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114 Cards in this Set

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The core of super's theory: self concept
-self is about purpose
-occupation is the implementation of self concepts
-evolves situationally
-affected by SES
-gets more stable over the life span
-subjective view of themselves and society is the core
Assumptions of super 5
-one one occupation is the only fit
-people differ
-occupational development occurs in stages
-self concept changes over time
-work satisfaction is caused by how much you can implement your self concept into your work
Holland's investigative personality can be described as:
analytical, independent, complex, cautious
Artistic personality: strengths and dislikes:
likes: artistic competencies
dislikes: clerical type jobs
Social Personality:
convincing, social, cooperative, kind, helpful
Enterprising Personality
-confident, assertive. Leadership, interpersonal and persuasive competencies
Congruence (holland)
the match between personality and environment
Differentiation:
the degree of definition of an individual's interests
-the numerical difference between the lowest and highest scores
According to holland un__________ people are likely to have difficulty making career decisions
undifferentiated
Consistency
the relationship between the types: are the types consistent with each other ie. on the same side vs different side of the hexagon
Personality types that are _______ can develop a niche job or something very specific to their interests
inconsistent
3 types of futures in positive uncertainty
1. possible
2. probable
3. preferrable
Krumboltz assumptions of 4 primary determinants of career choice and development:
genetics, environmental conditions and events, instrumental and associative learning experiences, knowledge of task approach skills
Super's self concept:
a person's subjective view of self and society
Certain task skills are particulrly important in career decision making:
settinggoals, clarifying values, predicting future events, generating alternatives and seeking occupational info.
Significant info according to Super
Life roles, Self concept. movement in stages of exploration
The Happenstance Learning Theory (HLT)
is an attempt to explain how and why individuals follow their different paths through life and to describe how counsellors can facilitate that process
Biggest assumptions of planned happenstances
-change
-prepare
-explore
4 propositions of planned happenstance
1- career counselling helps clients learn to take action to achieve more satisfying career and personal lives
2assessments are used to stimulate learning
3generate beneficial unplanned events
4success of counselling is based on success outside of the room
5 personal internal attributes
curiosity
persistence
flexibility
optimism and
risk taking
4 aspects of a post modern world view
1realities are socially constructed
2realities are constituted through language
3 realities are organized and maintained through narratives
4 there is no essential truth
what does it mean that there are no essential truths?
-the individuals sense of self is continually being constructed through discourse
-what individuals accept as real is only real because they collectively agree to name their reality in one particular way
mattering
the degree to which people feel they are important
soler
squarely face client
openness of posture
leaning forward
eye contact
relaxed
please
protecting
listening
expressing interest
acknowledging
supporting encouragment
exchanging appropriate disclosure
multicultural competencies
means that we are all coming from different places: gender, culture, family values and experiences. moveaway from being an experts to cultural workers
ltheory of mind
the ability to attribute mental states, beliefs, intents,desires,pretending,kowledege etc. ton oneself and others and to understand that other have beliefs desires and intentions that are different from ones own
modern age is to _____ ____ _____ as post modern age is to ______ __ _______
seeing is believing, believing is seeing
self efficacy/agency
a persons belief about his or her ability and capability to accomplish a task or deal with the changes in their lives
definition of career counselling
the process in which a counselor works collaboratively to help clients/students clarify, specify and implement and adjust to work related decisions. Also addresses the interaction of work with other life roles
4 core constructs: holland
1.individuals can be described as a combo of 4 types.
2. enviornments can be described as combo of same 6 typss
3. people are attracted by environemtns that are simlar to their type
4.matching oneself to their environment contributes to individual's satisfaction,
holland's 6 types
Realistic (Dad?)
Investigative (Aidi)
Artistic (Lian)
Social (Joanie)
Enterprising (Jay Blue)
Conventional (Adrian)
Holland's convential C type
-organizing
-math
-computation
-responsible and detail oriented
Hollan'ds realistic type
-tools, obbjects machine,
building a nrepairing things
practical
Differentiation (holland)
the numerical difference between the highest and the lowest scores for the 6 types. *having atleast one area of interest that is higher than the rest means interest is crystalized in one area.
Holland's counselling goals (5)
-determine clients codeand characteristics
-find programs of study that match the clients code
-use occupations finder to find gobs that match or are similar to holland's code
-use the leisure activity finder to find matches for client's code
-help client find info about options
Hollands approach is best for these types of clients: 3
-career concerns appear to be limitedto identifying a major, occupation, job or leisure activites,
-people that can self explore (ie. no irrational beliefs or poor self concept)
-those who are in need of assistance at specific choice poaints (ie. declaring a major)
Super's theory assumptions 4
-career development is a life long process
-careers is influenced by self concept
-the skill of making effective career choices depends on having specific decision making knowledge
-career is more than your job. Also concerns other activities that take place in life roles
Super's counselling goals 4
-identify level of career maturity
-analyse self concept and strength it through assessment
-focus on life balance by understanding that career is a combination of many life roles
-identifying interests and values and distributing across life roles
The narrative approach: assumption (constructivist theory)
careers do not unfold, they are constructed by as individuals make choices that express their self conceepts
narrative approach 3 components
vocational personality
life themes
career adaptability
narrative approach: life themes
-unique experience an individual has creates life themes.
-themes may represent a problem that need to be solved
the method used in the narrative approach
uses storytelling to assist individuals with identifying life themes. ie. can you tell me three of your earliest memories.
once themes are identified, occupation becomes the answer to that theme
narrative approach: counselling goals
-make the client aware of significant lifethemes and unresolved problems
-help the client construct a career that facillitates the use of this life theme and help solve the life theme problem
-help the client be more adaptable in the ever changing ways to implement self concept at work.
John krumboltz theory
views the person's career choices and development through the perspective of the repertoire of behaviours he or she has been able to learn
Assumptions of Krumboltz
There are 4 determinants of career development (genetics, environment, learning experiences, and knowledge of task skills
-irrational beliefs are a barrier to career development
--role of counsellor is to help combat irrational beliefs
-people are impacted by positive reinforcement
-uncertainty is ok
counselling goals (Krumboltz) 5
-identify and remove irrational beliefs
-teach descision making
-encourage exploration
-positive reinforcement
-assist client to accept uncertainty as normal "happenstance"
krumboltz 8 steps in the career counselling relationship
define the problem
seek mutual agreement to achieve goals
collect info about alternatives
examine the potential consequences of alternative
evaluate goals
make a choice
generalize decision making process to new problems
studies of the dynamics of unemployment point to the existence of a ____ _____ ______
an emotional roller coaster. it is helpful for clients to acknowledge and normalize these feelings
4 principles of counselling someone with mandated participation
1- encourage open disscusion
2 empathy
3define roles and responsibilities for you and the client
4 walk alongside- communicate their interest in playing a supportive role in the helping process
burnout
mismatch between worker and environment
career informs our ____ _____
social identity
career anchors our lives in _______
purpose
vocation
more than money, it is an investment
what is career?
Constellation of roles played over the course of a lifetime
Paid work
Volunteer and unpaid work
Family roles
Life roles
vocation
is more, much more than simply an income-producing occupation.
3 big career myths
Career is lifelong commitment
Career provides total fulfillment
Career provides a guaranteed future
Career Counsellor goals: 6
Collaborative administration of instruments and facilitating interpretation
Understanding and Using careerinformation systems

Teaching:
Job search strategies, interview skills, writing portfolios,
Facilitating problem solving, decision making and career action plans

Coaching:
nformational interviewing or job shadowing, action plan follow through)

Helping to resolve workplace conflict
indicators of job stress 5
Low self esteem, inadequacy/depression
Low motivation to work/Poor quality of work
Trouble concentrating/absenteeism
Poor work relationships/Poor communications with co-workers
Resentment
burn out occurs frequently in people who do "________work"
people
the cause of burnout maybe
the end result of a gradual process of disillusionment in the quest to derive existential significance from work”
Father of the vocational guidance movement
frank parsons
frank parson's 3 step process
1. clear understanding of yourself
2.knowledge of requirements for success
3. decision making/ true reasoning
true reasoning
decision making
the future of career counselling: what is changing things now
technology, as well as

Global competition
Global economy
Scientific discoveries (commodities, communications, health, resources)
Change in Values ( boomers vs subsequent generations: work, culture, family)
Continuing education/skill building across life-span
Realistic environment:
-makes physical demands on the person
roofing, building, outdoor painting
-may be hazardous
Investigative environment:
-people search for solutions to problems through math and science
-cautious and critical thinking is valued
-probably don’t deal with machines and people as much
The artistic environment:
free and open and encourages personal expression
-can schedule own time
Social environmetn:
-encourages flexibility and understanding
-emphasizes human values
Convential environment:
-organization and planning
-office environment
career development as an instrument of human dignity:
-persistence of unemployment
-ageism, sexism and discrimination
how will career counselors take on expanded roles?
-will become planners, applied behavioral and technologists.
Holland’s stereotypes
peoples impressions and generalizations about work. By studying these, he came up with his 6 types.
(holland) congruence
the relationship between the personality and their environment. the more similar the personality is to the environment, the more congruent the relationship is;
most important of the concepts
(holland) differentiation
the realtionship between and the relative importance of the different types. both people and environments have different levels of differtiation
holland) consistency
the relationship of the types to each other
-how far/ close they are to eachother on the hexagon (as distinguished by line thickness_)
-not a goal of counselling
counselling implications for undifferentiated people:
likely to have difficulty making career decisions
goal of counselling is to help people differentiate
-sometimes more work experience is needed to increase differentiation
identity
the clarity and stability of a person's current and future goasl.
What is a theory:
Logically organized laws or relationships that constitute an explanation for a phenomenon

Provides a foundation to understand and predict behaviour
Provides a consistent perspective on human nature that will help direct and organize info
Holland's core constructs
-6 personality types and environments
-occupational matches to personality
-people and environments make up a combination of the 6 types
-congruency is the most important factor
-differentiation, and consistency are also important points in determining a good occupation
Holland's assumptions
Conflicting occupational roles and goals may result in inconsistent and divergent career patterns
Self knowledge is critical to vocational satisfaction and stability
Occupational homogeneity provides the best route to self-fulfillment and a consistent career pattern
People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles

Behaviour is determined by an interaction between his/her personality and the characteristics of his/her environment
Core constructs within Super's theory
"self-concept", "developmental stages", "recyling", "internal characteristics" like needs, values and interests and "life roles"
assumptions of super's theory
Vocational development occurs in stages
(2)The degree of satisfaction from work is proportional to the degree to you are able to implement self-concept and find adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values, and interests
people differ in their abilities and needs
occupations require a characteristic pattern of traits
through out life, vocational preferences and competencies change
how happy people are with their work depends on how they are able to implement self concept
the career pattern depends on many things, including pervious work experience and SES
life span (super)
summarizes the rainbow of life stags and roles that make up a comprehensive longitudinal picture.
super (internal influences)
-needs
-intelligence
-values
developmental stages (Super 5)
5 stages that influence career choice and development
-not all pass through in the same way at same ages
-skipping a stage can result in difficulties at later stage
Growth stage (super)
1st stage. Self-concept develops through the identification of activities taking place at home and at school
Exploration stage (super)
2nd stage. career exploration and research in part time jobs and leisure activities
Establishment (super)
3rd stage: stabilizing, a person has found an appropriate place to work. Is trying ot establish permanency in this field.
maitenance stage ( super)
4th stage:
do i want to do this for the rest of my life?
if no, go back to exploration and establishment
if yes, maintain good parts of work, and work on bad parts
disengagement
The person experiences a decline in work hours, and new roles replace the work roles
Super's different life roles: 7
child
student
worker
parent
homemaker
leisurite
Recycling
(super)
Re-assessment of career plans results in mini-cycles (e.g. re-entering the exploration stage, etc.)
Not everyone does things at the same time
One may recycle at various stages at any time
Transitions between stages is characterized by “recycling”
counselling goals in super's theory
help explore self concept
find which life stage they are in
the impact self concept has on occupation
create awareness of various roles
super's salience inventory
assesses roles and values in relation to life roles
main point of krumboltz's social learning theory:
individuals make career decisions based primarily on behaviours (actions) and cognitions (thoughts or beliefs)
2 goals of krumboltz's theory:
-increase understanding of what motivates human behaviour
-gaine understanding of how thought processes influence career development
Assumptions of the social learning theory
people can learn new things
interaction with environment infleucens career decisions and behaviours
more experience helps to make better career experiences
Social learning theory Concepts and constructs 4
beliefs about career arise from these 4 things:

genetic endowment,
environmental factors,
instrumental and associative learning experiences,
task approach skills

basically, people are influenced by the way they are socially reinforced
social learning theory ASSUMPTIONS
Client’s cognitive functions provide a model of the world and their relationship to it

Irrational beliefs about work and the self can be a barrier to success

Positive reinforcement and exposure to, or mimicking of positive role models impacts how we generalize our learning outside the initial situation
social learning theory: how to help clients
-postive reinforcement of client behaviours
-be a positive rolemodel
-Clarifying goals

Countering a troublesome belief
E.g. negative self statements

Point out inconsistencies between words and actions

Cognitive rehearsal: Replacing negative thinking with positive thoughts
Self-concept: a person’s subjective view of self & society; the core of Super’s developmental theory
Development of one’s self-concept is based on a variety of factors, which impact career development: (1) development of internal characteristics; (2) external social-economic factors
Five stages of development
Life Roles
Career Maturity/adaptability
super's core constucts
Instrumental Learning Experiences
Associative Learning Experiences
Task Approach Skills
Interactions among genetic endowment, environmental conditions, and learning experiences lead to skills in doing a variety of tasks
Certain task skills are particularly important in career decision making: setting goals, clarifying values, predicting future events, generating alternatives, and seeking occupational information
social learning theory core constructs
The Happenstance Learning Theory (HLT)
Related to Social cognitive learning theory. Is an attempt to explain how and why individuals follow their different paths through life and to describe how counsellors can facilitate that process
Planned happenstance assumptions:
People need to prepare for changing tasks and careers
People should not assume that occupations will remain stable
Exploration will generate chance opportunities for a better life
Diversity of skills enable people to seize opportunities
People can learn to develop attributes and skills that lead to planned happenstance
the goal of career counselling is about a better lifestyle, not just about one career choice
assessments are used to stimulate learning
engage in exploratory behaviours to increase liklihood of positive events
results are dictated by real world success
core constructs of planned happenstance
-help clients integrate chance into their career decisions
-take an active approach to solutions
goals of planned happenstance counselling
-the environment is always evolving
-the individual is always changing
-so, there is no fixed truth
-how individual's perceive the world is based on socially discourse
assumptions of the constructivist theory *very post modern
Barriers-Constraints
to a post-modern counsellor, are stories that constrain a client
ie. people will discredit parts that contradict their story(ie. taken for granted cultural assumptions that play into their truth)
Therapy becomes a collaborative effort in which the therapist works with the client to identify and address the constraints in his or her life

Narrative family therapists map the hidden influences of family, culture, politics, education, and economic forces on what people believe to be true
how therapy addresses barriers and constraints in the Constructionist theory
3 components
Vocational personality
Life themes
Career adaptability
Method of counselling (narrative approach) :
storytelling, identifying themes that emerge and playing them out in terms of work
core constructs: constructionist theory
Realities are socially constructed
People come to understand who they are as part of a life narrative, or story, that brings cohesion and meaningful order to their experiences
How people understand what happens to them in the world and the resulting story they tell about themselves depends on their participation in collective discourses
Realities are constituted through language
There is no essential truth
assumptions constructionist theory
The self is an entity that evolves and transforms from birth to death, not a fixed entity
How individuals understand their worlds is based on socially constructed discourses in which they participate
Individuals can only know the world in ways that their language, co-constructed with others, will allow