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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Communication
process of acting on information
Human communication
process of making sense out of the world and attempting to shar that sense with others, verbally and nonverbally
Effective Communication***
1. Be Understood
2. Achieve its Intended Effect
3. Be Ethical
Models of Communication
1. Action: Message transfer
2. Interaction: Message exchange
3. Transaction: Message creation
Five Characteristics of Communication
1. Inescapable
2. Irreversable
3. Complicated
4. Emphasizes Content and Relationships
5. Governed by Rules
Content Aspect**
Part of message tha focuses on new information, ideas, suggested action that the communicator wants to share:: what is said
Relationship Aspect**
The aspect of communication that offers cues about emotions, controls the speaker:: how something is said
Communication Principals
1. Aware of Comm. with yourself and others
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
3. Effectively use and interpret nonverbal messages
4. Listen and respond thoughtfully
5. Appropriately adapt to messages
Asynchronus vs. Synchronus
ie. email vs. phone
Listening Process**
1. Selecting
2. Attending
3. Understanding
4. Remembering
5. Responding
Listening Goals
1. To enjoy
2. To learn
3. To evaluate
4. To empathize
Listening Barriers**
1. Self barriers
2. Information-processing barriers
3. Context barriers
Skills to Improve Listening**
1. Stop: Turn off competing messages
2. Look: Observe nonverbal cues
3. Listen: Understand both details and major ideas
Responding skills**
1. Be descriptive
2. Be timely
3. Be brief
4. Be useful
Four Methods of Speech Delivery**
1. Manuscript
2. Memorized
3. Extemporaneous
4. Impromptu
Effective Word Structures**
1. Concrete: object or action
2. Unbiased: not descriminatory
3. Vivid: add color and interest
4. Simple: known to all
5. Correct: gramatically, etc.
Delivery: Verbal and Non-Verbal Characteristics**
Pitch, rate, cadence, drama
and
Eye-contact, movement, gestures, posture, expression
Groups vs. Teams
3-15 people with: a common theme -VERSUS- a coordinated group with a common goal
Roles in Group Communication**
1. Task roles: helps accomplish work
2. Social role: managing group climate
3. Individual role: focuses on one person
Norms**
standards that say what is appropriate for a group
Status**
An individuals importance in a group
Power**
An individuals ability to influence behaviour
Ways to obtain power
1. Legitimate: voted
2. Referent: from being liked
3. Expert: from having expertise
4. Reward: ability to provide incentives
5. Coercive: being able to punish others
Cohesiveness
Talk about we, and goals, celebrate successes
Phases of Group Development**
1. Orientation
2. Conflict
3. Emergence
4. Reinforcement
Team Structure vs. Interaction
the way a team is organized -VS- the give and take diologue
Reflective Thinking
1. Indentify
2. Analyze
3. Generate
4. Select solution
Groupthink vs. Consensus**
Groupthink: agreement when an idea is unchallenged, a false consensus
Consensus: an agreement that all memeber acutally support
Leadership Approaches**
1. Trait: specific qualities
2. Functional: focuses on the key task
3. Styles approach: authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire
4. Situational: bases leadershp on how the group is running
5. Transformational: shaping the group through quality relationships
Styles of leadership**
Authoritarian: controlling
Democratic: asks for input and reacts
Laissez-faire: only leads when asked
Meeting Structure**
1. Determine Goals
2. What needs to be discussed to achieve them
3. Organize the agenda
Managing interactions**
writing before speaking, nominal group technique, or silent brainstorming
Keys for visual aids**
right, easy to see, simple, polished...need to rehearse, use eye contact, explain, time, no passing, handouts with caution, thoughtful
Informative speech keys
Clear: simple and even paced
Interesting: reveals interest, supporting material, well worded, visual aids
Memorable: motive, redundant, verbal and nonverbal reinforcement