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7 Cards in this Set

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A proton pump inhibitor, this medication is prescribed to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which gastric acid flows upward towards the throat. Patients report "heartburn" and a sour-acid taste. In severe cases, in which reflux is frequent, gastric acid begins to erode the lining of the esophagus, resulting in inflammation, ulceration, and pain. A proton pump inhibitor, this medication suppresses gastric acid secretion, thereby allowing the esophageal lining to heal over several weeks. It is available as 20-mg and 40-mg delayed-release tablets. The dosage to treat GERD is 20-40 mg once daily for 4 to 8 weeks. Side effects may include dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation, diarrhea, and dry mouth.
Nexium (esomeprazole)
This antidiarrheal product is available over-the-counter, as well as by prescription. It relieves diarrhea by inhibiting peristaltic activity, resulting in slower movement of contents through the intestine. It is available as 2-mg capsules (prescription only), 2-mg caplets, and as a 1-mg/7.5 mL oral liquid. The usual initial adult dosage is 4 mg, followed by 2 mg after each unformed stool. The maximum total daily prescription dosage is 16 mg/24 hours; the maximum OTC dosage is 8 mg/24 hours. The usual dosage for children ages 6-11 is 2 mg (1 caplet or 3 teaspoonfuls of the liquid) after the first loose stool, followed by 1 mg (½ of a caplet or 1.5 teaspoonfuls) after each loose stool. The maximum dosage is 6 mg for children ages 9-11 years, and 4 mg for children 6-8 years. Side effects rarely occur - some reported include dry mouth, abdominal pain or distension, and dizziness or drowsiness.
Imodium (loperamide)
Classified as a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, this medication is used to prevent nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy or surgery. It is available as a 2-mg/mL injection. The usual adult dosage is 32 mg infused over 15 to 30 minutes before chemotherapy begins. Alternatively, a series of three 0.15-mg/kg doses infused over 15 minutes may be used, the first one given 30 minutes before chemotherapy, followed by the other doses at 4 hours and 8 hours. This dosage is also used for pediatric patients ages 6 months to 18 years. Common side effects include headache, dizziness, musculoskeletal pain, sedation, shivers, fatigue, irritation at the injection site, urinary retention, and fever.
Zofran (ondansetron)
This aspirin derivative is indicated treat mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and ulcers in the lower colon and rectum. The medication relieves symptoms (abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea) by reducing inflammation promoting healing. It is available as 250-mg and 500-mg capsules. The usual dosage is 1 g (two 500-mg tablets or four 250-mg tablets) 4 times daily, up to 8 weeks. This medication is well tolerated. Adverse effects that have been reported are headache, gastrointestinal effects (which may have been confused with symptoms of the disease), and rash.
Pentasa (mesalamine)
This medication is given to patients with partial or complete pancreatic insufficiency to help with digestion. Patients who have this condition may be those with cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis secondary to chronic alcoholism, pancreatic obstruction, or other pancreatic diseases. The medication contains 3 enzymes: lipase, to digest fats, amylase, to digest carbohydrates, and protease, to digest proteins. It is available as 223-mg, 333-mg, and 371-mg capsules. The dosage is individual, depending on the needs of the patient. Adverse effects are usually rare, although allergic reactions have occurred.
Ultrase (amylase/lipase/protease)
This histamine H2-receptor blocker may be used to heal duodenal and gastric ulcers and relieve ulcer pain. It is available by prescription as 150-mg and 300-mg tablets, 25-mg and 150-mg effervescent tablets, 75-mg/5 mL oral syrup, and 25-mg/mL injection. It is also available over-the-counter as a 75-mg tablet. The usual adult dosage to treat active duodenal or gastric ulcers is 150 mg twice daily. It usually takes 2 to 4 weeks of treatment to heal duodenal ulcers, and 4 to 8 weeks for gastric ulcers to heal. Maintenance therapy of 150 mg taken at bedtime may be required after the treatment therapy. The pediatric dosage for children ages 1 month to 16 years is 2-4 mg/kg twice daily up to a maximum of 300 mg/day. The effervescent tablets are not to be swallowed, chewed, or dissolved on the tongue. They must be dissolved in at least 5 mL (1 teaspoonful) of water before ingested. The dissolved tablets may be administered to young children with a dropper. This medication is well tolerated. Some people may experience dizziness, drowsiness, constipation, or diarrhea. This medication is also used to treat gastroesophageal disease, erosive esophagitis, and other hypersecretory conditions.
Zantac (ranitidine)
Considered a safer alternative to laxatives, this stool softener is used to prevent constipation. It may be purchased over-the-counter, and is often prescribed to hospital patients to prevent straining, which could aggravate their condition (especially cardiac patients). The stool softener is available as 50-mg and 100-mg capsules. The usual dosage for adults and children ages 12 years and older is one capsule 3 times daily. For children ages 2-11, the dosage is 1 capsule daily. This medication is well tolerated; adverse effects are rare.
Colace (docusate sodium)