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7 Cards in this Set

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This first-generation antihistamine is often used in combination with corticosteroids to relieve and prevent severe symptoms of an allergic reaction. It is considered one of the most potent of the sedating antihistamine class. Although it is available over-the-counter and marketed for allergies, it is also typically prescribed to prevent symptoms such as hives, swelling, and itching associated with poison ivy and bee stings, or respiratory symptoms due to cat or pollen allergies. The usual dosage is 25 - 50 mg every 4 - 6 hours in adults and children age 12 years and older; 12.5 - 25 mg every 4 - 6 hours in children age 6 up to age 12, and 6.25 - 12.5 mg every 4-6 hours in children age 2 up to age 6. This medication is available as 25-mg capsules and tablets, 12.5-mg/5 ml oral syrup, and 50-mg/ml injection. Somnolence is the most significant side effect of this drug, which is why it is often used also as a sleep aid.
Benadryl (diphenhydramine)
This immunological agent (monoclonal antibody) is indicated to induce and maintain remission of Crohn's disease. It is also used in combination with methotrexate to reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Available as a 100-mg lyophilized powder for injection, the powder must be reconstituted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride for injection, and administered immediately to the patient. The usual dosage to treat active Crohn's disease is 5 mg/kg intravenously, followed by the same dose 2 and 6 weeks later, then every 8 weeks. The dosage may be increased to 10 mg/kg in patients who do not respond to the 5 mg/kg dosage. The usual dosage to treat rheumatoid arthritis is 3 mg/kg intravenously, followed by the same dosage 2 and 6 weeks later, then every 8 weeks. The most common side effects are abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Serious but less common side effects may include a drug induced lupus-like syndrome and infections, particularly tuberculosis. Heart failure may become worse in patients with existing heart failure.
Remicade (infliximab)
To be effective in controlling nasal allergy symptoms, this corticosteroid nasal spray must be used every day. It is available as a 16-g bottle that provides 120 actuations (sprays), containing 50 mcg/actuation. The initial dosage is two sprays in each nostril (total of 200 mcg) once daily or one spray in each nostril twice daily. The maintenance dosage is one spray in each nostril (100 mcg) once daily. This nasal spray is generally well tolerated. Common side effects are headache, pharyngitis, epistaxis (nose bleeds), nasal irritation, and cough.
Flonase (fluticasone)
A long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist, this orally inhaled bronchodilator is prescribed to prevent asthma attacks and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unlike its shorter acting beta2-adrenergic agonist cousins, this inhaler is not effective in stopping an asthma attack because its onset of action is too long. However, it may be used to prevent exercise-induced asthma attacks if taken at least 30 - 60 minutes before exercise. This medication is available as an orally administered aerosol inhaler and as an orally administered "diskus" inhaler, which provides a powder for inhalation. The aerosol is available as a 13-g container that provides 120 metered actuations, and as a 6.5-g container, providing 60 actuations. Each actuation delivers 25 mcg. The diskus inhaler contains 60 doses of powder for inhalation which delivers 50 mcg. The usual maintenance dosage in patients with asthma or COPD using the aerosol inhaler is 2 inhalations every 12 hours (morning and evening). The usual dosage using the diskus inhaler is one inhalation every 12 hours (morning and evening). Patients who use this medication before exercising (and not on daily basis) may take their dose (2 inhalations of the aerosol or one inhalation of the disk us powder) 30 - 60 minutes before exercising. Side effects may include throat irritation, headache, dizziness, and tremor. Exacerbation of asthma may occur in African American patients.
Serevent (salmeterol xinofoate)
Classified as an immunological agent, this medication is used to reduce the frequency and severity of infections associated with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited disorder of the immune system that affects phagocytes (the white blood cells that engulf and kill invading micro-organisms). It is also used to delay the progression of malignant osteopetrosis, a congenital condition in which the bones become very dense. This medication is available as 100-mcg/0.5 ml solution for subcutaneous injection. The usual dosage to treat CGD or malignant oseopetrosis is 50 mcg/m2. Common adverse effects are fever, headache, rash, nausea, diarrhea, muscle pain, fatigue, and pain at the injection site.
Actimmune (interferon Gamma -1B)
This leukotriene inhibitor is indicated to prevent asthma in adults and children ages 12 years and older. It is also used to relieve symptoms of seasonal rhinitis in adults and children ages 2 years and older. It is available as a 10-mg film-coated tablet, 5-mg chewable tablet, 4-mg chewable tablet, and as a packet containing 4 mg of oral granules. This medication is taken once daily in the evening. The usual dosage for adults and children ages 15 years and older is one 10-mg tablet daily; for children ages 6-14 years, one 5-mg chewable tablet daily; for children ages 2-5, one 4-mg chewable tablet daily; and for children 12-23 months, one 4-mg packet of the granules administered directly in the mouth or mixed with food. This medication is well tolerated. Headache, cough and flu symptoms were reported, but were similar to placebo in clinical trials.
Singulair (montelukast)
You may see this orally administered aerosolized corticosteroid inhaler prescribed to prevent asthma attacks. It is not used to stop an asthma attack. Unlike bronchodilators that open the airways, corticosteroids help prevent asthma attacks by preventing allergic triggers of asthma attacks and by reducing inflammation and secretions that can clog the airways. It is available as a 20-gram canister, delivering 240 actuations, each actuation providing 100 mcg. The usual adult dosage is 2 inhalation (200 mcg) 3-4 times daily or 4 inhalations twice daily, up to 16 inhalations (1600 mcg) daily. The dosage for children ages 6 to 12 years is one or two inhalations 3-4 times daily or two to four inhalations twice daily, up to 1200 mcg daily. The most common side effects are sinusitis, pharyngitis, headache, flu syndrome, and back pain.
Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide)