Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/20

Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
An elevated level of this metabolite in the blood is emerging as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease:
A homocystine
B homocysteine
C homoserine
D cystine
B homocysteine
Homocystine and homocyst(e)ine are often pronounced the same, but homocystine actually represents 2 homocyst(e)ine residues linked by a disulfide bond. Homocyst(e)ine, a metabolic byproduct, readily combines in the blood to form homocystine. This terminology is admittedly confusing, but homocyst(e)ine is the more common laboratory value measured, especially in the context of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. Homocystine levels are measured in the urine to diagnose a rare genetic disorder called homocystinuria, which is characterized by metabolic, neurological, and physical abnormalities.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A Echocardiogram showed severe mitral glanular calcification and mitral stenosis.
B Echocardiogram showed severe mitral annual calcification and mitral stenosis.
C Echocardiogram showed severe mitral annular calcification and mitral stenosis.
D Echocardiogram showed severe mitral granular calcification and mitral stenosis.
C Echocardiogram showed severe mitral annular calcification and mitral stenosis.
Annular (alternate spelling anular), derived from the root word annulus (meaning ring) is the correct term in this context. The mitral valve leaflets are suspended from the fibrous, annular tissue of the myocardium. Mild annular calcification is clinically insignificant. Severe calcification can result in mitral insufficiency, mitral stenosis, and/or conduction delays. You will also encounter the word "annular" in reference to vertebral disks (which are surrounded by a fibrous ring to retain the nucleus pulposus) as well as in reference to ligaments and sphincters.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A A pelvic ultrasound was performed, and the right adnexa were found to be normal.
B The patient and his mother was disappointed by the test results.
C There was 2 fibroids located in the posterior aspect of the fundus.
D Each of the drains were filled with blood.
A A pelvic ultrasound was performed, and the right adnexa were found to be normal.
Answer A shows correct noun-verb agreement because adnexa is the plural form of adnexum and the verb were corresponds to a plural noun. (When referring to adnexa of the uterus, the plural form is always used because the term collectively refers to the fallopian tubes, ovaries and associated ligaments.) Answer B is incorrect because the pronoun each is always singular and requires a singular verb (was). Although it is easy to be distracted by the prepositional phrase of the drains, only the subject determines the verb, not the object of the preposition (drains). Answer C is incorrect because subjects joined by and (the patient and his mother) take a plural verb (were).
LFT is a commonly used abbreviation for:
A liver function's test
B liver function test
C liver function tests
D liver functions test
C liver function tests
There is no single test that adequately evaluates liver function, so any singular reference to liver function testing (e.g. liver function test) would be incorrect. Liver function is assessed using a panel of laboratory values, usually consisting of bilirubin, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and GGT. Additional tests used to assess liver function include total protein, albumin, and prothrombin time. The number of individual tests included in a liver function panel may vary from one laboratory to another.
Excessive body and facial hair in a female, especially in a male pattern of hair growth, is called:
A atrichia
B hirsutism
C albinism
D alopecia
B hirsutism
The term hirsutism is derived from the Latin hirsutus, meaning "shaggy." Alopecia and atrichia are opposites of hirsutism and refer to an absence or loss of hair.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A Recent guidelines recommend taking calcium and magnesium in a 2:1 ratio.
B Recent guidelines recommend taking calcium and magnesium in a 2-1 ratio.
C Recent guidelines recommend taking calcium and magnesium in a 2 to 1 ratio.
D Recent guidelines recommend taking calcium and magnesium in a 2/1 ratio.
A Recent guidelines recommend taking calcium and magnesium in a 2:1 ratio.
The correct format for transcribing a ratio uses a colon. According to the Book of Style, 2nd Edition, page 348, the word "to" or a hyphen may be used in place of the colon when the expression includes words or letters (e.g., I-to-E ratio; myeloid-erythroid ratio).
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A There was a small polyp at the cornual aspect of the uterus of no clinical significance.
B There was a small polyp at the corneal aspect of the uterus of no clinical significance.
C There was a small polyp at the choanal aspect of the uterus of no clinical significance.
D There was a small polyp at the coronal aspect of the uterus of no clinical significance
A There was a small polyp at the cornual aspect of the uterus of no clinical significance.
The correct term in this context is "cornual" which refers to the horn-shaped area of the uterus where the fallopian tube joins with the uterus. "Cornual" is easily confused with "corneal." Both corneal and cornual are derived from the same Latin word cornu meaning hoof or horn. A search of Stedman's Electronic Dictionary shows that all entries of "cornea" or "corneal" refer to the cornea of the eye, reflecting the "hard, horn-like quality" of that part of the eye. A similar search for the word "cornu" or "cornual" reveals all references to describe the "horn-like shape" of anatomical structures.
Which of the following is correct?
A Armor Thyroid 60 mg
B Kay Ciel 20 mg
C Protonics 40 mg
D Xanax 0.5 mg
D Xanax 0.5 mg
Answer A is incorrect because Kay Ciel (potassium chloride) is dispensed in milliequivalents, not milligrams. Protonics, a trademarked name for an orthopedic knee brace, is used incorrectly in this context. The correct spelling is Protonix, a proton-pump inhibitor for the treatment of GERD. Answer D is incorrect because the correct spelling of this thyroid replacement is Armour (with a 'u'). Also note that the usual dosage of Armour Thyroid is 60-120 milligrams compared to Synthroid, which has a typical dosage range of 25-300 micrograms.
Which of the following are measurements of red cell size and hemoglobin concentration?
A SGOT, SGPT
B MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW
C ALT, AST, GGT
D HBc, HBsAg, HBsAb
B MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW
MCV (mean corpuscular volume), MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration), and RDW (red cell distribution width) are referred to as red cell indices. These values give the provider valuable information to determine the type of anemia as well as clues to the cause of certain anemias. A low MCV value indicates the presence microcytes (small cells) and is indicative of microcytic anemia (often due to decreased iron). A high MCV value indicates the presence of macrocytes (large cells) and is often indicative of B12 deficiency (pernicious anemia). MCH and MCHC indicate the amount of hemoglobin contained within any single red cell. A high RDW value indicates a variation in the size of the red cells. High RDW values may be seen post transfusion due to normal-size donor cells and smaller, anemic recipient cells, or during the recovery phase of acute anemia due to larger, less mature red cells being released into the peripheral blood to quickly compensate for a decreased red cell count. Answers B and C are lists of liver enzymes. Answer D is a list of hepatitis B antigens and antibodies (hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B surface antibody).
On transvaginal ultrasound, uterine measurements were reported as 83 x 74 x 43. Which of the following units of measurement are implied?
A mm
B ml
C cm
D inch
A mm
Millimeters is the only possible answer. The uterus could not possibly measure 83 inches (nearly 7 feet!) Likewise, centimeters would be impossible, as 83 cm would correspond to approximately 38 inches (2.54 cm per inch). Milliliters is a measure of volume, which would be reported as a single value, not 3 separate dimensions.
Which of the following is on the JCAHO list of dangerous abbreviations?
A b.i.d.
B t.i.w.
C p.o.
D mL
B t.i.w.
The abbreviation t.i.w. might variously be interpreted as 3 times a week, 3 times a day, or twice a week. The abbreviation t.i.d. stands for the Latin phrase ter in die meaning 3 times in a day, so one might extrapolate the abbreviation t.i.w. to mean 3 times in a week. But technically, there is no such abbreviation as t.i.w. since there is no Latin term meaning "week" which starts with a 'w'. It is not appropriate to mix Latin and English in the same phrase.
The root word cyte means:
A cell
B tumor
C vision
D bladder or sac
A cell
The root word cyte means cell. A common root word for bladder or sac is cyst. A tumor may be indicated by the suffix -oma. The root word opia is often applied to terms relating to vision.
The gastrocnemius muscle is located in the:
A upper leg
B abdomen
C lower leg
D lower arm
C lower leg
Gastrocnemius literally means "belly of the leg." This term would easily be confused as an abdominal muscle if only the root gastro was considered. The combining form cnem derives from the Greek word kneme meaning leg. Other terms using this unusual root word include cnemis (the shin), macrocnemia (enlarged calves), and brachycnemic (having short legs, typically due to proportionally short calves). Interestingly, the hard 'c' sound is pronounced in gastrocnemius, but the 'c' is silent in the other three words listed.
Drugs ending with -gesic are typically prescribed to alleviate:
A pain
B acid indigestion
C vomiting
D diarrhea
A pain
The suffix -gesic (as in analgesic) often designates a drug prescribed to alleviate pain. Examples include Duragesic, Norgesic, and Percogesic.
HCV, HBV, and HAV are:
A measurements of lung volume
B components of a comprehensive metabolic profile
C measurements of ventricular function
D viruses which infect the liver
D viruses which infect the liver
These abbreviations stand for the hepatitis C, hepatitis B and hepatitis A viruses. All of these abbreviations are difficult to hear clearly, as "H" can easily be heard as an "A". The letters B, V and D are usually indistinguishable when dictated, and C and E are often confused as well. The context of the report is critical to determining the correct abbreviation dictated. The abbreviations listed under 8D may also be difficult to hear correctly. HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) is typically dictated "h-b-s-a-g" and HBsAb (hepatitis B surface antibody) is similarly dictated "h-b-s-a-b." A helpful clue is that the other hepatitis viruses are not diagnosed using surface antigens and antibodies. Only hepatitis B has a detectable surface antigen and corresponding antibody (i.e., there is no "h-a-s-a-g" or "h-c-s-a-b").
An advance directive is:
A power of attorney that gives someone decision-making power upon the person's incompetence.
B a provision of law that exempts certain persons from the scope of a regulation or requirement.
C a set of guidelines to identify and forestall incidents that could lead to malpractice.
D an order which specifies what actions should and should not be taken in order to revive a patient.
A power of attorney that gives someone decision-making power upon the person's incompetence.
Answer A refers to a "DNR" or "Do Not Resuscitate" order. Answer B refers to risk management. Answer D is the definition of a "grandfather clause."
The ilium is:
A the third and longest portion of the intestine.
B one of the two terminal branches of the abdominal aorta.
C the part of an organ where the nerves and vessels enter and leave.
D the broad, flaring portion of the hip bone.
D the broad, flaring portion of the hip bone.
The terms ilium (hip bone) and ileum (intestine) are easily confused. Answer A refers to the hilum and answer B is the common iliac artery.
Which of the following terms means (blood) + (protein component) + (disease).
A hematopathy
B hemoglobinopathy
C hyperglobulinemia
D hemoglobinuria
B hemoglobinopathy
Hemo = blood, globin = protein component (the alpha and beta globin chains that together make a hemoglobin molecule), path = disease. The most common hemoglobinopathy is sickle cell disease (a genetic disorder which causes malformation of the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule). Answer A (hemoglobinuria) is incorrect because the suffix -uria refers to the urine (not disease). Answer D (hematopathy) is incorrect because it does not contain a root word referencing the protein component.
The prefix peri- means:
A around, about, near
B inside, within
C without, outside of
D adjacent, alongside, near
A around, about, near
Answer A (adjacent, alongside, near) corresponds to the prefix para-. Answer B (inside, within) corresponds to the prefix intra-. Answer C (without, outside of) corresponds to the prefix extra-. The prefixes para- and peri- are often indistinguishable when dictated, and care must be taken to evaluate the remainder of the word as well as the surrounding context in order to apply the correct prefix.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A Mucous membranes were mildly injected with thick, yellow mucous.
B Mucous membranes were mildly injected with thick-yellow mucus.
C Mucus membranes were mildly injected with thick, yellow mucus.
D Mucous membranes were mildly injected with thick, yellow mucus.
D Mucous membranes were mildly injected with thick, yellow mucus.
This example highlights the difference between the noun form of mucus verses the adjective. Use the adjective form (mucous) to describe the membranes and the noun form (mucus) to refer to the actual substance. Similar noun/adjective pairs include callus/callous and cancellus/cancellous. In this context, the word injected refers to the visible distension of blood vessels, congestion or hyperemia. Answer B is incorrect because thick and yellow should not be hyphenated. The hyphen creates a compound adjective and indicates that "thick" describes "yellow." A comma between adjectives is appropriate when it can be replaced with the word "and" without changing the meaning (e.g., thick and yellow mucus).