Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

197 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what force opens the glottis at the end of the closed phase of phonation
subglottal pressure
which of the following is primarily an adductor muscle of the vocal folds
posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
which laryngeal cartilage forms the "adam's apple"
thyroid cartilage
the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles connect to which aspect of hte arytenoid cartilages
vocal process
if the thyroarytenoid muscles were contracted, voice pitch would probably
the space between the true and false vocal folds is the
ventricle of morgagni
the area between the true vocal folds is the
in phonation, the sound that we know as voice is made by the
bursts of air through the glottis hitting supraglottal air
the term for the force keeping the vocal folds together once closed is
medial compression
the pitch of the voice is determined by the duration of the
glottal cycle
the vocal ligament is the thickened medial edge of the
conus elasticus
edema of the vocal folds can cause roughness of the voice because
the mass of hte vocal folds may be unequal
the head can rotate side to side(say no) because of the articulation of the
axis with the atlas
which of the following does not contribute to the zygomatic arch
the hammulus (process) is a part of which bone of the skull
velopharyngeal closure is normally controlled by which of these muscles
levator palati
the upper teeth are in the
maxillae bones
the palate is curved upward. this is called the
palatal vault
which of the following might advance the tip of the tongue
the genioglossus muscle
the lingual frenulum is a tissue that connects the
tongue to the floor of the mouth
the area between the cheek and teeth is the
buccal cavity
a sneer generally means to raise one corner of the upper lip. which of the following muscles might be involved
levator labii superior
which of the following is not a mandibular elevator
lateral pterygoid muscle
most of the bony part of hte nasal septum is formed by the
nasal cavity
the muscle surrounding the lips is the
orbicularis oris
the plate-like bones of the skull are joined at the
which of these bones has a zygomatic process
1. zygomatic bone
2. occipital bone
3. frontal bone
4. parietal bone
frontal bone
the styloid process is part of which of these bones
mastoid bone
the two "front" teeth are known as the
central incisors
know how to draw the glottal area
the time elapsed during a single complete vibration.
the distance between crests. can be measured from any two points that represent a 360 degree phase change.
the number of complete vibrations or cycles per unit time an dis usually measured in vibrations or cycles per second. the symbol Hz is most commmonly used to express frequency.
the maximum displacement of the body from its position of equilibrium and is equal to half the total extent of vibration.
the portion of a cycle through which a vibrating body has passed up to a given instant; it is usually expressed in terms of degrees of a circle. the phase change of a complete vibratory cycle is 360 degrees.

A particular stage in a periodic process or phenomenon.
The fraction of a complete cycle elapsed as measured from a specified reference point and often expressed as an angle.
a partial in a complex vibration, or a tone whose frquency is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.

A wave whose frequency is a whole-number multiple of that of another.
a representation of the amplitude (sometimes also phase) of the components arranged as a function of their frequency
three anatomical divisions of the hearing mechanism
external, middle, and inner "ears"
where is the entire hearing mechanism located
temporal bone
two functional divisioins of hte hearing mechanism
mechanical, or conductive and transducer
two parts of the external ear
pinna and external auditory meatus
what is another name for the pinna
what is the pinna (auricle) made of
cartilage, connective tissue, fat, epithelial tissue.
seven imp land marks of the pinna
helix, antihelix, scaphoid fossa, concha, tragus, anit-tragus, earlobe
rimlike periphery of hte auricle
the deepest of the complex depressions of hte external ear
semicircular ridge , just anterior to the helix
scaphoid fossa
a depression between the helix and antihelix (boat shaped ditch)
at the level of the ear canal anteriorly is a cartilaginous flas, which partially occludes the opening into the canal
just opposit of the tragus, forming the inferior boundary of the concha.
ear lobe
inferior extremity of the ear. seems to have no biological function, but is quite vascular
what is the function of the pinna
collects sounds and funnels them into the ear canal
describe the pinna's effect on the ability of a listener to locate sounds in space (assuming that both of hte listeners ears are working equally and properly)
small positive effect
is there a slight advantage (louder) for sounds in the front of the listener or the back of the listener
front of listener
second part of external ear
external ear cannal (EAM), also known as ear canal
function of EAM
communcation between the middle and inner ears and the external environment is provided by the external auditory meatus. primary function is to conduct sound to the eardrum.
auricular orifice (usually oval, sometime round)
place where diameter or EAM is largest.
is the EAM bony or cartilaginous
which part of the EAM is cartilaginous and which is bone
outter part of EAM is cartilaginous. the inner half is surrounded by bone (temporal bone)
tympanic annulus
the bony canal develops from an incomplete cartilaginous ring knowna s the tympanic annulus
what lines the ear canal
what are the names of the glands found in the carilaginous portion of the EAM and what do they secrete
Sebaceous and ceruminous glands secrete cerumen (ear wax)
what is the function of cerumen, can it cause problems
function is protective but can cause problems through impaction.
is absence of cerumen a bad thing?/
can cause problems.
how does cerumen protect
traping materials from the outside before they can harm teh eardrum. cerumen is soft and sticky. it keeps the ear canal moist.
what works with cerumen to protect the ear
cilia, helps with the protection by beating outward.
what about the length of the EAM is protective
it is 1 inch long. needs to protect the inner structures (particularly the ear drum) which are delicate
what is the resonance of the ear canal
relatively 3000 hz that amplifies sounds in a narrow frequency range.
what are the five functions of the external ear
1. helps in location of sound (as long as you have two of them)
2. protects the more internal parts of the ear
3. has an effect (through resonance) ont he spectrum and amplitude of sound
4. pinnas also hold eyeglasses and hearing aid is place
5. keep your hat from falling too low on your head
middle ear
second anatomical part, but still part of hte conductive mechanixm
what is the point at which the EAM ends and the middle ear begins
the tympanic membrane (TM, ear drum)
three layers of hte middle ear
1. outer cutaneous
2. fibrous middle
3. internal serous
pars flaccida
a small trianglular area, bounded by the notch of Rivinus, contains very few fibers, accounting for the flaccid nature of that portion of the eardrum. Said to function ina very limited manner in maintaining equalization of the air pressure between the external and middle ears.
pars tensa
remainder of the eardrum and is held rather tense.
what is the shape of the TM and in what direction does the apex face
roughly conical (not flat) with the apex facing inward.
what is the TM held in place by
by an annular ligament.
what is found medial to the TM
tympanic cavity (middle ear cavity, or space)
what part of the temporal bone is the Tympanic cavity found
in the petrous (stone like) portion of the temporal bone
two parts of the tympanic cavity
1. attic/epitympanic recess
2. tympanic cavity proper
attic/epitympanic recess
the portion extending upward beyond the superior border of the eardrum. largely occupied by the head of the malleus and the bulk of the incus. its posterior wall is perforated by an orifice, the t ympanic aditus.
tympanic cavity proper
the portion of hte cavity lying medially to the eardrum.
tympanic antrum
communicates with the mastoid air cells, there is indirect communication between the middle ear cavity and the mastoid air cells. connected to the tympanic cavity by the tympanic aditus
cochlear promontory
part of the medial wall. a rounded prominence projecting into the middle ear cavity. it is formed by the lateral projection of hte basal turn of hte cochlea.
round window
part of the medial wall. a circular opening into the basal (lowermost or first) turn of the scala tympani of the cochlea. it is located beneath the oval window in a cone-shaped depression partially hidden from view by the promontory. Closed by a thing membrane, the secondary tympanic memebrant.
oval window
part of the medial wall. somewhat kidney-shaped opening into the vestibule of the inner ear. during life, the oval window is occupied by the footplate of the stapes.
what is behind the promontory
the inner ear
another name for the anterior wall
carotid wall. somewhat wider at the top than at the bottom.
what is found behind the anterior wall
the carotid arter
auditory/Eustachian tube
establishes communication between the middle ear and the nasopharynx.
how is the Eustachian tube directed
directed downward, forward and medialward.
do people with cleft palates often have middle ear problems? why or why not
yes because the velum is incomplete and the palatal muscles have nothing to pull agaist.
what may block the Eustachian tube
the pharyngeal tonsil
bones of the middle ear
name the three bones of the middle ear
1. malleus(hammer)
2. Incus(anvil)
3. Stapes(stirrup)
malleus (hammer)
attached to the connective tissue fibers of the eardrum.
what does the malleus consist of anatomically
a head, neck and three processes (1. handle/manubrium 2. anterior process, 3. a lateral process.
head of malleus
bulbous portion that projects up to occupy about half of the epitympanic recess.
manubrium of malleus
long, narrow process directed downward, somewhat backward, and medially. at the point where the manubrium joins the neck, a small projection forms the point of attachment for the tensor tympani, one of the middle ear muscles.
incus (anvil)
consists of a body and two arms or processes (long and short)
how do the processes attach to the incus
arise from the body at nearly right angles to each other.
short process
directed almost horizontally backward and occupies the space of the fossa incudis in the epitympanic recess.
long process
courses vertically, almost parallel to the manubrium of the malleus. Inferiorly, the end of the long process bends sharply medialward and terminates as a rounded projection called the lenticular process.
stapes (stirrup)
consists of a head, neck, two crura, and footplate.
in life the footplate, which is partly osseous and partly cartilagions, occupies the oval window. Connected to the neck by the anteior and posterior crura.
anterior and posterior crura
to delicate but incredibly strong struts, which usually originate from points nearer the inferior than the superior margin of the footplate. the anterior crus is somewhat more sleder, shorter and less curved than is the posterior crus. each is markedly channeled on its inner surface, which significantly reduces the mass of the stapes.
the neck
ususally well defined, is simply a constriction between the junction of the crura and the expanded head of the stapes.
presents a concave articular facet for reception of the lenticular process of the incus. The head or neck usually presents a small spine, indicating the attachment of the tendon of the stapedius muscle.
annular ligament
both the vestibular surface and the periphery of the oval footplate of the stapes are covered by a thing layer of hyaline cartilage which is fastened to the boy walls of the oval window by means of an elastic annular ligament. it is more pronounced anteriorly than it is posteriorly, which means the footplate is more rigidly held in place behind.
what are the muscles of the middle ear encased in and what are they called
encased in bony canals with only tendons enter i=the tympanic cavity. the two tympanic muscles are the tensor tympani and the stapedius.
describe the tympanic muscles
they are pennate muscles, consisting of many short fibers directed obliquely to impinge ona tendon at the midline. pennate muscles can exert a lot of force for small muscles.
how do the tendons of the typanic muscles differ from usual tendons
abundant amount of elastic tissue. which may have a dual purpose. 1. to damp the vibrations of the ossicles and 2. to render muscular traction slower and less sudden in onset.
Tensor Tympani
larger of the two. innervated by CN V(Trigeminal nerve). attached to malleus. muscle fibers are liberaly impregnate with fat, an indication that it is an active muscle. scattered smooth muscle fasiculi have been reported. this implies both autonomaic and voluntary control over the muscle.
what happens during contraction of the tensor tympani
drawn the malleus medially and anteriorly. the force is almost at right angles to the direction of rotation of the ossicular chain, and when acting by itself, teh muscle increase the tension of the tympanic membrane, as the name of the muscle suggests.
the stapedius muscle
originates within a bony canal running almost parallel to the facial nerve canal on the posterior wall of the tympani cavity. its direction is almost vertical, but the direction of its tendon is nearly horizontal. the muscle fibers originate from the walls of the canal and converge upon a tendon, which emerges through a tiny aperture at the apex of the pyramidal eminence.
what happens during contraction of the stapedius
exerts a force on the head of the stapes, drawing it posteriorly, at right angles to the direction of the movement of the ossicular chain. thus, the stapedius and tensor tympani exert force in directions opposite to each other and perpendicular to the primary rotational axis of the ossicular chain.
do people have control over the tympanic musculature
althougha number of persons have some voluntary control of their tympanic musculature, its contraction is usually reflexively meadiated by sound energy.
impedance matching
in any system where there is to be efficient or maximum transmission of energy, the resistance (or impedance) of the source ought to match that of the load. in mechanics, impedance can be defined in relation to velocity of motion to the force requried to produce a certain velocity of motion.
does the middle ear match impedance
the middle ear acts as a ______ from air-conduction to ________
transformer, perilymph-conduction (liquid)
what does this do to the energy flow intot eh inner ear
increase the efficiency of the energy flow
why does the primary matching action occur/
because of the ration of eardrum area to stapes footplate area.
what is a secondary (much less important matching
lever action
what do muscles of the middle ear do to the ossicular chain
tense the ossicular chain
what does this do to the efficiency of sound transmission at certain frequencies
reduces efficency
what do the muscles(especially the stapedius) do in reaction to intense sounds
contract bilaterally
what is this contraction called
acoustic reflex (sometimes called stapedius reflex)
allthough it seems that it might be protective, the muscle reflex is not protective of the inner ear for 3 reasons
1. there is too much latency in response.
2. the muscles fatigue (adapt) in few seconds
3. the decrease in sound is low frequency and it is high frequency sound that is most damaging.
the middle ear cavity is normally a ________cavity, but from time to time (actually quite often-several times each minute) the Eustachain tube _______ and admits new air into the cavity.
closed, open
can the Eustachian tube does not function and what happens if it does not open
if the Eustachian tube doesn't function, which can happen thorught infection such as from teh common cold, then the middle ear cavity tends to fill with fluid.
how is fluid normally produced
fluid is normally produced by the mucus membranes lining the cavity. this flude can build up, become infected and create problems.
what are some problems created by too much fluid
1. a new impedance mismatch because there is air on one side of the TM and liquid on th other, and pressure on the TM causing discomfort.
what happens to pressure if the Eustachian tube does not function
the air pressure in the middle ear stays constant regardless of the pressure in the ear canal. Therefore, if a person with a blocked tube ascends, outside air pressure will drop and middle ear pressure will remain constant. Since the middle ear pressure is not Relatively high, the TM will bulge out, causing discomfort. Similarly, on descent to highter atmospheric pressure, relative middler ear pressure will be low, drawing the TM inward, which also causes discomfort.
what can be doen in cases of non-fuctioning Eustachian tubes
very small Pressure Equalization Tubes (PET) may be inserted through the TM to allow outside air into the middle ear canal.
what does the inner ear consists of
cochlea and vertibular system.
what are the canals of the inner ear callede
osseous/ bony layrinth.
what does the bony labyrinth contain and what is speical about it
it contains the membranous labyrinth, which is the actual functional mechanism.
medial most portion of the osseous labyrinth. bony canal whichis coiled upon itself around a central core or pillar of bone called the modiolus.
vestibule of the cochlea
forms the central portion of the bony labyringht, is continuous with the seicircular canals and with the cochlea. its lateral or tympanic wall (wihich forms part of the vestibular wall of the middle ear cavity) is perforated by the oval window.
oval window
holds footplate of stapes
the cochlea is a spiral of about how many turns
2 3/4
the are near the vestibule is called the _____and the far end is called the ____
base, apex
the cochlea is divided along its _______ into ____chambers or channels
long axis, 3
list the three divisions of the cochlea
1. scala vestibuli
2. scala tympani
3. scala media
scala vestibuli
upper, open to vestibule and therefore the stapes
scala tympani
lowest, has round window membrane. the above two are conneted at the Helicotrema (near the apex) and contain the fluid Perilymph
scala media
(int he middle, the "cochlear duct"- most important) contains endolymph. roughtly triangular in cross section.
the cochlea spirals around the _____(____) which opens into the ________
modiolus (bony), internal auditory canal (meatus)
the modiolus contains the afferent cell bodies of the _____ in the _____
auditory nerve , spiral ganglia
CN VIII passes through the _______ on the way to the brainstem
internal auditory meatus
round window
opens into the middle ear cavity. it is covered with a membrane.
the transducer in the cochlea is in the ____and is called the_____
scala media, organ of corti
the base of the organ of corti is the
basilar membrane
what does the organ of corti do
separates the scala media from the scala tympani
the top of the scala media is bound by the
Reissner's membrane
the reissner's membrane does what
separates scala media from scala vestibuli
the top of the organ of Corti is the
tectorial membrane, a think, gelatinous membrane
are there a lot of types of cells in the organ of Corti
what are the most important cells in the organ of Corti
the specific transducers, the inner and outer hair cells-these have stereocilia on top.
how many times more outer hair cells are there than inner hair cells
what are the shapes of the outer and inner cells
outer cells are cylindrical and inner hair cells are flask-shaped
although there are more outers ant inners, there are more_____ nerve endings on the inner hair cells than the outer, pointing to great role in ____ for the inners
afferent, sensation
spiral ligament
the outter wall of the cochlea is characterized by a marked thickening of the periosteum known as the spiral ligament. it projects inward to form a shelflike prominence, the basilar crest
spiral lamina
a very narrow shelf of bone at the apical end, becoming gradually wider twoard the basla end. consists of two thin plates of bones, between which are canals for the transmission of the peripheral fibers of the auditory nerve. the upper layer of the bone is continuous with a thinkening of periosteum known as teh spiral limbus.
habenula perforata
lower extremety of the spiral lamina, the tympanic lip, with is continuous with the lower plate of bone (0ften called the perforata habenula) and with the basilar membrane
supporting cells
pg 472
Tunnel of Corti
the floor isformed by the bases of the pillar cells and by the basilar membrane. the tunnel contains a fluid sometiems known as cortilymph.
teh picture at the left represents what kind of anatomical secion of the head (down the middle from the side)
the power generator in a cell is the
bone is a
connective tissue
blood is
vascular tissue
information is communicated from neuron to neuron or from neuron to muscle by
the diaphragm is an example of which muscle type
for a muscle to contract, which two proteins are attracted to each other
actin and myosin
the connection of a neuron to a neuron or a muscle is
the synapse
the trachea splits into
the point where the trachea splits is called the
the head can rock up and down (say yes) because of the articulation of the
atlas with the occipital bone of the skull
the vertebrae of the chest (articulating with the ribs) are called
how many cervical vertebrae are there
contracting the diaphragm mostly cuases an increase in the
longitudinal dimension of the thorax
expansion of the rib cage causes and increase in
anterior-posterior and transverse dimensions of the thorax
which of the following muscles is most involved in forced exhalation
transverse abdominal
after the diaphragm, which of the following might have the greatest effect on inhalation
serratus posterior superior
the small blood vessels that exchange gasses in teh lungs are the
the amount of air that exchanged in normal breathing is the
tidal volume
which of the following might have the greatest effect on inhalation
muscle fibers are organized in bundles called
the amount of air that is left in the lungs after forced exhalation is the
residual volume
which of these is the largest
vital capacity
the smallest units of air-carrying tissue that are a part of the lungs are the
in order for the intercostals to have an effect on inspiration, you must first
stabilize the upper ribs
an example of a muscle that stabilizes the upper ribs is
in normal respiration, air leaves the lungs because
pressure is increased in the lungs
passive forces of exhalation do not include which of the following
gravity on the vicera
in controlled exhalation for speech, the muscles of inspiration and the muscles of expiration act simultaneously. this is known as
what are the three types of cartilage
hyaline, elastic, fibrous
know how to draw a transverse section of a tracheal ring. label anterior and posterior directions.