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7 Cards in this Set

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This injectable drug is used to treat anaphylaxis, as well as many other critical conditions. It is available as a 1:1000 aqueous solution. It is also available as a pen-like device that patients use for self-injection when exposed to a known allergen (i.e., peanuts or bee stings). The usual dosage to treat anaphylaxis is 0.3 mL intramuscularly (IM), which may be repeated if severe anaphylaxis persists. Common adverse effects may include palpitations, sweating, nausea, tremor, nervousness, dizziness, headache, dyspnea (shortness of breath).
Adrenalin (epinephrine)
Also know as "tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)," this thrombolytic agent dissolves blood
clots that may result from an acute myocardial infarction (MI). Several controlled studies have
shown a 26% reduction in mortality one month after the MI in patients who were given t-PA
within 3-5 hours after the onset of symptoms.1 It is available as a 2-mg, 20-mg, 50-mg, and
100-mg intravenous powder for solution, and reconstituted with sterile water for injection
before administered to the patient. The usual dosage for patients over 67 kg is 60 mg
intravenously (IV) in the first hour (with 6-10 mg given as a bolus), then 20 mg IV given over
the second hour, and 20 mg IV given over the third hour. Alternatively, a 15-mg bolus may be
given IV, followed by 50 mg IV over 30 minutes, then 35 mg IV over 60 minutes. For patients
less than 67 kg, the dosage is 1.25 mg/kg, with 60% of the dose given in the first hour (with a
bolus of 10%), and 40% of the dose given over the next two hours. Alternatively, a 15-mg
bolus may be given, followed by 0.75 mg/kg over 30 minutes, then .50 mg/kg over 60 minutes.
Adverse effects may include nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and arrhythmias.
Activase (alteplase)
Classified as a beta-2 adrenergic agonist, this bronchodilator works by opening the airways to relieve asthma symptoms. Although it is indicated to treat patients with asthma or exercised-induced asthma, it is also prescribed to treat airway obstruction associated with chronic bronchitis or emphysema. This medication is available as a 90-mcg metered-dose aerosol inhaler, and as a 0.21-mg/mL or 0.42-mg/mL solution. It may also available generically as 2-mg and 4-mg tablets, and as a 2-mg/5 mL syrup. The usual adult dosage to treat asthma is 1-2 puffs every 4-6 hours as needed, or 2.5 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily. Common side effects may include palpitations, tachyarrhythmia, tremor, nervousness, and nausea.
Ventolin (albuterol)
This medication is indicated to treat hypertensive crisis, an emergency condition in which very high blood pressure results in organ dysfunction and damage. The drug is available as a 50-mg powder that must be reconstituted with 3 mL of 5% dextrose solution, then diluted to provide a concentration of 50, 100, or 200 mcg/mL. In addition, the solution must be administered by infusion using a micro-drip or other infusion pump to regulate the dosage and prevent an overdose. The usual initial dosage is 0.25-0.30 mcg/kg infused per minute, followed by increases in the dosage up to 10 mcg/kg per minute or until the desired blood pressure is achieved. A side effect unique to this drug is the production of a cyanide radical generated by the drug. When the cyanide radical levels become elevated, side effects may occur such as methemoglobinemia, thiocyanate accumulation resulting in neurotoxicity, and in general lack of oxygen carried by the blood, resulting in lactic acidosis, and confusion. These side effects usually subside when the infusion is stopped.
Nitropress (nitroprusside)
A benzodiazepine, this drug may be used in the emergency department stop seizures associated with status epilepticus (sustained seizure) or acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It is available as a 5-mg/mL injection; 2-mg, 5-mg, and 10-mg tablets; and 5 mg/5mL and 5 mg/mL oral solution. It is also available in a different brand name as 2.5-mg, 5-mg, 10-mg, 15-mg, and 20-mg rectal gel, contained in unit-dose applicators - used primarily to control refractory seizures. The usual dosage to treat status epilepticus is 5-10 mg intravenously every 10-15 minutes to a total dose of 30 mg, which may be repeated in 2 hours if needed; the usual dosage to treat acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome is 10 mg administered intramuscularly (IM) or intravenously (IV), followed by 5-10 mg IM or IV in 3-4 hours as needed.
Valium (diazepam)
This potent "loop diuretic" is used to treat heart failure and edema (conditions in which blood accumulates in the body's lungs and other tissues). The drug is available as a 10 mg/mL injection; 10 mg/mL and 40 mg/5 mL oral solutions; and 20-mg, 40-mg, and 80-mg tablets. The usual adult dosage is 40 mg injected intravenously slowly over 1-2 minutes. If necessary, the dose may be increased to 80 mg. The pediatric dose is 1 mg/kg injected slowly over 1-2 minutes, with an additional dose of 1 mg/kg two hours later if needed. In less critical situations, the dose may be given orally. The usual adult oral dosage to treat heart failure or edema is 20-80 mg as a single dose. Additional doses may be given in increased increments of 20-40 mg every 6-8 hours until symptoms (i.e., shortness of breath and swelling of the ankles) subside. The usual pediatric dosage is 2 mg/kg administered orally as a single dose. Additional doses may be given in increased increments of 1-2 mg/kg every 6-8 hours to a maximum of 6 mg/kg. Some side effects of this drug are fluid and electrolyte depletion (which can lead to arrhythmias), tinnitus (ringing in the ears), nausea, hyperglycemia, and dizziness. This drug is usually given in the morning or early in the day to avoid excessive urination over night, which would interrupt the patient's sleep.
Lasix (furosemide)
The syrup is used to induce vomiting in acute poisoning. It is available as a 70-mg/mL oral syrup in 30-mL bottles. The usual adult dosage is 30 mL (the entire bottle) followed by 200-300 mL (7-10 ounces) of water or clear liquid. The usual dosage in children ages 1-12 years is 15 mL, and the dosage in children ages 6-12 months is 5 mL, followed by water or clear liquid. If vomiting has not occurred within 30 minutes, a second dose should be given. Milk should be avoided, which may reduce the effectiveness of this drug. Side effects are unusual when 30 mL or less is used, however, if vomiting does not occur, and this drug is absorbed, side effects may occur, such as drowsiness, protracted vomiting, and diarrhea.
Ipecac (generic name only)