage.
Special Purpose Bouys:
Solid White With Orange Markings
- Information, control, Hazard, Keep Out or Swimming.
Special Purpose Bouys:
Solid White
- Swimming, Diving with a flag on top.
Special Purpose Bouys:
What is special about Scientific bouys?
They have a different light pattern, Yellow,
5 Flashes every 20 seconds
Special Purpose Bouys:
What color are Information, Control, Hazard, Keep Out or Mooring Bouys?
White with Orange markings.
Special Purpose Bouys:
What shapes do Information, Control, Hazard, Keep Out Bouys display?
Square = Notice
Circle = Control
Diamond = Hazard
Diamond with Cross = Keep Out
Special Purpose Bouys:
What color do Mooring Bouys display?
Orange over White
Name the Points and Inter-Cardinal Points of the Compass and give their direction in degrees
North = 000 or 360 Degrees
North East = 045 Degrees
East = 090 Degrees
South East = 135 Degrees
South = 180 Degrees
South West = 225 Degrees
West = 270 Degrees
north West = 315 Degrees
Proceedure for a Running Fix.
1 - Take a Bearing
2 - Take Bearing #2 @least 40 degrees apart.
3 - 60xD=SxT to find distance along your course.
4 - Advance or Retire the Course until it crosses the second LOP
What precautions should you take when using a Lead Line or a Transit to steer your course?
Diligently and Aggressivly correct your course back to the correct BEARING - don't trust line of sight off the bow "Dead Ahead". Compensate for Current!
Five Steps to Lay Off A Course from a Fix.
1-Draw a line from your Fix to where you want to go.
2- Center hole of protractor over Fix.
3- Square protractor to North on the Chart.
4- Square the protractor and Grid Lines.
5- Read the course in True at the edge of the protractor.