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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
list the four functions of the ear
1. transducer- changes one form of energy to another.
2. amplifier- info that ear receives, must be increased in volume in order for us to perceive it.
3. analyzer-analyzes characteristics (pitch) that it receives
4. intergrator- must process everything in receives and send it to the brain
list the five main sections of the ear
1. outer ear(external ear)
2. middle ear
3. inner ear
4. 8th Nerve (auditory nerve)
5. central auditory system
how many peripheral systems do we have
2- one on each side
how many auditory nerves do we have
how many central auditory systems do we have
where in the skull is the ear locatd
the temporal bone of the skull
all structures of the ear are either in or attached to the
temporal bone
list the four sections of the temporal bone
1. squamous- flat portion, right above external ear canal
2. mastoid bone- many air filled cavities (pockets)
3. tympanic portion- below ear canal
4. petrous portion- hardest, most dense, provides protection. houses balance system
does the inner or outer ear develop first
develops from inner ear outward
at what week does the inner ear start to develop
3rd week
what is seen in the ear at the 5th week
start to see difference between balance system (semi-circular canals) and cochlea
what is seen at 4th month of gestation
cochlea is completely developed and looks like adult structure
at what age does the middle ear start to develop
starts to dev. at 4th week
at what month is the inner ear finished dev.
at 4 months
what happens when inner ear is finished dev.
middle ear cavity (opening) develops at that point
what begins to develop after the middle ear cavity develops
middle ear bones will begin to develop
what happens at the same time that the middle ear bones are developming
the external ear canal starts to form
what happens at 5-6 months
outer ear starts to look how it should
what happens at 7 months
ear canal finishes forming. outer ear looks like adult structure and ear canal opens so they can hear very well
what are two other names for the outer ear
auricle, pinna
what is the outer ear made of
what is the function (list three)
1. collects sound.
2. helps localize where sound is comign from
3. helps keep foreign objects from getting into ear
what is another name for ear canal
external auditory canal (meatus)
is the EAC horizontal or verticle
what shape is the EAC
how many cm long (adult length is the EAC
2 1/2 cm
what is at the end of the EAC
ear drum
what is another name for the ear drum
the tympanic membrane
what is the first 1/3 of the cana made of
what is the name of the stiff hairs found in the ear canal and what is their purpose
cilia, keeps things from getting in the ear. also keeps wax moving out of ear.
what kind of glands are found in the inner ear and what is its purpose
glands that secrete a bitter substance (ear wax) cerumen. keeps foreign objects out of ear.
what is the second 2/3 of the canal made of
osseous, boney structure
what are the two functions of the ear cannal
1. direct sound to ear drum (tympanic membrane). due to shape it has a resonance (sound boosting) boosts high frequency sounds. little kids boost high frequency sounds even higher.
2. discourage bacteria or foreign objects from getting in. cerumen can cause hearing problems that can be fixed by removing wax.
what is the shape of the middle ear
wedge shaped, but everyone is different
what is the middle ear cavity filled with
air filled. open to ear cells in mastoid
is the middle ear open to the outside
open to outside through throat.
what does the tympanic membrane seal
seals ear off from outside
where is the tympanic membrane found
beginning of middle ear
what is the tm made of
tight place of skin made of several layers of tissue .
how do you view the middle ear
by looking at tm with an ottoscope
when looking at the tm what part of it are you looking at
at the back of the tm
what does a normal tm look like
looks gray and translucent. cone shaped. cone of light (reflextion of ottoscope)
is the edge or center portion of the tm more flexible
very tight around rim (edge). center portion is much more moveable.
what are characteristics of an unhealthy ear drum
will have bubbles behind it. redness. looks sucked in (problem with middle ear pressure)
function of ear drum
vibrates, moves sound along, seal off middle ear, protective
what are the auditory ossicles?
middle ear bones
1. malleus
2. incus
3. stapes
which of the three bones is imbedded in the tm
the head of malleus is imbedded and attached to the eardrum. so when air comes in a vibrates TM then vibrates malleus which is attached on the other side to the incus which is attached to the stapes.
which bone is the smallest in the whole body
the stapes.
where does the stapes attach
attaches to oval window of inner ear.
describe the amount of movement of the stapes
moves more than other bones-more articulation. moves back and forth. also pivots.
can middle ear bones break
where is the oval window found and where does it open up to
part of middle ear but opens into the cochlea.
what does the oval window do with energy
sends energy to inner ear. this is where you transition from mechanical energy to a hydrodynamic energy (liquid)
what is found below the oval window
round window.
describe the relationship between the oval and round window
the round window compliments the oval window. oval window pushes liquid in round window releases (outlet) (gives it space) (pressure valve)
of what structure are the oval and round window found on the outer edge
on outer edge of cochlea
what does the eustachian tube connect
middle ear nasopharynx.
what is the difference between the angle as an adult and the angle as a child
the angle as an adult is very verticle. the angle as a child is more horizontal. this is the reason for so many ear infections as a child.
for how many months of life is the tube open
first 16 months
at what age is the tube vertible enouch so have few ear infections
at age 8
function of the eustachian tube
provides access to outside ear. equalizes pressure.
how often does the eustachian tube open
once per minute when awake. once per five minutes when asleep.
what happens if hte eustachian tube is not working correctly
there will be pressure build up in ear
what are the two middle ear musclese
1. tensor tympani
2. stapedious
what does the tensor tympani do
react to loud stimulation coming into the ear pulls back on ear drum
what does the stapedious muscle do
reacts to lound stimulation coming into the ear. caused to rock when the tensor tympani pulls back on ear drum.
which of the two muscles is more effective
what is the purpose of the two muscles
the two muscles work together to protect ear from damage due to a loud sound. they interupt sound.
does the process of the two muscles work that well? what are the limitations
1. contraction takes time. if gun shot sounds rapidly these wont protect from that. the muscles don't move fast enough.
2. won't work with long term protection.
if at a concert- the muscles will fatigue
what is the physiological function of the middle ear
amplification of accoustic energy that comes i.
what is the percentage of sounds that comes into the ear that is lost
describe the process of compensation for all the lost sound
middle ear bones vibrate in order to amplify. this exerts more pressure on oval window. the stapes is slammed into the oval window.
why does this process work so well (volume area)
goes from a big volume are (ear drum) to small area. the energy is very strong when going into the small area. more pressure at small portion.
what are the three basic divisions of the inner ear
1. vestibule
2. semi-circular canals
3. cochlea
which of these divisions is in the beginning of the inner ear and is the main entrance.
what does the vestibule allow access to
to all parts of inner ear
where does the vestibule start
at oval window
what is the vestibule filled with
with fluid called perilymph. it is a clear and watery looking fluid. it surrouds everything
what two things does the vestibule contain
1. utricle
2. saccule
what are the utricle and saccule surrounded by
what are the utricle and saccule
sensory organs of balance
what are the utricle and saccule filled with
endolymph (watery fluid)
what is found inside these sensory organs
what is the job of maccula
says how we're moving our head-forward, backward, side to side. fibers in the maccula that sends the info about where our head is to the brain.
second division, semi-cirular canals. what is the job?
helps with balance and equilibrium of whole body.
how many canals are found inside the semi-circular canals
cristaamplularis-what is it? what does it do?
little beds of hair cells found inside each canal. send information to brain about overall balance.
information fromt eh sensory organs and the hair cells are sent to the brain by
the vestibular portion of the8th nerve. this nerve leads to the brain
division 3-cochlea-physical characteristics
snail shaped. hard structure. protective. a tube that is fatter at the beginning, twirls around and is narrow at the tip.
how many times does the cochlea twirl
2 1/2 times
what is the name of the center of the cochlea and what comes out of it
mediouls- circular tube. nerve endings come out of this
cochlea is the organ of___
what are the three sections of the cochlea
1. scala vestibuli
2. scala media
3. scala tympani

three tubes that make up the cochlea
where does the scal vestibuli start
at the oval window
what is the shape of the scala media
triangular shaped-not tube shaped.
what is another name for scala media
cochlea duct
which of the three parts of the cochlea is a sealed tube at the center of the cochlea that does not open to anything
scala media
where does the scala tympani start
ar round window
what are the two dividers of the scala tympani
1. rissner's membrane
2. basilar membrane
what does the rissner's membrane divide
scala vestibuli and scala media
what does the basilar membrane divide
the scala media and scala tympani
where does much info aobut tones get sent to the brain from
basilar membrane
what is each tube of the cochlea filled with
-scala vestibuli filled with perilymph
-scala tympani filled with perilymph
-scala media filled with endolymph
how many fibers does the basilar membrane contain
20-24 thousand fibers that help send info to the brain about what we hear.
shape of basilar membrane
starts out wide and then gets skinnier as it goes along
describe the chain reaction
when stapes hits oval window it causes fluid to move in scala vestibuli-> this causes risner's membrane to move-> causes basilar's fluid to move over it-> wiggling fibers
what part of the basilar membrane vibrates with high frequency
the wider part of the membrane vibrates
what part of the basilar membrane vibrates with low frequency
the whole membrane vibrates
which do older people think people don't speak as clear as they used to
consonant sounds are high pitched. high pitched sounds only vibrate on the wider part of the membrane, which is the part that wears lout first. since it wears out first, people loose that hearing first.
what is the name of hte organ that is found on the basilar membrane
organ of corti
what is the organ of corti
place where we make the conversion between fluid into electrical stimulation (energy)
what are the two parts of the organ of corti
1. inner portion
2. outer portion
what does the inner portion house
houses inner hair cells.
what is the job of the inner hair cells
receptor cells for tones.
how many rows of inner hair cells is there
one row
describe the texture of the inner hair cells
very stiff- very resistant
how many rows of outer hair cells are there
3 rows.
describe the texture of the outer hair cells
very flexible
where does the inner portion of hte organ of corti send information and how do we know?
have all afferent nerve fibers. meaning they send info to the brain
where does the outer portion of the organ of corti send info and how do we kno
have more efferent nerve fibers which menas it sends info out to middle ear
what is located on the outer hair cells that help to send then info on?
sterio cillia
what is the organ of corti covered by
the tectorial membrane
what does the tectorial membrane do
sends frequency information to the brain
all information that goes through the cochlea ends up at
many nerve endings
how many neurons does the cochlea have that sends info
whawt are the three components contained in the auditory neuron(part of auditory nerve fiber)
1. cell body
2. dendrites
3. axon
list two characteristics of the cell body
contains the nucleus of hte cell. responsible for keeping neuron going.
what are two characteristics of dendrites
receptors of chemical information from cochlea for organ of corti. generates electrical current
what does the axon connect to
to the dendrite
what does the axon carry
electrical impulse that dendrite ahas given it and sends it along
how does the axon send the info
via synapse. neurons don't touch.
what is synapse
the space between the dendrites
what does the concept of resonant frequency say
states that the cochlea was full of tiny resonators and each one was tuned to a specific frequency.
what was imp about the person who thought up this theory
he was the first to look at the placement of frequency on the cochlea
what does place theory say
atribued all analyses of pitch to the cochlea and our brain had little to do with it. thought the cochlea was like a piano keyboard
traveling wave theory
1960. bekesy. one that many people follow today. inward and outward movement of stapes causes movemetn (wave of fluid) of Basialr membrane. the high frequencies were stimulated at the beginning and low frequencies stimulated all the way along. the signal determines the distace of the traveling wave high frequency- shorter distance.
frequency theory
newer theory. pitch analysis does not take place in cochlea. happens beyond the cochlea. the auditory nerve sends a signal to the brain that corresponds exactly with the imput. 100Hz tones comes into ear then auditory nerve fires 100x a second. what comes in is exactly what is sent in. not true because it doesn't eexplain how we can hear high frequency info. 400Hz is very low pitched.
volley theory of hearing
the auditory nerve receives a group of impulses and can do several things. with certain sounds certain neurons fire and some rest. volley back and forth. some vollying while others are not.
another name for 8th nerve
vestibulocochlear nerve
where does the 8th nerve bring info from
getting info from vestibular system and cochlea
what are the two parts of the 8th nerve
1. vestibula portion
2. auditory portion
vestibula portion
portion that gets info from balance system. sensory cells in semi-circular canals provide info to vestibular portion of system
auditory portion of nerve
portion of nerve is what gets the info from hair cells that have sent the info to nerve fibers. bundle together toward end of throughthe medialous and head up to brain
in the bundle...what part os high frequency and what part is low frequency
outer portion is high frequency and inner portion is low frequncey
is the facial nerve part ofhte auditory portion or vestibular portion
audiotry portion. facial nerve runs along ear canal. gathers right near the auditory fibers
the nerve comes together (both parts of the 8th nerve) and goes where
enters the brain at the medula (or Cerebello-pontine angle) same place.
what happens to the nerve after it hits the cpa
splits again
where are the two place the nerve descends to
1. dorsal cochlear nucleus
2. ventral cochlear nucleus
dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus are much like the
which of the dorsal ventral cochlear nuclei are tonotopic and what does that mean
they both are. specific frequency arranged according to frequency. certain locations deal with high frequency and other with low frequency.
where does the auditory nerve come from and where does it end
come from the cochlea and ends in the cochlea nuclei
cross over points. since we are symmetrical. need connection between one side of brain and the other
how info moves on the same side from location to location
what is the name of the first place after the cochlear nuclei that information will pass through
trapezoid body
from the ventral cochlear nuclea teh auditory imput travels ipsilaterally to the
superior olivary complex
at the same time send info contralaterally to the
superior olivary complex
lateral lemniscus
only gets info ipsilaterally. have some frequency specific characteristics. tonotopic
inferior colliculus gets info from _______ ipsilaterally
lateral lemniscus
inferior colliculus also gets info from the
dorsal cochlear nuclei
the inferior colliculus sends info
back and forth
what is the name of the last relay station of information
medial geniculate body
do nerve fibers fan out or are they neat
fan out
where does the info go from the medial geniculate body
the auditory cortex. (area of auditory perception) last stop
is the auditory cortex tonotopic?
what are the three areas of the auditory cortex
1. temporal area
2. insulor area
3. parietal area
what does the temporal area deal with
primarily looking at frequency characteristics of info
what does the insulor area deal with
temporal aspects of info it gets-related to timing
what does the parietal area deal with
has to do with sound associated with past experiences. hear a song and it makes you think of something.
descendign fibers follow a ________ pathway that it took to ascend
many fibers that come down end up at the (big area) ______ (more specified area) ________
pons. olivocochlear bundle
this bundle of all the fibers sends its fibers back to the
what do they think is the purpose of sending it back to the cochlea
they think it supresses or queits the organ of corti
what are the two theories of why it would want to supress the organ of corti
1. think it may help when we're around a lot of back ground noise
2. helps conserve energy in organ of corti to help it function better with new stimulation.