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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
resonances occur at what
odd number multiples. 500, 1500, 2500, 3500
vocal tract resonances are called
lowest formant is labeled
F1, next F2 etc
vocal tract is what kind of resonantor due to what?
variable resonator due to changin shapes, emphasizing different resonances with movement of tongue- shape changes acoustics
low frequency means
high intensity (energy)
formants represent
bands of energy. formant ells you at what frequencies does the sound have the most energy.
formants refer to consonants or vowels mostly
vocal tract filtering of glottal sound wave:
harmonies of glottal wave are amplified or attenuated based on tuing of resonant spaces of vocal tract
formants are...
amplified harmonies
sound wave comes up from larynx through phonation and will either...
be amplified or attenuated depeding on shape of larynx
formants are...what to each sound
unique to each sound.
which formants of a sound do we care about
first 3. all u need for speech
what are the three elements of the source filter theory of vowle production
1. glottal spectrum(source function)
2. resonance of vocal tract (transfer function)
3. spectrum of sound at lips (output of function)- incorporates radiation- characteristics of mouth coupling
vowel quality is effected by
position of tongue, up or down, front or back in vocal tract.
F1 relates to
volume and constriction of pharyngeal cavity.
F2 relates to
length of oral cavity - why f2 is different
what are the two independent events in which vowle producion results
1. gereation of glottal sound wave- rate of VF vibration determins F0(glottal wave)
2. shaping of vocal tract- position of tongue and shape of lips determines vocal tract resonances (formant fr4equencies)
perception is
understanding what is said
what is needed before perception of sound can occur
what is responsible fore reception and perception of sound
auditory sysstem and brain
sound reception is the detection of
pressence of the sound wave by the auditory system. recquires adequte acess to sound, enough hearing ot detect sound
what are the two parts ot the auditory system
1. peripheral aud.
2.central aud. sys.
perpheral is made of
outer, middle, inner ear
central is made of
8th nerve-vestibulocochlear nerve

brain/cortex/ auditory cortex

pathways to brainstem
ear is located..
in the petrous portion of temp. bone
outer ear is made up
auricle, esternal auditory meatus/canal, tympanic membrane
ext. aud. canal is made of
cartilabe and osseous portion
typm. mem. is made of
3 cartilage layers
middle ear is made of
middle ear space, ossicles
eustachian tubes job
pressure equalizer- with environment
e. tube connects
ear, nose, throat
how make open
with jaw movement, swallowing
other jobs
ventilation( dry airated), drainage
what are the two systems of the inner ear
1. vestibular-balance
2. cochlear- hearing
3 parts of inner ear
1. semicirular canals-balance
2. vestibuel-joins 2 systems
3. cochlera- organ or hearing
organ of corti? housed?
most imp. struction in temrs of hearing. housed in scal media