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6 Cards in this Set

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Amphetamine/Methamphetamine
Mechanism: release of NE and DA > 5-HT, also alpha and beta adrenergic

Clinical: alertness, anorexia, less fatigue; Used for hypersomnia, cataplexy

Side Effect: sleep onset hallucination, increase BP and HR, rebound depressiond and hypersomnia
Tolerance
Use Niroprusside or alpha blocker for increase BP
Methylphenidate
(Ritalin)
Mechanism: similar to amphetamine

Clinical Use: same as amphetamine, preferred for ADHD, also for hypersomnia
Modafinil
Alternative for hypersomnia
Cocaine
Mechanism: DA, NE, and 5-HT reuptake inhibitor

Clinical use: good local anesthetic

Side Effects: paranoid psychosis (treat with DA antagonist - neuroleptics), convulsions (i.v. diazepam), dysrhythmia
Methyxanthines
-Theophylline
-Caffeine
-Theobromine
Mechanism: (low dose) inhibition of adenosine A1, A2
(high dose) inhibit phosphodiesterase -> less cAMP

Clinical Use: respiratory stimulation in asthma, primary apnea in prematures

Side Effect: Convulsive potential
Nicotine
Mechanism: DA release, cholinergic stimulation at autonomic ganglia and NMJ

Effect: increase respiration, alretness, memory and attention, decrease appetite, increase BP and HR
strong psych dependence
high dose -> CV collaps, muscle weakness, respiratory failure