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20 Cards in this Set

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The class of drugs commonly referred to as statins are used to treat:
A bacterial infections.
B dyslipidemia.
C hypertension.
D acne.
B dyslipidemia.
The "statin" drugs include lovastatin (Mevacor), atorvastatin (Lipitor), simvastatin (Zocor), pravastatin (Pravachol) and rosuvastatin (Crestor). These medications are used to treat dyslipidemia by reducing LDL cholesterol, the form of cholesterol considered to be most harmful to arteries.
Which of the following lab values would be consistent with renal failure?
A Hemoglobin A1c 4.9
B Creatinine 2.0, BUN 49
C ALT 100, AST 120
D BNP 20
B Creatinine 2.0, BUN 49
Creatinine and BUN are metabolic breakdown products that are eliminated from the body by way of the kidneys. Because they are only excreted through the kidneys, they are ideal for monitoring kidney function. Impaired kidney function reduces clearance of creatinine and BUN; therefore, these levels elevate in the blood. Normal creatinine levels in the blood are quite low, with a normal range of 0.6 to 1.2 mg/dL, and normal BUN values are 5 to 20 mg/dL. Be careful not to confuse creatinine with creatine, which is utilized by muscles for energy.
CT scans use which imaging technology?
A Sound waves
B Gamma rays
C Microwaves
D X-rays
D X-rays
CT (computed tomography) uses x-ray images, taken in thin, progressive "slices" and reconstructed using computer programs to create 3-dimensional images. The word tomography comes from Greek tomos (slice) and graphia (to draw).
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A Her goal in physical therapy is to have decreased pain during ADLs.
B Her goal in physical therapy is to have decreased pain during HDLs.
C Her goal in physical therapy is to have decreased pain during AVLs.
D Her goal of physical therapy is to have decreased pain during ADL's.
A Her goal in physical therapy is to have decreased pain during ADLs.
The abbreviation ADL stands for activities of daily living, important markers of rehabilitative medicine. Remember, it is very difficult to hear the difference between A and H and D and V. Per the Book of Style, use a lowercase 's' without an apostrophe to form the plural of uppercase abbreviations.
Along with other laboratory results, the dictator says "polys 75." The dictator is referring to
A a liver enzyme.
B an amino acid level.
C a triglyceride value.
D a type of white cell.
D a type of white cell.
"Polys" is a common short form of polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMNs), the most common white cell type found in the peripheral blood. This particular white cell has a nucleus that has many (poly) shapes (morpho). The nucleus appears pinched or segmented, similar to a string of sausages, hence the other common name "segs."
The prefix ipsi- means:
A same.
B opposite.
C right.
D left.
A same.
Ipsi- is derived from the Latin ipse which means "same." Ipsilateral, meaning the same side, is a common use of this prefix. (The dilated pupil was ipsilateral to the extradural hematoma and contralateral to the paralyzed limbs.)
Which of the following terms corresponds to the word parts (blood) + (chloride) + (low, decreased)?
A hypochloruria
B hypochloremia
C hypochlorhydria
D hypochondria
B hypochloremia
Hypochloremia, built from the prefix hypo- (low, decreased), the suffix -emia (blood), and the root word chlor (chloride), means decreased chloride ions circulating in the peripheral blood. The suffix -uria, as in hypochloruria, would refer to decreased levels of chloride in the urine. Chlorhydria refers to the acid formed by chloride and hydrogen known as hydrochloric acid. Hypochlorhydria is reduced acid in the stomach.
The piriformis muscle is located
A in the shoulder extending to the upper arm.
B in the pelvic region extending to the thigh.
C in the upper arm extending to the elbow.
D next to the frontal sinuses.
B in the pelvic region extending to the thigh.
The piriformis muscle originates in the pelvic, passes through the sciatic notch and inserts at the greater trochanter. Its action is to rotate the thigh laterally. The muscle is shaped like a pear, thus the name piriformis.
Transaminitis, a possible side effect of statin therapy, is indicated by:
A decreased hemoglobin.
B elevated sedimentation rate.
C elevated ALT and AST.
D elevated WBC.
C elevated ALT and AST.
ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) are enzymes used to transfer amino acids from one molecule to another in key metabolic processes. Elevation of these enzymes may be referred to as "transaminitis."
Fosamax, a bisphosphonate used to treat osteoporosis, is often prescribed at a dose of:
A 70 mg per day.
B 70 mg per month.
C 70 mg per week.
D 7 mg per week.
C 70 mg per week.
Originally prescribed at 10 mg per day for the treatment of osteoporosis, Fosamax was found to be effective at one combined dose of 70 mg per week.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A The patient presents with small vesicles on the back of his right hand and vesical hematuria.
B The patient presents with small vesicals on the back of his right hand and vesical hematuria.
C The patient presents with small vesicles on the back of his right hand and vesicle hematuria.
D The patient presents with small vesicals on the back of his right hand and vesicle hematuria.
A The patient presents with small vesicles on the back of his right hand and vesical hematuria.
Vesicle (with the ending -le) refers to a small, circumscribed, fluid-filled elevation on the skin (blister). Vesical (ending in -al) refers to a bladder, most often the urinary bladder. Vesical hematuria refers to blood in the urine which originated in the bladder.
Which of the following contains a prepositional phrase?
A He asked for either water or milk.
B Dr. Jones, an expert pediatrician, was able to treat the child.
C The lesion on his right upper thigh was biopsied.
D My goodness!
C The lesion on his right upper thigh was biopsied.
The prepositional phrase is on his right upper thigh. Prepositional phrases start with a preposition (e.g. on, to, toward, after, before) and usually end with a noun or pronoun. Prepositional phrases modify (help describe) the noun or the verb.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A Her cervical motion is 50 per cent of normal flexion. She has a positive Sterling test on the right side.
B Her cervical motion is 50% of normal flexion. She has a positive spur ring test on the right side.
C Her cervical motion is 50% of normal flection. She has a positive Spurling's test on the right side.
D Her cervical motion is 50% of normal flexion. She has a positive Spurling test on the right side.
D Her cervical motion is 50% of normal flexion. She has a positive Spurling test on the right side.
The Spurling test is used to assess cervical nerve root impingement. Per the Book of Style, eponyms are not written with an 's (eliminating answer A). Use of the percent symbol (%) is acceptable and typically easier to read. If necessary to spell out, use the combined form percent.
Which of the following is transcribed correctly?
A A CT scan with myelogram was performed. The C6 root sleeves did not fill well.
B A CT scan with myelogram was performed. The C6 route sleeves did not fill well.
C A CT scan with myelogram was performed. The C6 route sleeves did not feel well.
D A CT scan with myelogram was performed. The C6 root sleeves did not feel well.
B A CT scan with myelogram was performed. The C6 route sleeves did not fill well.
The correct spelling denoting the portion of the nerve exiting the spinal column is root. In this study, dye is used to visualize the nerve roots and normally should fill the sheaths of the nerve. The word "feel" is often transcribed erroneously in this context, yet imaging studies cannot show something which is perceived (sounds, feelings, smells).
Which is the correct dose of Synthroid?
A 25 mcg
B 25 g
C 25 mg
D 0.025 mcg
A 25 mcg
Synthroid dosing can be confusing because it may be reported in micrograms or milligrams, although the manufacturer uses microgram units in all their literature. To convert micrograms to milligrams, move the decimal 3 places to the left. Hint: The larger the unit, the smaller the number, so doses reported in milligrams should be decimals.
Which of the following might be a sequela of stroke?
A intention tremor
B retention tremor
C attention tremor
D distention tremor
A intention tremor
Stedman's Medical Dictionary defines an intention tremor as "a tremor that occurs during the performance of precise voluntary movements, caused by disorders of the cerebellum or its connections." The tremor is most notable in the hands and is not present at rest but only when reaching for or grasping an object. Because the disorder originates in the cerebellum, it is sometimes seen following a stroke.
Which of the following tests uses a Bruce protocol?
A Angiogram
B Exercise stress test
C Color Doppler
D MRI of the brain
B Exercise stress test
The Bruce Protocol is used during an electrocardiogram-monitored exercise stress test to outline the progression of speed and elevation of the treadmill to create an increasing exercise load.
Which of the following would correctly denote a prescription for Diovan 80 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg to be taken twice a day?
A Diovan HCT 80 mg/12.5 mg two per day
B Diovan HCT 80/12.5 2 per day.
C Diovan HCl 80 mg/12.5 mg 2 tablets per day
D Diovan HCT 80 mg/12.5 mg 2 per day
B Diovan HCT 80/12.5 2 per day.
Option A is incorrect because numerals that stand out from the surrounding text and serve a functional purpose should not be spelled out. Option C is incorrect because it leaves 2 separate numbers running together (12.5 2 per day) which could be misread as 12.52. Option D is incorrect because HCl is the abbreviation for hydrochloric acid, not hydrochlorothiazide.
Which of the following would best complete this sentence: I would like him to see Dr. Smith for a _______ consultation regarding his postsurgical frequency and nocturia.
A gynecologic
B neurologic
C nephrologic
D urologic
D urologic
The clue in this case is "nocturia" which most often is a condition of the bladder. Although a gynecologist might address frequency and nocturia in a female, this patient is male. A nephrologist is more focused on the function of the kidneys.
The genus Mycobacterium includes:
A parasites which cause pneumonia.
B viruses which cause pneumonia.
C fungi which cause upper respiratory infections.
D the causative agent of tuberculosis.
D the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterial causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). The nomenclature for mycobacteria as well as mycoplasma may be misleading, because the prefix myco means fungus, yet neither mycobacteria nor mycoplasma are fungi. Mycobacteria may also be referred to as acid-fast bacteria (as opposed to gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria). Acid-fast bacteria differ from other bacteria in that they will retain a red dye even when rinsed with acid alcohol. Mycoplasma species share characteristics with fungi and bacteria but are classified as neither. They are considered to be parasites, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, often referred to as "walking pneumonia."