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308 Cards in this Set

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in some ways the ____can be considered a continuation of the airway above the trachea
larynx
phonation
production of sound by the larynx.
do all phonemes require sound from the larynx
no
which phonemes require sound from the larynx
voiced phonemes
what is the larynx made of?
one bone, nine cartilages
what type of tissue is the larynx made of
special connective tissue
name of the bone involved with the larynx
Hyoid bone. unpaired
describe the relationship between the larynx, ligaments, and hyoid bone
the larynx is suspended by ligaments and muscles from the hyoid bone
the hyoid bone is the base of what muscle
the tongue
what is unique about the hyoid bone
it does not articulate with any other bone
what is the shape of the hyoid bone and does it have any openings
shaped like a horseshoe, open posteriorly
what is the name of the anterior part of the hyoid bone
the BODY (corpus)
what are the sides of the hyoid bone
major horns, sometimes called cornua
what is found at the junction of the body and major horns of the hyoid bone
minor horns that protrude upward (cephalic)
what is often said about cricoid cartilage
"specialized" tracheal cartilage
how does the cricoid cartilage differ from tracheal cartilages
the cricoid cartilage is a complete circle.
the cricoid is often likened to a _____
signet ring
which surface of the cricoid cartilage is larger
the posterior surface is larger than the anterior or lateral surfaces
what shape does the cricoid cartilage have?
hexagonal
what is the cricoid cartilage firmly attached to?
the the 1st tracheal ring(which is inferior to it)
how does the cricoid cartilage attach to the 1st tracheal ring
by ligaments, and smooth muscle, similar to the attachment of a tracheal ring to another tracheal ring.
to what is the cricoid cartilage superiorly attached
thyroid cartilage
the thyroid cartilage has 2 ______
quadrilateral plates (laminae)
to what are the laminae anteriorly attached
thyroid notch (adam's apple)
where is the thyroid notch opened and what is the opening filled with
open posteriorly, filled with connective tissue
what is the angle of the thyroid
the junction of the quadrilateral plates (which forms a rougly vertical line)
what is found at the posterior corners of the laminae
two superior and inferior horns, or cornua
are the superior or the inferior horns larger
the superior horns of the thyroid cartilage are larger
what do the inferior horns of the thyroid cartilage articulate with
cricoid cartilage
what do the superior horns rise toward
the hyoid bone, but they do not quite reach
because of the type of articulation, what is the thyroid cartilage able to do?
"rock" forward and back on its artiulations with the cricoid
does it twist or slide
no
will the distance between the thyroid notch and the cricoid posterior plate increase or decrease if the thyroid rocks forward?
increase
on the superior surface of the posterior plate of the cricoid cartilage, between teh thyroid laminae are the...
arytenoid cartilages which are paired
how do the arytenoid cartilages compare to the cricoid and thyroid cartilages according to size
arytenoid cartilages are much smaller
each arytenoid cartilage has what shape
tetrahedral pyramid ( four-sided, with a three-sided base and an apex)
the arytenoid cartilage mounts on the posterior, superior surface of what?
cricoid cartilage
by what is the arytenoid cartilage enclosed laterally?
thyroid cartilage
since the arytenoids are tetrahedral they have...
4 projections or corners or angles
what is the name of the anterior projetion of each arytenoid?
vocal process
what attaches to the vocal proces
vocal ligament and muscle (thyroarytenoid)
the lateral posterior corner of the arytenoid cartilage is the
muscular process
what attaches to the muscular process
2 muscles, the lateral and posterior cricoarytenoids, names simply by their attachments to cartilages
what is the superior point of the arytenoid
the apex
across what surface can the arytenoids slide a little over the cricoid
superior surface
in what plane can the arytenoids tilt
transverse
is the epiglottis paired or unpaired
unpaired
what is the epiglottis shaped like?
like a spoon with the stem (handle) down and the convex surface forward
in the area above the larynx, which wall does the epiglottis form
anterior
what is the epiglottis enclosed in part by
hyoid bone
where is the epiglottis in relation to the tongue
posterior
what is the lower stem of the epiglottis attached to
the thyroid cartilage
at what surface is the epiglottis and thyroid caritlage attached
the inner surface of hte thyroid angle
can the epiglottis rotate around its articulation with the thyroid cartilage
yes
can the spoon-like part move in the antero-posterior plane?
yes
corniculate cartilages
paired
where are the corniculate cartilages found
small pyramids on top of the apex of each arytenoid cartilage.
how do the corniculate cartilages appear in relation to the arytenoid cartilages
they look like they are part of the arytenoids (sor of an extension superiorward)
what type of attachement do the corniculates and arytenoids have...and what type of movement do they have because of this attachemtn
they are rigidly attached to the arytenoids such that the corniculate and arytenoid cartilages move as one unit.
cuneiform cartilages articulate with any other cartilage or bone
no
where are the cuneiform cartilages found
soft tissue (aryepigolttic folds)
what does the cuneiform cartilage do to the sides of the airway through the larnyx
stiffen the sides
are cuneiform cartilages visivle in xray images of the larynx
yes
membranes and ligaments of the larynx
tissues that actually enclose the airway, forming a continuous tube, similar to the membranes and connective tissues of the trachea enclose the tube)
what cartilage is the lower stem of the epiglottis attached to?
thyroid cartilage at the inner surface of the thyroid angle.
can the epiglottis rotate around its articulation with the thyroid cartilage?
yes somewhat
which plane can the spoon-like part of the epiglottis move in?
antero-posterior plane
is the corniculate cartilage paired or unpaired
paired
describe the corniculate cartilage
small pyramids on top of the apex of each arytenoid cartilage.
what cartilage do the corniculate cartilages look like?
loook like part of the arytenoids, sort of an extension superiorward.
what cartilage aret he corniculate cartilages attached to
ridgidly attached to the arytenoids such that the corniculate and arytenoid cartilages move as one unit
what does the cuneiform cartilage articulate wtih
does not articulate with other cartilages or bone
describe the cuneiform cartilage..waht type of material
soft tissue
purpose of cuneiform
may stiffen sides of the airway through the larynx.
problem with cuneiform
prone to infection or cancerous growth
what tissues actually enclose the airway of the of the laryxn forming a continuous tube
membranes and ligaments
considered the extrinsic membrane
hyothroid membrane
why is it considered the extrinsic membrane
it is outside of the volume enclosed by the cricoid and thyroid cartilages.
what margin does the hyothyroid membrane make up?
upper margin from the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone.
describe the medial section of the hyothyroid membrane
meidal section is thicker than the rest of the membrane, thich part may be called the hyothyroid ligament
what does the cricothyroid membrane connect
connects the cricoid, thyroid, and arytenoid
another name for cricothyroid membrane
conus elasticus and cricovocal membrane
describe the medial portion of the cricothyroid membrane
thickened and is the medial cricothyroid ligament, which runs from anterior-superior of the cricoid cartilage to the interior of the thyroid angle
where does the conus elasticus run specifically
from the lateral margins of the cricoid superior ward and medially to a free, thichened border, the vocal ligament
where is the vocal ligament attached
to the posterior surface of the thyroid angle and to the vocal processes of the arytenoids.
name of the space between the vocal folds,
glottis
where does the quadrangular mambrane run
paired, from lateral margin of epiglottis and interior of thyroid angle to the anytenoid and corniculate cartilages.
where does teh quadrangular membrane end?
ends in a free margin(thickend), the ventricular ligament.
what does the quardrangular membrane form
part of the Aryepiglottic, or Ventricular fold, (false vocal folds)
what cartilages are imbedded in the aryepiglottic folds
cuneiform cartilages
what does the laryngeal cavities form
the volume from the inferior margin of the cricoid cartilage up to the Aditus laryngis.
what is the aditus bounded by
the epiglottis, the aryepiglottic folds, and the apices of the arytenoid carilages (really the corniculate cartilages)
what is found posterior to the aditus
a depression on either side known as the Pyriform Sinus
IS the pyriform Sinus important for speech
no, but is the site of some laryngeal problems including infections and cancer
what are teh volumes above and below the glottis called
above the glottis is the supraglottal. below the glottis is the subglotal
vestibule
part of the supraglottal volume. the superior cavity, also known as aditus. from teh superior opening of the larynx to the level of the ventricular folds.
ventricle
supraglottal volume. from teh ventricular folds to the vocal folds. also known as the Laryngeal Sinus.
what is the sublgottal region englosed by
by the cricoid cartilage
what are most muscles named by
their attachments
what are the two groups of muscles
intrinsic( both attachemtns to the laryngeal cavities) and extrinsic (atleast one attachment is not to laryngeal cartilage
what is the only abductor(opener) of the vocal folds
posterior cricoarytnoid m.
what does the cricoarytenoid m. do?
pulls the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage toward midline, which in turn rotates the vocal processes away from midline. thus the glottis is widened
what do the medial compressors of the vocal folds do?
bring the folds together and apply pressure toward the center
two types of muscles found between the arytenoids
Oblique interarytenoids and Transverse interarytenoid m.
how many transverse interarytenoid m. are ther?
there are two, but it is difficult to see bc they are interdigitated
what do the interarytenoid muscles do?
bring the posterior margins of the arytenoid cartilage together, thus effecting closure of the posterior part of the airway in the larynx.
where do the arytenoid cartilages slide?
across the superior surface of the cricoid cartilage
what does the lateral cricoarytenoid do?
brings the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage forward, this rotates the arytenoid cartilages somewhat which brings the vocal processes toward midline. This action provides closure of the atnerior part of the airway, bringing the vocal ligaments together.
Tensors of the vocal folds.
both internal and external thyroarytenoid (vocalis) muscle and cricothyroid muscle
the thyroiarytenoid m. form waht
the bulk of the vocal folds
what happens when the thyroiarytenoid m. are contracted
they thicken and become stiff.
which is more important, the internal or the external thyroarytenoid?
internal
describe the movement of the thyroarytenoid m/.
move with the vocal folds, but do not directly cause the motion
what does the cricothyroid m. do
brings the anterior portion of the thyroid cartilage closer to the cricoid cartilage (rocking the thyroid around its articulation at the inferior horns)
what does the rocking of the thyroid do?
lengthens the distance from the arytenoid cartilages to the thyroid notch, thus tensing the vocal folds.
Supraglottic, intrinsic muscles
aryepiglottic m., thyroepiglottic m.
aryepiglottic m.
really extensions of the oblique interarytenoid m. contrict the airway, may depress epiglottis
thyroepiglottic m.
englarges aperture, depresses epiglottis
extrinsic superior (suprahyoid) m
may elevate all or part of the larynx. may also move the tongue or jaw. digastric, stylohyoid, mylohyoid, geniohyoid, thyrohyoid
extrinsic, inferior (infrahyoid) m.
may depress all or part of larynx. sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid
where do the vocal folds extend
from posterior surface of the thyroid angle to the vocal processes and medial surfaces of the arytenoid cartilages.
is the anterior attachemtn of the two folds common?
yes
they also attach along the lateral wall of teh _____
thyroid cartilage
what is the effect of the lateral wall attachemtn
flexible ledge from either side of the larynx, terminating at midline int he vocal ligament
4 things each vocal fold containts
1. the vocal ligament (therfore the upper part of the conus elasticus)
2. the vocalis muscle (internal thyroarytenoid)
3. the external thyroarytenoid muscle (part of this muscles is not in the vocal folds)
4. a membranous covering
the posterior section of the glottis
about 2/5 of the glottis is bounded by the vocal porcesses of the arytenoids and is knownas the cartilaginous portion of the glottis.
anterior section of the glottis
about 3/5 is bounded by muscle and ligament and is known as the membranous portion of the glottis
what is the width of the glottis controlled by
by the position of the arytenoids, particularly by the vocal processes
abduction
opening, taking away from the center
adduction
is clossing
what is phonation
invloves a periodic interuuption of the airflow from the lungs
what forms the interruption
at the glottis and is made by the closure of the vocal folds.
does this opening and closing involve an alteration of conraction of the abductor and adductor muscles?
no, it involves a complex interaction of forces
are the adductors or abductors constantly active during normal phonation?
adductors, abductors are not invovled at any time
does the larynx itself make sound?
not too much
what is the sound from
it is a result of the bursts of air into the supraglottal region exciting a resonance.
pitch
a function of the rate of glottal opening and closing. the mroe frequently the glottis opens (times per sec), the higher the pitch
fundamental frequency
pitch, measured in hertz, determined by the rate of vocal fold vibration
pitch change
pitch of the voice is determined by the rate of opening and closing of the vocal folds. Each opening and closing is a chycle and the number of cycles per seond is the pitch
what will make the vocal folds move faster
if their mass is reduced and/or thier stiffness is increased. faster opening can reduce the duration of a cycle of opening and closing.
if the vocal folds were strings (which they are not)
their length would be a primary determinant of pitch (which it is not)
raising pitch is accomplished by the combination of
mass and stiffness change. stiffness is hte same as tension
what does contraction of the cricothyroid muscle do
draws the thyroid notch away from the arytenoids, stretching the vocal folds, thus increasing tension and decreasing mass per unit lenght.
what needs to happen for the cricothyroid process of increasing tension to work?
the posterior cricoarytenoid m. simultaneously must hold the arytenoids in place. the PCA is not a tensioner of the vocal folds, but it does have an essential role in the process.
what happens when the thyroarytenoid muscle contracts
it increases the internal stiffness
what may the extrinsic m. of the larynx (both superior and inferior) do to the vocal folds
lengthen slightly
how can pitch be lowered
contraction of the thyroarytenoid m. wo concomitant contraction of the cricothyroid m. This increases mass of the thyroarytenoid m. (mass/unit length) but not its tension
what is intensity change a function of
of how much air gets through the glottis in each cycle.
what is the primary cause of increase in intensity
increase in subglottal pressure.
what is the intensity increase mediated by
expiratory m.s
what must happen at the same time of intensity increase to prevent simultaneous pitch rise
the vocal folds must at the same time increase in deial compression(adductor m.)
what is the state of the glottis when producing a whispher
almost but not quite closed. whisper is not phonation, but frication. the vocal processes of the arytenoids are brought together (lateral cricoarytenoid ms.) and the posterior medial parts of the arytenoids are kept apart (interarytenoid m. are not contracted)
describe teh vocal processes during a whisper state
the vocal processes of the arytenoids are brought together (lateral cricoarytenoid ms.) and the posterior medial parts of the arytenoids are kept apart (interarytenoid m. are not contracted) the result is a small, rougly triangular opening between teh arytenoid cartilages
whta is breathy voice produced by
a leak through the glottis, usually at the posterior edge (between arytenoid cartilages) a small opening during phonation is knowns as a glottal chink
what produces rough or hoarse voice
when the vocal folds are vibrating slightly out of synchornization with each other. this will happen if the masses differ slightly. irritaion and infection often cause small mass change in one vocal fold.
polyps or nodules
growths on the vocal folds, that cause rough phonation becuase of unequal masses of each fold, and can cause breathy voice because thy get int he way of full closure. since mass has an effect on rate of movemnt, unequal masses will cuase the two vocal folds to come together off center and at irregulra intervals. this inturn causes a pitch variation(jitter) which we call roughenss of voice
what can build up when vocal folds come together hard, such as with very loud speech
heat can build up. this in turn can cuase tissue damage and fluid build up (EDEMA) this can cause a hoarse voice because of the unequal masses. often the first sign of cancer of the larynx usually on the vocal folds is a horase voice.
laryngitis
infections usually baterial of the larynx are common.
bacteria
may form a colny on one or both vocal folds. as the bacteria multiply, thier mass increases. the mass of hte vocal fold also increases. which slows movemnt, increasing the duration of each glottal cycle. this accounts for the pitch lowering commonly observed in laryngitis.
if the infection is on one vocal fold or worse on one fold
the masses of the two folds may differ, giving the rougness effect.
what causes ederma
the body's immune system will normally tru to eliminate the bactera. to do this, the immune system sends extra fluids to the area that is infected.
articulate refers to
modification of the sounds fromt eh larynx and generation of some additional sounds both by teh structures that are downstream, above the glottis.
what is included in articulaters
the oral and nasal cavities and the lips and nostrils.
what are articulaters used for
both voiced and voicless sounds, chewing, swallowing.
what would speech sound like withoout articulators
a buzz.
frontal bone
roughly covers the frontal lobes of the brain, squamous portion, frontal eminence, zygomatic processes. occasionly the frontal bone is paired, split sagitally
parietal bones
2- covers the parietal lobes
occipital bone
covers the occipital lobe. foramen magnum, occipital condyles are here.
temporal bones
2- partly covered by temporal lobes. squamous portion, syloidm mastoid, and zygomatic processes, sigmoid sinus, petrous portion, cochlea, auditory meatus, ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) middle ear cavity
sphenoid bone
hamulus, sella Turcica, pterygoid plates
ethmoid bone
crista galli, cribriform plate, ethmoid sinus, perpendicular plate
what is the interior of the cranium divided into
the anterior, middle and posterior fossae which are hollows that hold teh frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes of the brain. this floor of the cranium is sometiems called the skull base. you can see this if you look into a skull with the top removed.
sutures
lines bones of the cranium are joined along.
2 most prominent sutures
sagittal and coronal sutures
what happens to sutures as you age
they fill. flexible at birth. in an infant, the juncture of the sagittal and coronal sutures is knowns as the anterior fontanelle.
whta will you see if you view a skull from below
you should be able to identify the Foramen Magnum (of the occipital bone), a hole through which the brainstem passes, and the Mastoid and Styloid Processes of the temporal bone, to which several muscles attach
which vertebrae allow the skull to rotate side to side
axis
which vertebrae allow the skull to rotate up and down
the atlas
the atlas articultaes with the skull at the _____
occipital condyles
the mandible rotates around the_____
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)which is the joint of the condylar process of the mandible with the temporal bone. this is a saddle joint
we think of the mandible as normally closed, but iff all muscles are relaxed....
the mandible drops due to gravity
masseter muscle
mandibular elevator. largest muscle of facial area. attaches to zygomatic bone. strong for chewing particularly at the molars. quadrilateral muscle. zygomatic arch to lateral surface of body of mandible ( at the angle)
temporalis muscle
mandibular elevator. more control. rapid movements. fan-like. covers squamous portion of the temporal bone. to coronoid process to mandible (ramus) more for speech.
Medial pterygoid muscle
mandibular elevator. potentially invovled in elevation. must less important than the massester muscle and the temporalis muscle. quadrilateral from lateral pterygoid plate and palatine bone to medial surface of ramus of the mandible.
3 mandible elevators
masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid
4 mandigular depressor muscles(depression means opening in this case)
Digastricus, mylohyoid, geniogyoid, lateral pterygoid
Digastricus m.
two-bellied
anterior and posterior bellies of digastricus m. are joined by a
tendon
what is the tendon that attaches these two bellies attached to
the hyoid bone
the anterior belly attaches to the
mental symphysis
posterior belly attaches to the
mastoid process of the temporal bone
entire m. can ______the larynx (via the hyoid bone)
elevate
anterior belly ______
the mandible
mylophyoid m.
esentially the floor of the mouth. medial surface of the body of the mandible to the boyd of the hyoid bone. the left and right mylohyoid muscles are connected to one another along the midline raphe.
geniohyoid muscle
superior to mylohyoid. from mental symphysis to hyoid bone
lateral pterygoid muscle
lateral to the medial pterygoid m. can pull back the mandible. potentially invovled in elevation
orbicularis oris m.
facial muscle. fibers encircle the lips. essentially a sphincter, or "purse-string" m. concompress or retract the lips. many other muscles enter the orbicularis oris.
buccinator m.
facial m. essentially in the cheek. from corner of the mouth back, therfor draws the lips back (spread)
risorius m.
facial m. 1/2 of ppl dont' have. similar to buccinator, but smaler and usually directed somewhat upward fromt he corner of the lips.
levator anguli
raises corners
levator labii superior m.
facial m. lower margin of orbit and zygomatic arch to upper lip near midline. elevates lip. may evert lip.
depressor labii inferior muscle
facial m. lower lip to mandible near midline. depresses lower lip.
oral cavity
tongue, palate
buccal cavity
cheeks, glands
phaaryngeal cavity
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, tonsils and adenoids which are tonsils, and glands here. they may get infected (tonsilitis)
nasal cavity
nares, cartilages, septum, conchae
divisions of vocal tract
oral cavit, buccal cavity, pharyngeal cavity,, nasal cavity
tongue
mostly muscle, with some connective tissue, taste buds and other sensory cells.
lingual frenulum
connects tongue to floor of oral cavity. lenth of frenulum is absolutely unimportant for speech. there is sometimes reference made to a condition called "tongue tied" which is supposed to invovle a short frenulum. all phonemes can be made even with a very short frenulum, although making them well might require guidance and practice
intrinsic muscles of the tongue. these all change the shape of the tongue
superior longitudinal m.
inferior longitudinal m.
transverse m.
vertical m.
extrinsic m. of the tongue. these all move the tongue.
genioglossus
styloglossus
palatoglossus
hyoglossus
are the teeth bone
teeth are bone like, but are not bone.
the way in which the teeth of the mandible and maxilla meet is ____
occlusion
malocclusion
any unusual alignmentof the mandible and maxilla
which type of tooth is most likely to cause a speech problem if it falls out
incisor
upper bondary of oral cavity and lower boundary of the nasal cavity
palate
parts of maxillae
has all of the upper teeth. and palatine (posterior 1/5) bones. marked by a midline raphe and has a curvature, or palatal vault
soft palate
velum. formst he most posterior part of the palate. it is a valve that is nrmally open (velum hanging down) and moves up and back for VELOPHARYNGEAL closure.
the center of the velum is marked by
the palatal aponeurosis
the uvual hangs from the center of the
velum
what happens in some children if the adenoids are removed
sometimes in children, closure is made with the velum against the adenoids. if the adenois are removed, then teh child may not be able to make velopharingeal closure
what is the sile most imp. articulation in terms of intelligibility
the movemnt of the velum for veopharyngeal closure
we need velopharynegeal closure in order to...
build pressure in the oral cavity
pressure is neccessary in order to produce...
fricatives and affricates
pharyngeal muscles may aid in
velopharyngeal closure...aslo active in swallowing
what is the first step in phonation
the vocal folds are brought toward each other by the adductor muscles (arytenoids and lateral cricoarytenoids)
as the vocal folds are brought together, the air way is constricted. this constriction
increases velocity of air through the glottis (assume that volume per unit tiime is constant)
the increase in velocity causes pressure perpendicular to airflow to
drop locally, in the area of the glottis
bernoulli effect
the process of increeased velocity decreasing transverse pressure
the pressure drop causes the vocal folds to
be further drawn together
the vocal folds being further drawn together...
further increases velocity of airflow
the vocal folds with eventually (a few milliseconds)
meet and compress against one another(medial compression)
the vocal folds are held together by
adductor muscles
air pressure builds up below the glottis (subglottal pressure) because..
the force on the lungs from relaxation pressure and the muscles of expiration continues
at some point the subglottal pressure becomes stronger than the force exerted by the adductor muscles so the
airpressure blows the vocal folds up and apart , thus releasing air through the airway
as soon as the air is flowing....
the bernoulli effet comes into play again, and the cycle starts over
frontal bone
A cranial bone consisting of a vertical portion corresponding to the forehead and a horizontal portion that forms the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities.
frontal eminence
(frontal bone) above each orbit and superciliary ridge
zygomatic process
(frontal Bone) side of eye...up from cheek bone
Parietal bones
side of head. covers parietal lobes
occipital bones
back/underneath of head
foramen magnum
(occipital bone) the large orfice in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes to the cranial cavity and becomes continuous with the medulla oblongata
occiptal condyles
on each side of the foramen magnum by which the skull articulates with the atlas
styloid
(temporal bone) pointed bone process, especially the spine that projects from the base of the temporal bone
mastoid
(temporal bone) located at posterior portion of temporal bone that is situated behind ear and serves as a site of attachemtn
zygomatic process
temporal bone

cheek bone
sigmoid sinus
(temporal bone) the s-shaped dural sinus lying on the mastoid process of the temp. bone
petrous portion
very dense/ hard. protect inner ear
cochlea
a spiral shaped cavity of the inner ear. contais nerve endings essential for hearing
auditory meatus
either of hte passages in the outter ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
ossicle
a small bone, espicially one of the three bones of the middle ear
incus
anvil shaped bone between the malleus and stapes in middle ear
malleus
hammer-shaped bone that is ther outter most of hte threee small bones in the mammalian middle ear
stapes
stirrup shaped. inner most
sphenoid bone
compound bone with wing like structures situated at base of the skull
hamulus
(sphenoid) small hooklike projection as at the end of a bone
sella turcica
a saddle like prominence on the upper surface of the sphenoid bone of the skull, situated in the middle cranial fossa and dividing in into two halves
pterygoid plates
(sphenoid)
ethmoid bone
A light spongy bone located between the eye sockets, forming part of the walls and septum of the superior nasal cavity, and containing perforations for the passage of olfactory nerve fibers.
crista galli
The triangular midline process of the ethmoid bone extending upward from the cribriform plate and giving attachment to the falx cerebri.
cribriform plate
the horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity called also lamina cribrosa
ethmoid sinus
either of two sinuses each of which is situated in a lateral part of the ethmoid bone alongside the nose and consists of ethmoidal air cells
perpendicular plate
a flattened bony lamina of the ethmoid bone that is the largest bony part assisting in forming the nasal septum
ramus
A bony process extending like a branch from a larger bone, especially the ascending part of the lower jaw that makes a joint at the temple.
mandible
jaw
body of mandible
portion of mandible making up the arch
angle of the mandible
the posterior border of the ramus meets the inferior border of the corpus. 90 degrees in adults.
condylar process
composed of a head and neck. found at the superior border of each ramus.
coromoid process
found with the condylar process at the superior border of the ramus. the anterior of the two, beaklike projection directed somewhat posteriorly and is therefor convex forward and concave behind. serves as the point of attachment for the temporalis muscle.
mental protuberance
point of the chin.
mental spine
found at the inner surface of the mandible, near the symphysis,two small posteriorly directed ridges, one placed just above the other. vary in size from ill-defined ridges to prominent double spines.
maxillae
paired bones which form the entire upper jaw and contribute to the formation of the roof of the mouth, the floor and lateral walls of the nasal cavity and the floor of the orbital cavity, plays an important role in speech production.
alveolar ridge
a ridge that forms the borders of the upper and lower jaws and contains the sockets of the teeth
nasal crest
the medial border of the palatine process. a raised ridge. The midline ridge in the floor of the nasal cavity to which the vomer is attached
anterior nasal spine
an important landmark in xray studies of the skull.
frontal process
a very strong bony plate that is directed upward, medially and slightly posteriorly. forms the lateral bony framework of the nose, while its medial surface contributes to the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
palatine bone
An irregularly shaped bone posterior to the maxilla, which forms part of the nasal cavity, the eye socket, and the hard palate.
posterior nasal spine
imp. for xrays
posterior nasal spine
The sharp posterior extremity of the nasal crest
pyramidal process
The pyramidal process projects backward and lateralward from the junction of the horizontal and vertical parts, and is received into the angular interval between the lower extremities of the pterygoid plates.
vomer bone
A thin flat bone forming the inferior and posterior part of the nasal septum and dividing the nostrils in most vertebrates.
nasal bone
two small oblong plates of bones, placed side by side, form the bridge of the nose. situated medial to the frontal processes of the maxillae, they articulate with teh frontal bone above, with the perpendicular plate of the ehtmoid bone, and with the nasla base from the opposite side.
lacrimal bone
the smallest of the facial bones, form part of the medial walls of the orbital cavites. each has an orbital and nasal surface and articulates with four bones, the frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, and inferior nasal concha.
zygomatic bone
consits of a body that is rougly quadrilateral in shape, and four processes the frontaophenoidal, orbital, maxillary, and temporal. it is a rather small bone, which with the zygomatic processes of the maxilla and temporal bone, forms the prominent zygomatic arch. CHEECK BONE
conchae, or turbinates
Of, relating to, or designating a small curved bone that extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal passage in higher vertebrates.
superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue
a thing layer of oblique and longitudinal muscle fibers lying just deep to the mucous membrane of the dorsum of the tongue. upon contraction, the muscle tends to shorten the tongue to therby turn the tip upward. the oblique fibers may assist in turning the lateral margins upward, giving the dorsum a concave or throughlike appearance.
inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue
a bundle of muscle fibers located on the under surface of the tongue, somewhat laterally. muscle fibers extend from teh root to the apex of the tongue. some m. fibers rise from the hyoid bone. upon contraction this muscle either shortens the tongue or pulls the tip down
transverse muscle of the tongue
m. fibers arise from the median fibrous septum and course directly ina lateral direction to terminate in the submucous fibrous tissue at the lateral margins of the tongue. contraction of the transvers m. causes the tongue to narrow and to become elongated.
vertical m. of the tongue
m fibers originate from the dorsum of the tongue. course vertically downward, and somewhat laterally to terminate at the sides and inferior surface of the tongue. more highly developed anteriorly. certical m flattens the tongue.
genioglossus
forms the bulk of the tongue tissue, is the strongest and largest of the extrinsic m. flat, triangular m. located close to the median plane. originates from the superior mental spine. the lowermost fibers course to the hyoid bone and attach by a thin aponeurosis to the upper part of the body. extends from root to almost tip. the posterior fibers draw the whole of the tonue anteriorly to protrude the tip from the mouth or to press the tip against the teeth. contraction of the anterior fibers is responsible for retraction of the tongue, while contraction of the entire m. draws the tongu downward, thus making the dorsum like a trough.
styloglossus
smallest of the three muscles of the tongue. arises from the syloid process. fanshaped sheet of muscle. courses downward and anteriorly. some fibers enter the side of the tonue near the dorsum and interdigitate with those of the inferior longitudinal muscle. upon contraction, the tongue is drawn upward and backward and thus may be considered to be a true antagonist of the genioglossus m. it may also draw the sides of hte tonue upward , thus assiting the intrinsic m. in making the dorsum concave or trougliek.
palatoglossus
sometimes referred to as glossopalatine m. originates from the anterior surface of the soft palate, where it is continuous with its fellow from the opposite side. fibers course downward and somewhat laterally to insert into the sides of the tongue. upon contraction, the palatoglossus may either lower the soft palate or raise the back of the tongue to groove the dorsum.
hyoglossus
thin quadrilateral sheet of m. originates from the upper border of the greater cornu and from the corpus of the hyoid bone. fibers course verticallly, diverging slightly before inserting into the lateral submucous tissue of the posterior half of the tongue. besides functioning to retract and depress the tongue, the hyglossus may elevate the hyoid bone. thus, it may be seen that there is an implicit relationship between the muscles of the tongue and those of phonation.
incisor
incisive or cutting teeth, are chisel shaped with a sharp cutting edge suited for biting or shearing food. (4)
canine
pointed tusklike, best suited for ripping or tearing. (2)
premolar
the occlusal surface usually has two cusps, which accounts for the name bicuspid. located posterior to the canines. 8 in permanent dental arch and none in deciduous arch
molar
largest teeth. 12 in permanent arch. large broad rectangular occlusal surface. upper molars slightyly smaller than lower. first molars have 4 cusps the second has three or four, and third has but 3
crown
part of the tooth covered by enamel. 1/3 of tooth
root
part covered by cementum, and it comprises about two thirds of the tooth.
dentin
makes up the bulk of the solid portion of a tooth, is sometimes called the ivory of the tooth. does not regenerate but continues to form throughout life, resulting ina gradual diminution of the pup cavity.
pulp
dental pulp is tissue rich in nerves and blood vessels. it is contained in the pulp canal, which rougly fonforms to the general shape of the tooth.
enamel
the most dense portion of the tooth and the hardest substance in the body, is about 96% mineral by weight. initially translucent, enamel becomes increasingly yellow with age. enamel has but one fuction, to resist abrasion or attrition. it is thickest on rthe grinding and oclusal surfaces.
occlusal surface
surface is the biting or masticatory surface, and since it is in contact with opposing teeth of the opposit jaw.
lingual surface
oral surface because of its relation to the tongue.
buccal surface
outside towards the lips/cheeks
Type I Malocclusion
normal occlusion. the cusps of the first mandibular molar interdigitate ahead and inside of the corresponding cusps of the opposing maxillary teethl. molar relationship in normal.
type II malocclusion
occurs when the cusps of the first mandibular molars are behind and inside the opposing molars of hte maxillary arch. this isn the most common of the occlusal discrepancies and is found in about 45%. results in a nincrease overjet, the appearance of a receding chin, and a decreased in lower facial hieght
type III malocclusion
the cusps of the first mandibular molar interdigitate a tooth ahead of the opposing maxillary incisors giving the appearance of a prognathic jaw and an increased facial hieght.