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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the three common methylxanthines?
theophylline, caffeine, theobromine
what are the pharmacological properties of the methylxanthines?
stimulates the CNS, acts on kidney to poduce diuresis, stimulates cardiac muscle, relaxes smooth muscle (especially bronchial muscle)
what is the most profound nd dangerous methylxanthine?
what are some negative effects of CNS stimulation that can occur at high doses of methylxanthines?
respiratory depression via increased sensitivity of medullary centers to CO2. Seizures. Nausea vomiting. Hand tremor (messed up delicate musculature coordination)
what are the main effects of methylxanthines on the cardiovascular system?
decrease in vascular peripheral resistance, cardiac stimulation (note low levels may decrease HR due to increased vagal tone), diuresis, increased cerebrovascular resistance and decrease in cerebral blood flow (responsible for relief of hypertensive headache), and increase in cornonary blood flow via dilation of the coronary arteries under certain conditions.
what are the effects of the methylxanthines on skeletal muscle?
increases capacity for muscular work
what are the secretive effects of methylxanthines?
augments the release of secretory products of exocrine and endocrine tissues thus problems in pt's with peptic ulcers. The exception is the inhibition of secretions from mast cells and other sources of mediators of inflammation
when treating asthma with theophylline, what drug may be added to reduce the necessary dose of theophylline?
a beta 2 adrenergic agonist
besides asthma, what are some other therapeutic actions of the methylxanthines?
treatment of COPD and apnea of preterm infants