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44 Cards in this Set

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Gram stain of Group B streptococcus
gram positive cocus
MCC of neonatal meningitis
Group B streptococcus
2nd MCC of neonatal meningitis
E. coli
Gram negative rod
gram stain of E. coli
gram negative rod
pathogen found in soft cheese and hot dogs that is a culprit of neonatal meningitis
Listeria monocytogenes
Gram positive rod
gram stain of Listeria monocytogenes
gram positive rod
gram stain of Niesseria meningitidis
Gram negative diplococcus
located in posterior pharynx
MCC of meningitis in those between 1-18 years of age
Niesseria menigitidis
gram negative diplococcus
MCC of meningitis in those > 18 years of age
Streptococcus pneumonia
gram positive diplococcus
Gram stain of MCC of meningitis in 18+
Gram positive diplococcus
Streptococcus pneumonia
Tabes dorsalis
type of neurosyphilis
involves posterior root ganglia and posterior columns
causes ataxia, loss of vibration sense, absent DTRs
Argyll-Robertson pupil
Most common fungal infection in AIDS
Cryptococcus neoformans
- budding yeasts visible in India ink
Occurs in DKA
causes frontal lobe abscess
spreads from frontal sinuses
Mucor species
Protozoa infection that involves the frontal lobes, contracted by swimming in freshwater lakes
Nagleria fowleri
- meningoencephalitis
Winterbottoms sign
Trypansosomes invade blood and lymphatics early in the disease > initial drainage into posterior cervical lymph nodes producing lymphadenopathy
MCC of death in Trypanosoma gambiense infection
starvation
Disease caused by Taenia solium
Cysticercosis
- helminth/tapeword: cestode
- patient ingest food or water contaminated with eggs
- eggs develop into larval forms that invade the brain producing calcified cysts causing seizures; hydrocephalus
Toxoplasma gondii
causes encephalitis
most common CNS space occupying lesion in AIDS
ring enhancing lesions on CT
Congenital toxoplasmosis produces basal ganglia calcification
Ulnar nerve roots
C8-T1
a patient has fractured the medial epicondyle of their right arm. What is at risk for being damaged?
Ulnar nerve
Ulnar nerve damage produces what findings?
produces claw hand (loss of interosseous muscles)
Radial nerve roots
C5-T1
what type of fracture would endanger the radial nerve?
mid-shaft fracture of the humerus
draping the arm over a park bench
your patient has wrist drop. what nerve have they damaged?
radial nerve
C5-T1
Axillary nerve roots
C5-C6
What type of injuries produces axillary nerve damage?
fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus
anterior dislocations of the shoulder joint
Clinical findings in a patient with axillary nerve damage?
cannot abduct their arm to horizontal position or hold at horizontal position when a downward force is applied to the arm
> paralysis of deltoid muscle
Meidan nerve roots
C6-T1
common peroneal nerve roots
L4-S2
most deficits in common peroneal nerve injury
loss of foot eversion due to weakening of peroneus longus and brevis muscles
loss of foot dorsiflexion due to weakening of the tibialis anterior muscles produces slapping gait/high stepping gait
loss of toe extension due to weakening of extensor digitorum longus and hallucis longus muscles
- plantar flexion with foot drop and inversion of the foot
Erb Duchenne's palsy
brachial plexus lesion involving C5-C6
Waiter's tip deformity
Arcus senilis
most often occurs in elderly
Gray-opaque at the CORNEAL margin (periphery)
cholesterol deposits in corneal stroma
may indicate hypercholestrolemia
Ophthalmia neonatorum
Conjuctivitis in newborn
Pathogenesis: Neisseria gonorhoaea (first week)
Chlamydia trachomatis (second week)
Bacterial conjunctivitis
Purulent conjunctivitis
PAIN with NO blurry vision
cause: S. aureus, S. pneumonia, H. influenza
Viral Conjunctivitis
Watery exudates
Adenovirus: viral cause of pink eye, preauricular lymphadenopathy
HSV-1: keratoconjunctivitis with denderitic ulcers noted with fluroescein staining
Allergic Conjunctivitis
seasonal itching of eyes
Acanthamoeba infections
severe keratoconjunctivitis in patients who do NOT clean their contact lenses properly
Stye
infection of the eyelid most commonly due to S. aureus
Chalazion
Granulomatous inflammation involving the meibomian gland in the eyelid
usually disappear on their own within 2 months
Orbital cellulitis
periorbital redness and swelling that is often secondary to sinusitis
Pathogens: S. pneumonia, H. influenza
CF: fever, proptosis, periorbital swelling, ophthalmoplegia, normal retinal examination
Orbital fractures
most often associated with blunt trauma to the eye that produces an orbital floor fracture
often associated with edema and ecchymoses of the eyelids and periorbital region
vertical diplopia, prolapse of orbital contents into maxillary sinus, damage to infraorbital nerve may occur in severe fracture
Pterygium
actinic damage
(Farmers/sailors)
raised triangular encroachment of thickened conjunctiva on the NASAL side of the conjunctiva
may grow onto cornea
Due to excessive exposure to wind, sun, and sand
Pinguecula
yellow white conjunctival degeneration at the junction of cornea and sclera on the temporal side of the conjunctiva
Does not grow onto the cornea
optic neuritis
inflammation of the optic nerve
causes: MS, methyl poisoning
Blurry vision or loss of vision
may cause optic atrophy