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31 Cards in this Set

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What are the sources of blood flow to thre brain?
cartoid and vertebrals
Circle of Willis
at the base of the brain their branches form the Circle of Willis this allow for collateral circualr
brain anureyms happen here
What divides the 2 hemispheres
falx
gyrus
elevated convolutions
superficial lobes
frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
limbic lobe
deeper cerebral structures
ectodermal
CNS orgin of development from the neural tube
anencephaly
fluid filled center of the neural tube persists as teh ventricular system. Failure of
Embryonic Brain Development
five vesicles fromt eh rostral neural tube.. the telencephalon gives rise to teh ceebral hemisphere
First layer of the cerebral hemispheres
no cell bodies but lots of dendrites from pyramidal cells in layer 5
deeper layers
primarily axons- white matter
three types of fibers found in the white matter
association
transverse of commissural
projection
fxn of projection
can carry information directed awaay or toward cerebral cells
Gray matter
superficial aspects of the hemispheres--- owing to the large number of cells
association fibers
white matter- relay info from one area to another and are confined to teh same side... for example- there are 20 assocation areas for vision
commissural fibers
these cross from one hemisphere to the other
corpus callosum major tract
split brain preparation
cut corpus callosum
therapy- limit seizure activity
projection fibers
carries info away from the cerebrum is the pyramidal system
pyramides
axons group together to form pyramids at the medulla where most decussate. cell bodies originate in layer 5 of cortex
fxn of pyramids
control movement
upper motor neurons and may terminate on lower motor neurons and these go to muscles
homunculus adn the pyramidal system
fibers from layer 5 innervate various structures represent as an homunculus
EPS
fibers that influence movement and that don't travel in pyramids
part of this system are the basal ganglia: caudate puamen adn globus pallidus. These are deep cerebral nuclei
parkinson's dx
SN cells degenerate
basal ganglia receive input from the substantia nigra
dopamine is the NT
info to the cerebrum
via sensory fibers
many also decussate
all sensory info goes first to the thalamus. the thalamus is a relay station for sensory info. analysis of visual info is an example
vision
retina> occipital cortex via the optic nerces, chiasm adn lateral geniculare nucleus (thalamus)
cerebellum
small brain
recieves input from vestiblular system, eyes, muscles, adn joints adn coordinates movement.
it COORDINATES but does not INITIATE movements like rnning, talking, typin
LOTS OF GABA
ataxia
associate with lesion of the cerrbellum
brain stem
conssists of midbrain, pons, medulla
looks like spinal cord
medulla merges with cord.- a diffuse network of fibers
RAS- here as well and fibers project to thalamus- contorl consciousness
Lesion of RAS (reticular activating system
coma, temporary or permanent
cranial nerves
exit form the brain stem
9-12- medulla
pons 6-8
midbrain 3-5
level of foramen magnum
medulla and spinal cord merge
cell interior surrounded by fiber tracts
dorsal(sensory) and ventral )motor) roots form spinal nerves