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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the usual defense mechanisms of the CNS?
-Blood brain barrier
-Its central anatomical location
What 3 infections usually present with a CNS specimen?
1. Meningitis
2. Brain abcess
3. Encephalitis
What are the 2 most common causes of meningitis?
1. 2ndary infection disseminated from upper resp tract infection.
2. Trauma
What types of symptoms accompany meningitis?
Severe headache
Stiff neck
What types of WBC counts are seen in bacterial versus viral meningitis?
Bacterial: PMNs

Viral: Lymphocytes
What CSF Glu and Protein levels are seen in bacterial versus viral meningitis?
Bacterial: low glu, high protein

Viral: normal glu, slightly high protein.
What do CSF direct smears and cultures produce for bacterial versus viral meningitis?
Bacterial: positive
Viral: negative - can't grow on artificial media.
What usually causes brain abcesses?
1. Infection somewhere else
2. Skull trauma
What 3 types of infections often are causes of brain abcess?
1. Otitis media
2. Sinusitis
3. Lung infection
Is encephalitis usually bacterial or viral?
What should CSF normally look like?
Clear and straw colored. if cloudy, suspect infection.
What is a CSF specimen ALWAYS?
STAT - these are bad infections.
What do you inoculate a CSF specimen to, and how do you incubate it?
CA, BA, Thioglycollate.
-37'C, CO2 atmosphere.
Should you do a direct smear for a CSF? Why?
Yes - b/c plates take 24 hrs, and there's no normal flora in the CSF.
What 2 STAT direct smears should be done for a CSF specimen?
-Gram stain
-Capsule stain (for Cryptococcus neoformans)
How is CSF processed before inoculating plate media?
Centrifuged because bacteria are usually in low numbers. Then inoculate with the sediment.
What are probable pathogens in Meningitis of newborns?
-Beta strep grp B
-Chryseobacterium meningoseptic.
-E. coli
What are probable pathogens in Meningitis of kids under 5 yrs?
H. influenzae type B
N. meningitidis
S. pneumonia
What are probable pathogens in Meningitis of adults?
Neisseria meningitidis
S. pneumonia
What are 2 common pathogns in brain abcesses?
What 3 parasites cause CNS infections?
-Naegleria fowleri
What yeasts cause CNS infections?
Cryptococcus neoformans.
What molds cause CNS infections?
-Coccidiodes immitis