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82 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The arytenoid cartilage is found in the -
Larynx
Which condition is associated with loop diuretics and typically requires the patient to take a supplement?
Hypokalemia
An anterior drawer test is performed on the:
Knee
Seldinger technique refers to which type of procedure?
percutaneous insertion of a catheter
Rifampin is used to treat:
Tuberculosis
BRCA-1 is a/an:
gene linked to breast cancer risk
Astrocytomas are found in the:
brain
The Raji cell assay is performed to evaluate:
autoimmune disorders
Sjogren syndrome is a condition of the:
autoimmune system
VRE is treated with which of the following?
Zyvox
___________ hearing loss refers to hearing that is better during loud noise.
Paradoxical
Pityriasis refers to a/an:
seasonal skin rash
The Breslow index is used to classify which of the following?
melanoma
A patient with bronchial asthma might be prescribed:
Vanceril
The azygos vein terminates at what vascular structure?
superior vena cava
The Joint Commission (JCAHO) grants accreditation for a maximum of:
3 years
Which is performed to monitor the progression of disease as well as the efficacy of treatment in AIDS?
CD4
A patient diagnosed with MAC is likely to have what underlying disorder?
HIV/AIDS
A patient who is para 3-1-0-4 has been pregnant at least:
Twice
Which is used to enhance the T1 and T2 signals of an MRI?
spin echo
pCO2 is reported in which of the following units:
Both pO2 and pCO2 are expressions of partial pressure, and pressures are typically measured in millimeters of Mercury.
CD rods are used to treat:
scoliosis
A scintigram is a record of the:
distribution of a radioactive tracer in a tissue or an organ.

A scintigram is used for this purpose. The others are myelogram (B), angiogram (C), and pyelogram (D).
A sialolith is what kind of stone?
salivary
Which of the following is a rare, progressive genetic disorder seen primarily in males in early childhood?
Porokeratosis, or keratoatrophoderma, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the formation of slightly atrophic patches surrounded by an elevated keratotic border.
Aprosopia refers to congenital absence of the:
face
In the condition tardive dyskinesia, the word tardive means:
developing slowly or late-occurring.

Tardive dyskinesia develops over time in patients who have been on long-term antipsychotic medication, and it is characterized by involuntary, jerky movements of the muscles of the face, trunk, jaw, tongue and limbs.
The scalene muscles are located in the:
neck
COX-2 inhibitors are used to treat:
rheumatoid arthritis
The medical term for undescended testicles is:
cryptorchidism
An Esmarch bandage is used to:
exsanguinate a limb before surgery.
Which of the following tests is used to assess the integrity of the peripheral nerves?
NCV
Which of the following would be a normal finding in a person recovering from anemia due to a traumatic bleed?
Reticulocytes are immature red cells. They often appear in the peripheral blood when the marrow is trying to quickly raise the red cell count in the peripheral blood. A high reticulocyte count would be worrisome under normal circumstances, but is a positive sign of recovery for individuals who have recently suffered a low hematocrit. Schistocytes are pieces of red cell membranes; they are often the result of mechanical shredding of red cells caused by a prosthetic heart value or disseminated intravascular coagulation. Sickle cells are the result of an inherited chromosomal defect that alters the shape of hemoglobin. Blasts are extremely immature, undifferentiated white cells.
The physician dictates "ach flu." This slang term refers to:
Haemophilus influenza
Sessile means:
having a broad base of attachment
Which type of blood cell proliferates in the presence of a parasitic infection or allergic response?
eosinophils

Eosinophils will leave the capillaries and enter tissue fluid where they are believed to release enzymes, such as histaminase, that combat the effects of histamine and other mediators of inflammation in allergic reactions. They also phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and are effective against certain parasitic worms.
Which of the following bones does not articulate with any other bone in the axial skeleton?
The hyoid bone is suspended from the styloid processes of the temporal bones by ligaments and muscles. It is located in the neck between the mandible and larynx and provides support to the tongue. All the other bones articulate directly with other bones of the face or skull.
_____________ refers to generalized edema of the entire body.
Anasarca represents an effusion of serum into the subcutaneous cellular substance, often resulting in massive generalized edema.
Necrosis of tissue resulting in the conversion of damaged tissue into a soft, cheesy substance is called:
Caseating tissue is seen in some granulomas of lung tissue, where the inflammatory cells (granuloma) are dry and crumbling, like a soft cheese.
Coccidioidomycosis is a _________ disease.
Fungal

Coccidioides immitis is the fungal culprit that leads to two forms of this disease. The first is self-limited in scope and consists of a respiratory
The term marche à petits pas refers to an abnormality of:
Gait

This term is used to describe the frozen or ataxic gait commonly associated with Parkinson disease.
Four stages of cellular mitosis?
The four stages of cellular mitosis (or cellular division) are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase whereby a single parent cell produces two chromosomally identical daughter cells.
Calcitonin is produced by which gland?
thyroid
Coagulation factor X is also known as the ________ factor.
Stuart

There are 12 coagulation factors (they are named I - XIII, but there is no factor VI). Blood factor X is also known as the Stuart factor or Power factor. Factor IX is known as the Christmas factor, and factor XII is known as the Hageman factor or glass factor.
Which type of leukemia is associated with large numbers of mature lymphocytes in the circulating blood stream and is typically seen in the elderly?
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

AML and ALL are associated with high numbers of circulating immature cells (either myeloblasts or lymphoblasts). CML and CLL are slowly progressive illnesses, the latter found typically in the elderly. All forms of leukemia are treated with chemotherapy to prevent cell division.
The sensation of taste is also known as the ____________ sensation.
gustatory

Olfactory sensations relate to smell and gustatory to the sensation of taste. Deglutitory refers to swallowing, of course, and masticatory to the act of chewing.
The urine of someone with rickets would reflect which of the following levels?
decreased calcium and elevated phosphate
The normal range of urine calcium is 100-250 mg/dL and the normal range of daily phosphate excretion is 0.9-1.3 g/dL. Calcium levels are decreased and phosphate excretion increased in rickets. Lowered calcium levels stimulates parathyroid hormone excess, resulting in renal phosphate loss.
The class of drugs commonly referred to as statins are used to treat:
dyslipidemia.
Which of the following lab values would be consistent with renal failure?
Creatinine 2.0, BUN 49
CT scans use which imaging technology?
X-rays
The prefix ipsi- means:
same.
The piriformis muscle is located
in the pelvic region extending to the thigh.
Transaminitis, a possible side effect of statin therapy, is indicated by:
elevated ALT and AST.
Which of the following tests uses a Bruce protocol?
Exercise stress test
The great saphenous vein runs from:
neck to shoulder

The great saphenous vein, the longest in the body, begins at the medial end of the dorsal venous arch of the foot. It empties into the femoral vein in the groin. The cephalic veins run shoulder to elbow, the small saphenous veins from posterior knee to dorsal foot, and the subclavian from neck to shoulder.
Which of the following is an example of an active (ATP-requiring) mode of transporting substances across the plasma membrane of a cell?
phagocytosis

Osmosis, diffusion, and filtration are all passive processes, whereby substances are moved across the plasma membrane via their own kinetic energy, their compatibility with the permeable characteristics of the plasma wall, or the natural movement from areas of high concentration to low concentration. Only phagocytosis, which requires the pseudopods of the cell to expend energy engulfing the particles and bringing them into the cell, is considered an active transport process.
A short-acting barbiturate given intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia is:
Brevital

Marcaine is an agent used for local, nerve block or spinal anesthesia. Nitrous oxide, Brevital and Versed are all used for the induction of general anesthesia, but only Brevital and Versed are given IV, and of these, only Brevital is a barbiturate.
It is acceptable to use a hyphen between the limits of a range if:
Neither value is accompanied by a symbol.
Wernicke's area of the cerebrum is also known as the:
auditory association area.

There are six association areas of the cerebrum that consist of association tracts. The auditory association area, or Wernicke's area, determines if a sound is speech, music or noise. It also interprets the meaning of speech by translating words into thoughts.
The greater and lesser wings are associated with which structure of the skull?
This bat-shaped structure lies at the middle part of the base of the skull and is called the keystone of the cranial floor because it articulates with all other cranial bones, holding them together.
Hyperventilation, as in oxygen deficiency, pulmonary disease or CVA, can result in:
In respiratory alkalosis pCO2 of arterial blood is decreased (below 35 mmHg). Hyperventilation causes the pH to increase. The kidneys will attempt to compensate, but often having the patient breathe into a paper bag and then rebreathe the exhaled mixture of CO2 and oxygen from the bag.
The suffix -azine identifies a group of generic drugs used to treat:
psychosis

The ending -azine is common to generic phenothiazine antipsychotic drugs, such as chlorpromazine [Thorazine], prochlorperazine [Compazine], and trifluoperazine [Stelazine]. In the case of these three, even the brand retained the identifying suffix.
The scalene muscles are located in the:
neck
The scalene muscles originate on the transverse processes of the third through sixth cervical vertebrae and insert at the first and second ribs. These muscles facilitate flexion/rotation of the neck and assist in inspiration.
Anemia that is due to deficiency of vitamin B12 absorption is called:
pernicious

Pernicious anemia is an inherited autoimmune disorder characterized by a lack of secretion of intrinsic factor in the gastric mucosa. The result is a failure to absorb vitamin B12.
Which of the following abbreviations is not on JCAHO's list of dangerous abbreviations?
b.i.d.

Due to the high probability of misinterpretation, q.d., q.h.s., and cc are all included on the Joint Commission's dangerous abbreviations list, with only q.d. on the minimum list -- items that must be included on each accredited organizations "Do not Use" list. The abbreviation b.i.d. is still considered safe and appropriate for use in documentation.
Which of the following growth factors is responsible for stimulating the development of neutrophils?
G-CSF

Interleukin-5 is responsible for stimulating the development of eosinophils, Interleukin-7 for the development of lymphocytes, and M-CSF (Macrophage Cell Growth Factor) for the development of monocytes and macrophages. It is G-CSF (Granulocyte Cell Growth Factor) that is responsible for neutrophil development.
Which cranial nerve is also known as the hypoglossal cranial nerve?
XII

All of the numbered cranial nerves are also associated with a nominal notation: I - olfactory, II - optic, III - oculomotor, IV - trochlear, V - trigeminal, VI - abducens, VII - facial, VIII - vestibulocochlear, IX - glossopharyngeal, X - vagus, XI - accessory, and XII - hypoglossal.
Which condition, in most cases, is the residual of acute rheumatic fever?
mitral stenosis

Patent ductus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect are both congenital heart defects that are present at birth. Mitral valve prolapse is generally considered an inherited autosomal dominant trait. Mitral stenosis (and sometimes aortic stenosis) occurs most often as a result of rheumatic fever, though symptoms do not usually present until the 30s or 40s.
Patients suffering from bronchospasm are often given mast cell inhibitors (like Intal) to:
prevent the release of histamine
Mast cells, which are contained in connective tissue and are abundant alongside blood vessels, produce histamine and heparin. Mast cell inhibitors prevent the release of heparin during inflammation. These drugs are not used in treating acute attacks but are given for prophylactic effect. Corticosteroids suppress the inflammatory response, bronchodilators relax smooth bronchial muscle, and leukotriene receptor antagonists block the action of leukotrienes.
The hollow interior of a tubular structure (such as the trachea or colon) is called the:
lumen

Only the lumen represents the hollow space created by a tubular organ. The terms mucosa, intima and tunica represent layers of organ structures and not the space created by them.
Serum levels of which substance are elevated in CHF?
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

ANP is produced and stored in the atrial myocardium. Since increased synthesis occurs in response to distention of the atria and increased angiotensin II, ANP levels would be elevated in CHF and other conditions associated with from increased blood volume. Homocysteine elevation is associated with premature development of atherosclerosis and risk of MI, troponin I is increased in myocardial necrosis and is an indicator of MI, and myoglobulin is elevated in instances of skeletal muscle damage, specifically of the heart in an MI.
Lodine is used to treat:
arthritis

Lodine [etodolac] is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic often prescribed to treat the pain associated with arthritis and other joint-related inflammatory processes.
The ciliary body is found in the:
eye
The ciliary body is the thickest portion of the vascular tunic, one of three tunic layers of the wall of the eyeball. It extends from the ora serata to a point just behind the sclerocorneal junction. The ciliar body consists of the ciliray processes and the ciliary muscle.
Which of the following elements found in the human body is considered a trace element?
copper

Copper is present in the body in such minute concentrations that it is considered a trace element. All trace elements together compose about 0.1% of total body mass. Phosphorus, iron, and magnesium are part of a group of elements that together compose approximately 3.9% of total body mass. It is oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen that make up the difference, composing 96% of total body mass.
Which of the following is not a term used to describe the shape of a cell?
stratified

Squamous cells are flattened and scalelike, cuboidal cells are usually cube-shaped in cross section, and columnar cells are tall and cylindrical or somewhat rectangular. The term stratified refers to epithelium composed of stacked layers of cells, typical in areas of the body with a high degree of wear and tear.

This has nothing to do with the shape of the cells themselves.
The pectineus muscle is found in the:
thigh

The pectineus muscle, whose action is in flexing and adducting the thigh, originates on the superior ramus of the pubis and inserts at the pectineal line of the femur, between the lesser trochanter and linea aspera.
The Lee-White method refers to the test for:
clotting time

Clotting time is the time required for a specimen of whole blood, obtained by venipuncture, to coagulate. The standard method for measuring this is the Lee-White method. For bleeding time, the standard testing is performed either via the Duke method or the Ivy method. The tourniquet test, or Rumpel-Leede test, assess capillary fragility and platelet function. Platelet function can also be assessed via platelet aggregation testing.
A fracture caused by weakening of bone due to a disease process is called a/an _________ fracture:
stress

Diseases such as neoplasia, osteomyelitis, osteoporosis and osteomalacia can cause an gradual erosion of bone that weakens it to the point of spontaneous fracture, often without any traumatic correlation. Those fractures are referred to as pathologic, or caused by disease.
Where are Schwann cells found?
peripheral nerve axons

Schwann cells, also called neurolemmocytes, are flattened cells arranged around the axons of nerves in the PNS (peripheral nervous system). They produce myelin sheath around axons of PNS neurons.
Which of the following SSRI medications used to treat depression has a name derived from the Latin word for peace?
Paxil

The drug Paxil derives its name from the Latin pax, meaning peace. Pax Romana refers to the period of peace and tranquility that the Roman empire enjoyed from about 27 B.C. (with Augustus) until A.D. 180 -- the death of Marcus Aurelius.
Ménière syndrome is characterized by a gradual loss of what function?
hearing

Characterized by an increased amount of endolymph that enlarges the membranous labyrinth of the ear, Ménière syndrome can result in fluctuating hearing loss (caused by distortion of the basilar membrane of the cochlea), attacks of vertigo, and roaring tinnitus. Over a period of years, there may be almost total destruction of hearing.
Baby teeth are also called -
deciduous teeth