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7 Cards in this Set

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This beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist may be used to treat and prevent asthma attacks in adults and children 4 years of age and older. The drug works directly on the smooth bronchial muscles to open the airways. It is available as a 200-metered actuation inhaler that delivers 59 mcg/actuation, and as a 0.31-mg, 0.63-mg, and 1.25-mg solution for inhalation that is administered via nebulizer. The usual dosage using the inhaler is 2 inhalations every 4-6 hours. Some patients may need only 1 inhalation every 4-6 hours. The usual dosage in adults and children ages 12 and older using the solution for inhalation with a nebulizer is 0.63 mg every 8 hours. Those with severe asthma may require 1.25 mg every 8 hours. The dosage for children ages 6-11 is 0.31 every 8 hours. Side effects may include palpitations, rapid heart rate, chest pain, tremor, and nervousness.
Xopenex (levabuterol)
Used only to prevent asthma attacks in adults and children 12 years of age and older, this medication is available as a 20-mg tablet. The usual dosage is 20 mg twice daily. The most common adverse reaction experienced by patients is headache. Food decreases the absorption of this medication. Therefore, patients should take it on an empty stomach, either 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. It is important that healthcare providers explain to patients that this medication will not be effective in stopping an acute asthma attack.
Accolate (zafirlukast)
This surfactant is indicated for the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. Endogenous lung surfactant, which is often lacking in premature infants, is necessary for effective ventilation. It works by improving gas exchange. The usual dosage is 3 mL/kg body weight at birth, administered through an endotracheal tube every 12 hours for a maximum of 3 doses. The drug is available as 3-mL and 6-mL vials. The most common adverse effects associated with this drug are cyanosis, airway obstruction, bradycardia, and reflux of the surfactant into the endotracheal tube.
Infasurf (calfactant)
Indicated to relieve seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, this second-generation oral histamine H1-antagonist may be used in patients as young as 6 months. It is available as 5-mg and 10-mg tablets, 5-mg and 10-mg chewable tablets, and as a 5-mg/teaspoon banana-grape flavored syrup. The usual dosage of this medication is 5 or 10 mg once daily in adults and children age 6 years and older; the dosage for children ages 2 to 5 years old is 2.5 to 5 mg once daily. Although the dosage in children ages 6 months up to 2 years is 2.5 mg daily, children ages 12 months to 23 months may be given 2.5 mg every 12 hours (for a total daily dosage of 5 mg per day). Side effects that may occur are somnolence and headache.
Zyrtec (cetirizine)
This recombinant DNA-derived medication is used to treat moderate to persistent asthma in patients who have underlying airborne allergies (and who have had a positive reaction to skin tests). It works by inhibiting the binding of IgE to mast cells and basophils - immune system substances that are responsible for propagating allergic reactions. The drug is available as a 150-mg lyophilized powder that must be reconstituted with sterile water for injection before administered. The usual dosage is 150-375 mg injected subcutaneously every 2 to 4 weeks. The most common side effects are irritation at the injection site, viral infections, upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, headache, and pharyngitis.
Xolair (omalizumab)
Classified as an anticholinergic, this medication is indicated to treat bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is available as an 18-mcg capsule that is placed into an inhaler device. The capsules contain a powder that will be inhaled with the use of an inhaler referred to as the "HandiHaler." The capsules are not to be swallowed! The usual dosage is one capsule inhaled daily. Adverse effects may include dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, increased heart rate, and urinary retention.
Spiriva (tiotropium)
This over-the-counter expectorant may be selected by a patient to relieve cough and congestion of a cold. It works by thinning mucus secretions to make coughs more productive. It is available as a 100-mg/5 mL alcohol-free liquid. The usual dosage for adults and children ages 12 and over is 2 to 4 teaspoonfuls every 4 hours. The dosage for children ages 6 to under 12 years is 1-2 teaspoonfuls every 4 hours; and for children ages 2 to under 6 years is ½ -1 teaspoonful every 4 hours. This drug is usually tolerated well; however, nausea and upset stomach have been reported.
Robitussin