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139 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
rostral
toward the head
caudal
toward the tail
dorsal
twoard the backa
ventral
toward the stomach
medial
toward the midline (center)
lateral
toward the outside
superior (=cephalic)
toward the top
inferior
toward the lower structure
superficial
toward the surface
deep
toward the center
proximal
toward the trunk
distal
away from the trunk
ipsilateral
on the same side
contralateral
on the opposite side
terms are____
relative. if standing upside down then rostral is down
sagittal divides the brain into
right and left side
mid-sagittal divides the brain into
two symmetrical halves
parasagittal is parallel to
sagittal plane
fronta (coronal) is parallel to
the long axis of the body and perpendicular to the sagittal plane.
frontal divides the brain into
front and back part
transerse (axial) is perpedicular to
the long axis of hte body
transverse separates the brain into
uppper and lower parts.
definition of peripheral nervous system
any neuron or nerve cell process located outside the bony confines of the skull and vertebral column.
what four things does the pns include
1. 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
2. 31 pairs of spinal nerves
3. dorsal root ganglia and peripheral branches
4. portions of the autonomic nervous system
what is the job of the cranial nerves
sensing info and moving structure
what is the job of the spinal nerves
has to do with moving
ganglia
masses of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS (cf. basal ganglia)
nerve
a bundle of axons; a collection of nerve fibers. communicates info between the CNS and the outer body. called a tract in the CNS
two divisions of the pns
1. somatic
2. visceral
somatic division
carries information to/from muscles and skeletal framework
visceral division (autonomic NS) 3 characteristics
1. carries info to/from the internal organs.
2. parasympathetic- controls normal function, naintains internal environment of body.
3. sympathetic NS- initiates unusual response in stressful situation.(getting nervous when called on)
what are the two types of fibers found in both divisions
1. afferent (sensory) carry information away from the given structure (usually toward the cns)
2. efferent (motor) carry impulses to the given structure (usually away from the CNS)
how many pairs of spinal nerves are found in the PNS
31 pairs
three characteristics of cranial nerves of PNS
1. comes out from rostral (CN1) to caudal (CNXII) according to the order to enter
2. some carry both afferent and efferent fibers; other carry only effernt fibers.
3. innervates the head and neck area
CN 1
olfactory -smell
CN II
Optic- visual
CN III
oculomotor- eye movenent
CN IV
trochlear -eye movement
CN V
trigeminal- sensory input to the face
CN VI
abducens- eye movement
CN VII
facial- muscles of facial expression
CN VIII
auditory vestibular- hearing/ balance
CN IX
glossopharyngeal- tongue/pharynx
CN X
vagus- respiration, heart rate, voice
CN XI
spinal accessory- neck muscle
CN XII
hypoglossal- motor to tongue
in the spinal cord, where is gray matter found and where is white matter found? why would this be confusing
gray matter in the center, white matter outside. confusing because this is opposite from what we learned about the cortex
what is another name for tracts of the CNS
funiculi
what are tracts or funiculi? what color is the matter they are surrouded by
myelinated fiber tracts- surrounded by a white fatty tissue which allows it to carry info very quickly
what are the three divisions of the funiculi in the cns
1. posterior funiculi (posterior columns)
2. lateral funiculi
3. anterior funiculi
what are the two divisions of the gray matter in the spinal cord
1. dorsal (posterior) horns
2. ventral (anterior) horns
which of hte horns in the spinal cord deal with afferent fibers and which deal with efferent fibers
afferent fibers come in through dorsal horns. efferent fibers go out of the ventral horns
with sensory and motor information which of the two gets sent in and which gets sent out
sensory info comes into-toward the brain. motor info goes out as a message from the brain-telling the body what to do
what kind of info does the spinal cord send
transmits sensory and motor info to/from the brain
what is the spinal cord also involved with that the brain is not
reflexes
what is the spinal cord protected by
vertebral column
in the spinal cord, sensory neurons receive infor from
sensory fibers
in the spinal cord, motor neurons sent info to
outside
in the spinal cord interneurons do waht?
interconnect other neurons
what type of substance is found int he center of the spinal cord in the central gray area and what is the name for the central portion of the spinal cord
fluid is found in the center of the spinal cord. the central portion of the spinal cord is called the central canal
what is the name of the outer vesicle of the brain
telencephalon
describe the cerebral surface of the brain
folded and convoluted
what is a gyrus (gyri)
ridge. holes in between the confoluted structures
what is a sulcus (sulci)
a groove b/t ridges
what is a fissure
a particularly deep sulcus
what is the area of the brain when stretched
brain is folded and convoluted to increase total cortical area to 2.5 ft squared when stretched
list the four major sulci that divide each hemisphere into 5 lobes
1. central sulcus
2. lateral sulcus
3. parietooccipital sulcus
4. cingulate sulcus
what are two other names for the central sulcus and how does it divide the brain
1. sulcus of rolando
2. rolandic fissure

divides the brain into front and back lobes
what are two other names for the lateral sulcus?
1. fissure of sylvius
2. sylvian fissure
where does the parietooccipital sulcus run and can you see it from the outside
runs more medially and it is hard to see from outside
where does the cingulate sulcus run and can you see it from outside
runs medially. cannnot see it from outside
what are the four major lobes of the brain
1. frontal
2. parietal
3. temporal
4. occipital
what is the name for another lobe of the brain that is not necessarily one of the major ones
limbic lobe
the frontal lobe extends from the anterior tip of the brain to the ________ posteriorly
central sulcus
the f. lobe extends to the _____ inferiorly
lateral sulcus
f. lobe extends to the ___________ medially
cingulate sulcus
list the four major gyri of the f. lobe
1. precentral gyrus
2.3.4. superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri
where are the s.m.i frontal gyri positioned compared to the precentral gyrus
roughly perpendicular to the precentral gyrus
list the three pares of the inferior frontal gyrus and which one(s) are imp. for speech
1. orbital part
2. opercular part
3. triangular part

opercular and triangular are imp for speech
how is the precentral gyrus imp? what is it responsible for
considered as the primary motor cortex. responsible for initiation of voluntary movement
what is contained in the areas anterior to the primary motor cortex and what are they involved with
contains the premotor and supplementary motor cortex. involved in the initiation of voluntary movements (including planning)
what is the Broca's area and how is it imp
the opercular and triangular parts of the inferior frontal gyrus of one hemisphere (usually the left). important in the production of written and spoken language
what is the name of the remainder of the frontal lobe? and what is it responsible for
prefrontal cortex is responsible for personality, insight and foresight
the parietal lobe starts posterior to the _____ and runs to _______ inferiorly
central sulcus, lateral sulcus
the parietal lobe runs to the ____________ posteriorly
poarietooccipital sulcus
what are the 4 important structures of the parietal lobe
1. postcentral gyrus
2. postcentral sulcus
3. superior parietal lobule
4. inferior parietal lobule
what is the inferior parietal lobuel composed of
1. supramarginal gyrus
2. angular gyrus
what does the postcentral gyrus contain and what is it responsible for
contains the primary somotosensory cortex. is responsible for initail cortical processing of tactile and proprioceptive information (sense of position)
what is the name of the structure in the parietal lobe that is important for comprehension of langage
inferior parietal lobule
what is the remainder of the parietal lobe involved with
involved with spatial orientation and perception
the temporal lobe is superiorly bored by the _______ and inferiorly runs to the _________
lateral sulcus, base of hte brain
what are the six important structures of the temporal lobe
superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and sulci
what is the primary auditory cortex
small area in the superior temporal gyrus
what is another name for the superior temporal gyrus
heschl's gyrus
what is Wernicke's and what is it responsible for
the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of one hemisphere (ususally the left). comprehension of language
the occipital lobe occupies the _____portion of the brain
posterior
three important structures of the occipital lobe
1. calcarine sulcus
2. cuneus
3. lingual gyrus
what is the primary visual cortex
contained in the walls of the calcarine sulcus
what is the reaminder of the lobe and what is it involved with
visual association cortex is involved in higher order processing of visual information.
where is the limbic lobe found
medially
what two gyri is the limbic lobe mostly composed of
the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri
what are two other structures that are part of the limbic system but not part of the limbic lobe
1. uncus
2. hippocampus
what is hippocampus involved with
memory
what is the limbic system imp for
imp in emotional responses, drive- related behavior, learning, and memory
which nervous system is the basal ganglia found
cns
what is the basal ganglia imp for
motor activity
what is the basal ganglia
a group of nuclei that form part of each hemisphere
list the three main components
-caudate nucleus
-Lenticular nucleus (composed of)
-globus Pallidus
-putamen
basal ganglia is separtated fromthe _______ by the _______
thalamus, internal capsule
what is the diencephalon often refered to as? what percentage of the brain is the diencephalon
in between brain. 2% of human brain
what are the 4 structures of the diencephalon
1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
3. epithalamus
4. Subthalamus
what is the thalamus
a mass of nuclei
how many thalamus are in the brain
1 in each hemisphere
what is the thalamus connected by
connected by massa intermedia (not present in all brains)
the thalamus is connected to the ______ via _______
third ventricle, stria medullaris
functionally, the thalamus acts as a
major relay station
no sensory information with the exception of olfactory information reaches the _______ with out processing in the________
cerebral cortex, thalamic nuclei
where is the hypothalamus related to the thalamus
sits below the thalamus
functionally the hypothalamus is
important in the regulation of emotions, and vital functions such as hunger, thirst.
the hypothalamus also regulates the
autonomic nervous system (the major visceral control center of the brain)
what is the midline structure of the epithalamus
pineal gland
what is the epithalamus functionally thought to be responsible for
regulating circadian rhythms. (daily cycle of activities)
the subthalamus is functionally invoved in the
motor loops mediated by the thalamus connecting to the basal ganglia
the brainstem includes three things
1. midbrain
2. pons
3. medulla
what two structures are imp in the midbrain
1. tectum
2. cranial nerves III & IV emerge from teh midbrain
where is the tectum located and what does it split into
on the dorsal poart of the midbrain.
1. superior colliculus
2. inferior colliculus
what ist he superior colliculus and inferior colliculus
sup. concerned with vision
inf. concerned with hearing
which cranial nerves emerge from the midbrain
III and IV
pons links the ______ with the ______ through ________(white matter)
brainstem, cerebellum, peduncles
which cranial nerves emerge from the pons
V, VI, VII, VIII
what is the medulla made up of
ascending and descending fiber tracts
pyramidal decussations crossing of hte pyramidal tract
primary pathway for voluntary motor control
what cranial nerves emerge from the medulla
IX X XI XII
What are the main structures of hte cerebellum
1. vermis
2. thwo lateral hemispheres
3. divided into three lobes
what is the vermis
midline structure
what are the three lobes
1. flocculonodular lobe
2. anterior lobe:anterior to the primary fissure
3. posterior lobe
function of hte cerebellum
coordination of movement
what type of fibers does the cerebellum have
both afferent and efferent
homunculus
somatotopic mapping in somatosensory and motor cortex