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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
relative concentration of protein and glucose in CSF and plasma
protein: CSF-<45; plasma-6000
glucose: CSF-64; plasma-100
CSF glucose=2/3 blood glucose
inflammation of part of brain or spinal cord; infection located in subarachnoid space (CSF)
meningitis
focal intracranial infection in brain (collection of pus surrounded by capsule)
brain abscess
infection b/t dura mater and arachnoid
subdural empyema
localized infection b/t dura mater and skull or vertebral column
epidural abscess
What can't cross the blood brain barrier?
antibiotics (exception-early in infection/inflammation)
CNS immune response
with inflammation, BBB is breached (at microvascular endothelium-caused by cytokine secrection from macrophages)
serum proteins move in
PMNs (neutrophils) too
T cells and antibiotics can also cross BBB
most common spread of infection
hemtogenous spread-from extracranial foci/retrograde propagation w/in emissary veins
fever, headache, stiff neck, convulsions, drowsiness, coma, positive CSF gram stain test
acute bacterial meningitis
mode of entry into subarachnoid space
blood borne (through vascular endothelium or Choroid plexus-follows nasopharyngeal colonization)
from blood-b/t endothelial cells (disrupted tight junctions)
extension-otitis media, paranasal sinus, through bone
trauma-skull fracture, CSF leak
Haemophilus influenzae
gram negative, pleomorphic bacilli
humans only reservoir-spread by air droplets
fastidious-requires X and V factors (hemin/hematin and NAD/NADPH) for growth
survivors often become deaf
usually spread hematogenously
prophylaxis-vaccinations of Hib (H. flu type B)
grows only on chocolate agar
encapsulated strain more invasive
nonencapsulated strains-cause ear infections
Streptococcus pneumoniae
gram postive lancet shaped diplocccus
a-hemolytic, optichin positive (optichin inhibits its growth)
encapsulated
most frequent cause of adult meningitis (complication of many things)
pili-for attachment, invasion
developing vaccines targeting pili
Neisseria meningitidis overview
gram negative diplococcus, oxidase positive (reagent turns purple)
respiratory transmission
encapsulated
ferments glucose and maltose
13 serotypes-vaccines against A, C, Y, and W-135
causes disease in younger population
pili-attachment to epithelial cells
N. meningitidis pathogenic factors
opa-protein for binding to mucosal surfaces
LOS-prevent complement induced lysis
N. meningitidis growth and selection
not fastidious-grown on blood and chocolate agar (heated blood w/ lysed RBCs)
selection: Thayer-Martin selective agar; VCNT (vancomycin, colistin, nystatin, trimethoprim)
Listeria monocytogenes
gram positive motile rod
food born
mainly immunocompromised, fetal, and maternal death
Streptoccus agalactiae (group B strep)
found in vagina
common cause of disease in newborn-preventable (screening and intrapartum antibiotics)
chronic menigitis
neurological symptoms and sings persist/progress, CSF abnormal >4 weeks
caused by M. tuberculosis, brucellosis, syphilis, lyme disease (slower growth bacteria)
brain abscess
focal infection in brain itself
spread form contiguous source-otitis media, sinusitis dental trauma, etc.
less commonly from distant site
infection must peel dura mater from skull in order to spread in this plane
epidural abscess
infection can easily create space and move w/in this potential space b/t dura mater and arachnoid (membranes held together by outward pressure of brain
subdural empyema
spinal epidural abscess or subdural empyema
in spine, there's an actual epidural space (infection can spread unimpeded here via extension or hematogenously)