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666 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anterior
toward the front
posterior
toward the back
superior
upper
inferior
lower
ventral
away from the back bone or toward the front of the body
dorsal
toward the backbone
rostral
toward the head
caudal
toward the tail
superficial
toward the surface
deep
away from the surface
external
toward the outer surface
internal
toward the inner surface
medial
toward the axis or midline
lateral
away from the axis or midline
proximal
toward the body or root of extremity
distal
away from body or root of extremity
sagital
into right and left halves (vertical) along sagital suture
frontal
into front and back halves (vertical) along coronal suture
transverse
upper and lower halves (horizontal)
5 characteristics of life
irritability, growth, spontaneous movement, metabolism, reproduction
protoplasm
basic material of cell composition
cytoplasm
the mass of protoplasm around the nucleus
interstitial(intercellular) fluids
fluind inside the cell
nucleus
the specialized protoplasm of a cell. a group of nerve cells. containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction. Contains DNA in its ground substance
nucleoplasm
the protoplasm of a cell nucleus
DNA
contributes to the formation of chromosomes during cell composition. A chromatin deposit responsible for transmission of genetic traits.
genes
the biological unit of inheritance, which is transmitted by the chromosome
chromosome
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.
cell membrane
The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
Types of tissues
Epithelial, Connective, Vascular, Muscular, Nervous
type of tissue w/o intercellular substance
epithelial
3 types of tissue with intercellular substance
1. Semifluid- connective
2. Solid- Bone, Cartilage
3. Fluid- Blood, Lymph
Tissues with partially elongated cells
nervous tissue
tissues with totally elongated cells
muscular tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Skin and membranes. maybe single or several layers. little to no intercellular substance.
types of epithelial tissue
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Connective Tissues
Few cells, much ground material
3 types of connective tissue
1. loose
2. Dense
3. Special Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
adipose and areolar-found in fatty areas. scattered fibers. allows considerable movement between structures. ex/ earlobe
Dense Connective Tissue- 4 types
very fibrous- much collogen. 1. tendons
2. Ligaments
3. Fascia
4. Reticular tissue
Tendons
connects muscle to bone or carilage
ligaments
connects bone to bone
fascia
any fibrous connective tissue that is not tendons or ligaments. sheet of connective tissue. looks like skin but is much tougher. found all over the body.
reticular tissue
net like structure. skin but with mesh net. reticular fiberes form and branching network.
Special Connective Tissue 2 types
structural role in body. Bone and Cartilage
what is cartilage made of
contains cells, ground substance and fibers. chondroblasts
describe compression of carilage
strong
does carilage continue or stop growing
continues
can cartilage become bone
yes
3 types of cartilage
1.Hyaline Cartilage
2. Elastic Cartilage
3. Fibrous Carilage
Hyaline Cartilage
shinny, blue-white, smooth, glasslike.
what does hyaline carilage cover
articular surface of joints and larynx
Can in calcify or ossify
they can become stiff (bone)
Elastic Carilage
yellowish, flexible, when bent will move back, does not calcify
Fibrous Carilage
intervertebral discs
Bone
Cells( osteoblasts) rigid matrix of collogen and ground substance ( mostly calcium salts)
2 types of bone
1.Dense( compact)
2. Spongy (cancellous, porous)
which part of the bone is spongy and which part is dense. are they very different
spongy interior. dense exterior. not much difference.
What is found in the interior of bone
marrow (very cellular)
what types of bone is marrow found in
long bones, like the femur
2 types of marrow
1.Red-maufactures red blood cells.
2. Yellow- adipose tissue (fat)
periosteum
The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons
vascular tissue
blood and lymph
do muscles contract or lengthen
contract
3 types of muscles
1.striated muscles
2. smooth muscles
3. cardiac muscles(we won't study)
Striated muscles
skeletal muscles
are striated muscles voluntary or involuntary
voluntary
what shape are straited muscles
cylindrical. skinny and long
what are the dimensions of striated muscles
1-120 mm length. .01-.1 mm diameter
how many nuclei are found in muscles cells
multinucleated
what are myofibrils
Any of the threadlike fibrils that make up the contractile part of a striated muscle fiber.
sacroplasm
specialized protoplasm in which myofibrils are embedded. The cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber.
sarcolemma
delicate, elastic, transparent and homogenous membrane whihc invests every striated muscle fiber
what type of protein is found in muscle cells
myoglobin
myoglobin
a protein which increases diffusion of oxygen into muscle fibers and contributes to their color.
what surrounds the cell outside the cell membrane
endomysium
endomysium
fibrous tissue which binds muscle fibers and separates them from adjacent muscle fibers.
fasciculi
muscle fibers grouped together
smooth muscles
involuntary, single nucleated-
condyle
A rounded projection at the end of a bone, most often for articulation with another bone. a rounded or knucklelike eminence which articulates with another bone
crest
a prominent,narrow ridge
head
an enlargement at one end of the bone, beyond its neck (constricted portion)
process
a bony prominence
spine
a sharp projection
trochanter
a very large bony projection
tubercle
a small rounded projection
tuberosity
a large rounded projection
fissure
a cleft of deep groove
foramen
an opening or perforation in a bone ( or carilage)
fossa
pit or hollow
fovea
a small pitlike depression
groove
a furrow, narrow trench
meatus
a tube or passageway
neck
a constriction near one end(the head) of a bone.
sinus
a cavity within a bone
sulcus
a groove or a furrow
furrow
A rut, groove, or narrow depression.
in which cavity of the body do you find the structure for breathing?
thoracic cavity
list the breakdown of the thoracic cavity 6
nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi
which three parts make up the vocal tract
nasal, oral, pharyngeal cavities
what are the two jobs of the vocal tract
1. part of the sound(speech) production mechanism.
2. carries air for the purpose of breathing. filters, moistens, and warms the air on the way to the lungs.
What does the trachea connect
larynx to the bronchi
what are the dimensions of hte trachea
12 cm long and 2 cm diameter.
what is the trachea constructed from.
incomplete carilaginous rings (open dorsally.
what connects the tracheal rings
fibrous membrane(ligaments) and smooth muscle, forming a flexible tube
what lines the trachea
cilia, goblet cells
what is the purpose of cilia
to keep some foreign matter out.
what is the purpose of goblet cells
secrete mucus, which can trap particulates and add to the moisture in the air.
what does the trachea do at the lower end
splits at the carina into two bronchi
how are bronchi alike and differnt to trachea
1. trachea like-still has incomplete rings.
2. smaller than trachea
what does the bronchi split into
5 bronchioles. (no rings)
what does the bronchioles split into
alveoli (24 branchings between bronchioles and alveoli.) called bronchial tree.
what is the size of the bronchus compared to the trachea
1/2 the diameter of the trachea.
how do the two bronchi compare to each other
the right one is slightly larger than the left, as weel as shorter and straighter.
how do the lungs compare to each other
the right lung is larger than the left.
how many branches do each bronchus split into
1. right bronchus splits into three secondary bronchi.
2. left bronchus splits into 2 secondary bronchi.
what are vertebrae separated by
intervetebral discs or cartilage.
is the vertebral column flexible?
yes, because the discs can be compressed, allowing osme movement.
what are the purposes of the vertebral column 3.
1. provieds part of the framework
2. attachemnt points for many muscles.
3. protects the spinal cord.
how many vertebrae?
33. ( some variation in number of sacral or coccygeal vertebra)
list the 5 groups of vertebrae and the number of each
1. Cervical Vertebrae (7)-Neck
2. Thoracic Vertebrae (12)- chest. ribs are attached to these.
3. Lumbar Vertebrae (5)- between ribs and pelvis
4. Sacral Vertebrae (5) fused together, forming Sacrum. posterior part of pelvis.
5. Coccygeal vertebrae (4) fused into one piece. tail-like. some say vestigial.
what is found between adjacent vertebrae
intervertebral disc (fibrous cartilage)
what connects vertebrae
strong ligaments, allowing limited motion.
what happens if the vertebrae get out of alignment
the spinal cord or spinal nerves may be compressed.
Ribs(costae)-how are they numbere
12 pairs, numbered top to bottom
how many in males vs females
same number
what is the anterior end of the rib made of
carilage
how does each rib attach dorsally
to the thoracic vertebra (body and transverse process)
what do the upper 9 or 10 ribs connect to
to the sternum with cartilage at ventral midline.
what do the lower 2-4 ribs attach to anteriorly
they dont attach. they float.
purpose of lower 2-4 ribs
to protect kidneys. not involved in breathing
describe sternum
oblong plate of bone in anterior chest.
3 parts of the sternum
1. manubrium
2. body(corpus)
3. xiphoid (ensiform) process.
purpose of the pelvic girdle
forms inferior boundary of abdomen. several muscles of respiration are attached. mostly involved with forced expiration.
3 parts to the pelvic girdle
each paired and fused to the others
1. ilium
2. ischium
3. pubis
ilium
broad upper portion, join with sacrum (part of vertebral column)
ischium
posterior and inferior
pubis
anterior and inferior, central joint is pubic symphysis.
describe pectoral girdle
shoulder, superior boundary of thorax. mostly involved with inspiration
clavical
colar bone. above the first rib. attached to sternum and runs lateralward.
scapula
shoulder blade. broad, flat, roughly triangular. attached to clavicle and to humerus (upper arm). many back muscles attach to scapula.
inhalation or inspiration
increase the thoracic cavity, causing drop in air pressure, causing air to enter lungs.
diaphragm
most important for powering speech. unpaired, has bilateral nerve supply
what does the diaphram looklike
umbrealla shaped, with central tendon.
process of diaphram
contraction lowers the diaphragm, pressing on the viscera, hence enlarging the longitudinal dimension.
what does the diaphragm separate
thoraic cavity from the abdominal cavity (contains viscera)
pectoralis minor-
elevates the upper ribs if the trapezius has stabilized the scapula.
intercostals
bind ribs together, lift lower ribs if upper ribs elevated.
internal vs. external intercostals
separate muscles, but they may or may not act together. we will treat them as one (functionally) muscle. at right angles to each other.
sternocleidomastoid
lifts sternum and clavicle somewhat. stabilizes upper rib cage.
serratus posterior superior
lift upper ribs. may increase the transerse dimension of the thorax.
serratus anterior superior
lift ribs. stabilize rib cage.
scalenes(anterior, middle, and posterior)
may lift, at least stabilize, the upper ribs.
latissimus dorsi
unlikely to aid in rib elevation
costal elevators
may aid in rib elevation( very small and weak)
subcostals
are unlikely to aid in inspiration
trapezius
very important, but indirect. stabilizes the scapula, which then allows pectoralis minor to act in inspiration.
all muscle activity for inspiration must..
increase at least one dimension of the thorax, longitudinal, transverse, anterior-posterior
what helps with exhalation
1. gravity as long as youare sitting or standing.
2. torque ont he ribs and elasticity or lungs and viscera help regardless of postion, passive forces
normal exhalation
passive forces
speech, higheffort exhalation
active forces
l. Rectus Abdominus
2. External Obliques
3. Internal "
4. Transversus Abdominus
press on viscera, which in turn causes the diaphragm to move upward. this may slightly depress the ribs.
serratus posterior inferior
pull down lower ribs
intercostals
may help depress ribs, if lower ribs already depressed. the intercostals act in expiration in a similar way to their role in inspiration. if the lower ribs are stabilized, then the contractoin of intercostals(which always brings pairs of ribs togehter) will bring the rest of the rib cage down.
quadratus lumborum
may depress the lower ribs
transversus thoracis
if involved at all in breathing they are probably exhalatory
you can speak with only passive forcess...
but not with fine intensity and pitch control nor for as long as with muscle involvement.
antagonistic use of inspiratory musculature
you must check the rate of exhalation in controlled exhalation
Lung volumes and capacities 7.
1. tidal volume
2. inspiratory reserve volume
3. expiratory reserve volume (resting volume)
4. residual volume
5. inspiratory capacity
6. vital capacity
7. total lung capacity
inspiratory reserve+ tidal volume+ expiratory reserve=
vital capcity
vital capacity+ residual volume=
total capacity
process for inspiration
1. enlarge thoracic volume with inspiratory muscles.
2. because the thoracic pleura are attached to the thoracic wall, this will enlare the interpleural volume.
3. because interpleural volume has increased, interpleural pressure has decrease.
4. the lungs may expand, refilling interpleural space to reduce its volume and restore its resting pressure.
5. because the lungs have expanded, air pressure in the lungs is reduced.
lysosome
digestive organs of the cell
mitochondria
threadlike granules which provide energy in the form of ATP
cell
body's fundamental unit of structure and function
nucleolus
located within the nucleus. contains ribosomes whihc are essential for protein synthesis
protein synthesis
the process by which individual amino acids are connected to each other in a specific order dictated by the nucleotide sequence in DNA, which also involves the processes of transcription and translation
Example: Protein synthesis is process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in the cell.
cytology
the study of cells
golgi appartatus
appears to temporarily store secretory substances
tissue
a colony of cells similar in structure and function
centrosome
derived from words meaning central+ body
vacuole
a small cavity in the protoplasm of the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
forms an intracellular transport network
function of epithelial tissue
protection, secretion, absorption, glandular, sensory
function of connective tissue
support, protection, connection, insulation, food storage
function of muscular tissue
movement, maintain posture
function of nervous tissue
reception, conduction, communication, coordination, integration
function of vasucalar tissue
transport and deliver oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells. remove waste products and toxins from the body. control temperature.
derived from words meaning around + heart
pericardial
derived from words meaning around+ stretched
peritoneal
lines the abdominal cavity
peritoneal
lines the two lung cavities
pleural
lines the vacity containing the heart
pericardial
connective tissue: tightly packed fibers
dense, cartilage, bone
scattered fibers (connective tissue)
loose
connective tissue with semifluid intercellular substance
loose, dense
intercellular substance firm but flexible (connective tissue)
cartilage
intercellular deposits of inorganic salts
bone
cells are called osteocytes and osteoblasts
bone
cells are called chondroblasts
cartilage
derived from word meaning fatty
adipose
derived from a word meaning space
areolar
found in subcutaneous fascia
adipose
meshlike
areolar
has large, spherical cells
adipose
forms "bed" for epithelial tissue
areolar
attach bone to bone
ligaments
attach muslce to bone
tendons
attach mucles to other muscles
tendons
separate and cover muscle fibers to form functional units
fascia
attach cartilage to cartilage
ligaments
attach muslce to cartilage
tendons
attach bone to cartilage
ligaments
feltlike
reticular
support esssential elements of organs
reticular
cartilage that probably does not calcify
elastic
may calcify or ossify with age
hyaline
dense network of collagenous fiber anc cartilage cells
fibrous
like milk glass, but yellowish with age
hyaline
covers articular surfaces of joints
hyaline
forms intervertebral discs
fibrous
found in epiglottis and ear canals
elastic
forms framework of lower respiratory tract
hyaline
found in small carilages of larynx
elastic
cartilage is more predominant in youngsters or adults why?
youngsters, it forms the growing skeleton
consist of intersecting trabeculae
spongy
pierced by haversian canals
compact
large quantity of inorganic salts deposited in matrix
both
appear solid to unaided eye
compact
appear porous to unaided eye
spongy
contains marrow
spongy
derived from the word meaning to hang upon
appendicular
derived from a word meaning central line
axial
pelvic girdle
appendicular
rib cage
axial
hyoid bone
axial
leg
appendicular
shoulder girlde
appendicular
skull
axial
mandible, lower jaw
axial
arm
appendicular
vertebral column
axial
more impoartnt in spech and hearing science
axial
soft tissue that fills cavity of bone
marrow
perichondrium
tough, fibrous membrane investing cartilage
canaliculi
small canals
matrix
noncellular components of conncective tissue
collagenous
yields gelatin when boiled in water
interstitial growth
expansion due to cell multiplication
cortex
outer shell
periosteum
tought, fibrous membrane investing bone
subcutaneous fascia
a continuous sheet of dense connective tissue convering the entire body; located between skin and deeper structures
osteocyte
a bone cell embedded in a rigid matrix of bone
epiphysis
head of bone, an articular facet or condyle
serrated suture
edges of bone are like saw teeth
dentate suture
toothlike projections on opposing edges of bone
sutura limbosa
interlock on beveled edges
2 joints that permit rotation
pivot, ball and socket
2 joints that permit all types of motion except rotation
condyloid and saddle
type of muscle that is innervated by automatic nervous system
smooth
type of muscle with long fibers
striated
muscle with spindle-shaped cells
smooth
involuntary muscle
smooth
voluntary muscle
striated
visceral muscle
smooth
skeletal muscle
straited
more primitive muscle
smooth
fascia
a fibrous intermuscular septum separating muscle groups
myocardium
cardiac muscle
fusiform
spindle-shaped cells contained in smooth muscle
perimysium
a moderately coarse fibrous tissue ensheathing fasciculi
kinesiology
the science of movement
ephaptic conduction
non-neural transmission of contractile impulse to adjacent fibers resulting in wavelike contraction over entire muscular organ.
epimysium
a coarse fibrous tissue encasing an entire muscle
the maximum forse of contraction is generated when a muscle is
at normal resting lenght
under ideal conditions a muscle may shorten as much as
50-60 percent
the maximum strength of muscle contraction per square centimeter is
3 kilograms
when a muscle has become moderately fatigued
contractions weaken, metabolic procsses cannot provide enough energy for muscle cells
when a muscle becomes excessively fatigued
it may stay contracted and rigid for several minutes, ATP is depleted
electrocardiogram
EMG recording of bioelectric activity due to contraction of heart muscles
isotonic contraction
muscle shortens but tension reamains constant
electromyography
graphically recording bioelectric activity due to muscle contraction
rigor mortis
muscle contraction which takes place several hours after death
endoplasmic reticulum
the segmented tubular sleeve surrounding each myofibril
isometric contraction
muscle tenses but does not shorten
single muscle twitch
stimulated by very short-duration excitation to the nerve or muscle; means of studying muscle contraction
sarcomere
individual contractile unit composed of actin and myosin filaments
actin filament
a protein molecule which is located within a myofibril and which appears light in color when under polarized light
myosin filament
a long protein molecule which is located within a myofibril and which appears dark in color when under polarized ight
muscle tone
slight contractile tension remaining when a muscle is "at rest"
ATP
nourishes the actin and myosin filaments
nerve cells are
long
nerve cells are specialized for irritability
if you should prick your finger, the nerve cells in that area will modify their electrochemical composition
latent period
interval between onset of stimulus and onset of contraction
motor unit
functional structure for producing muscle action
refractory period
chemical processes occur which restore muscle to normal resting state
axon
a nerve cell process
relaxation period
passive return to previous related state
muscle end plate
transmits nerve impulses to sarcoplasm of muscle fiber
motor unit
includes a nerve cell body, its processes, and all muscle fibers served by a nerve cell. functional structure for producing muscle action
sarcoplasm
longitudinal substance between muscle fibrils
contraction period
muscle is actively working
in a single motor unit will a strong stimulus activate more muscle fibers than a weak one?
no
will a strong stimulus activate more motor units than a weak one
yes
does the frequency of stimulus impulses affect the forces exerted by muscle fibers
yes
will greater force be exerted by a muscle if more of its motor units are activated?
yes
in general, would the motor units of the speech musculature be smaller than the motor units for the muscles of locomotion or posture?
yes
a somewhat independent part of the body that performs a special funcion is called
an organ
the cells that compose the functional elements of an organ are called
parenchyma
does an organ generally contain several types of tissue
yes
is one kind of tissue usually dominant in an organ?
yes
what is the primary respiratory organ
lung
what is the organ of hearing
ear
what is the organ of voice
larynx
bone and cartilage are part of what system
skeletal
joints and ligaments are part of what system
articular
muscles are part of
muscular
digestive tract, glands are part of
digestive
heart, blood, lymph
vasuclar
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
nervous
lungs air passageway
rspiratory
kidneys, urinary passageway
urinary
genital tract
generative, or reproductive
ductless glands
endocrine
skin, nails, hair
integumentary
a highly organized mass of protoplasm which possesses life
cell
two or more organs combined to exhibit functional unity
system
a cell, tissue, or organ which produces and discharges a substance used elsewhere in teh body
gland
two or more tissues combined to exhibit functional unity
organ
a colony of cells similar in structure and function
tissue
the brain
organ
an osteoblast
cell
serous membrane
tissue
the heart
organ
epidermis
tissue
a muscle fiber
cell
the eye
organ
the thyroid gland, 2
gland, organ
skin
organ
blood
tissue
a leukocyte
cell
epithelium
tissue
an aponeurosis
tissue
a neuron
cell
smooth muscle
tissue
structures involved in power supply of speech
lungs, lower respiratory tract- respiration
structures involved in vibrating elements of speech
vocal folds, phonation
structures involved in system of valves
lips, tongue, palate-articulation
system of filters
pharyngeal, oral and nasal cavities - resonation
what are the shortcomings of describing speech production in terms of phrases
it ignores the important role of auditory and proprioceptive feedback. It does not adequately describe the synergy of speech produciton, but rather emphasizes an unrealistic temporal sequence of events.
the gas exchange between an organizm and its environment is what type of prcess
physical
the inhalation and exhalation of air; without concern for respiratory function, is what type of process
mechanical
the oxidation of food to produce water, carbon dioxide, and heat is what kind of process
chemical
kinetic is derived from a word meaning
motion
unceasing free movement of molecuels is most prominent in
gases
the force exerted on the walls of a gas-filled container is a function of the number of gas molecuels within the vessel, provided volume and _____ are held constant
temperature
molecuels exert a force only when they collide with something
ture
when a balloon is punctured only the molecules which randomly encounter the pinhole wil flow in the outtside
true
mouth is also known as
oral cavity
windpipe is
trachea
throat is
pharynx
vocal cords are
vocal folds
voicebox is
larynx
roof of the mouth is
palate
what separates the upper and lower respiratory tract
vocal folds
how does the upper respiratory tract modify air which has been inhaled through the nose
war, or cool in extreme heat, mosten, filter
the laryngeal framework is a modification of the uppermost _____ carilages
tracheal
a sudden release of compressed air by the larynx resulting in a explosive exhalation that will clear the passageway of accumulated mucus and foreign matter is called
a cough
the closure of the valvular laryngeal mechanism permits ____ fixation
thoracic
the length of the trachea is apporximately 11-12 centimeters or ___ inches
4.5
the diamter of the trachea is apporximately 2-2.5 centimeters or __inches
1
the trachea is anterior/posterior the esophagus
anterior
the tracheal rings are composed of what type of cartilage
hyaline
the first tracheal cartilage is connected to the vricoid cartilage of the larynx by means of the ____ ligament
cricotracheal
the last cartilage of the trachea divides or bifurcates to for the
mainstem bronchi
in the spaces between the tracheal rings the outer and inner tracheal membranes blend to form the ____membrane
intratracheal
the muscles in the spaces between the ends of the tracheal rings are longitudinal/transverse/both. THese muscles are normally in a state of contraction or relaxation
both, contracted
the trachea is lined with ___membrane which is continuous with that of the larynx and bronchi
mucous
the mucus is produced by mucous glands and ___ cells
goblet
threadlike cytoplasmic processes which beat rhythmically are called___.
cilia
Cillia help clear the respiratory tract of contaminants and
mucus
the surgical procedure which provides a temporary alternative airway is called a
tracheotomy
the surgical procedure in which the superior border of the tracea is brought forward and sutured to the skin of the nec, thus forming a permanent airway is called
tracheostomy
the bronchi are tubes which extend from the ___to the ___
trachea, lung
the hilum of the lung is at the entrance of the ___into the lung
bronchus
the divisions of the bronchial tree:
main stem, seondary, tertiary
the construction of the bronchi is much like that of the
trachea
why are foreign bodies more likely to enter the right bronchus?
is more in direct line with trachea and also somewhat larger in diameter
which bronchus supplies the larger lung
right bronchus
which bronchus is longer
left bronchus
which is larger in diameter
right
with divides into two secondary bronchi, one for each lobe of the lung, and then into eight tertiary bronchi
left
divides into three secondary bronchi, one for each lobe of the lung, and then into ten tertiary bronchi
right
three symptoms of foreign body in the bronchus
1. difficult labored breathing, probably becoming progressively worse.
2. wheezing during both inhalation and exhalation.
3. recurring periods of violent coughing.
the tertiary bronchi repeatedly subdivide until they are almost microscopic, and finally give rise to the
bronchioles
in the bronchial tree the combined cross-sectional area of any given subdivision is lesser/greater than the cross-sectional area of the parent division
greater
repeated divisions of the bronchioles ultimately give rise to the ____ bronchioles which communicate directly with the___ ducts that open into the ____ of the lung
terminal, alveolar, air sacs
as the bronchi and bronchioles divide, their structure becomes increasingly muscular/cartilaginous
muscular
small depressions that pit the walls of terminal bronchioles and air sacs are called___. their walls are invested with a network of ____.
alveoli, capillaries
how is the rapid exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide facilitated
by the large area of the capillary network and by the thin barrier which separates it rom alveolar air.
the mediastinum contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves, the esophagus, and the
heart
most of the elastic properties of the lung can be accounted for by tissue elasticity/ properties of the alveoli
properties of the alveoli
the molecules of the moist pulmonary alveolar epithelium and of air demonstrate a universal attraction at the air-liquid
interface
because of surface tension, the alveoli tend to expand/collapse. the substance that reduces this tension is called...
collapse, surfactant
a sewing needle will float on the surface of clean water due to a phenomenon called__. If a few drops of detergent are added to the water the needle will sink. TH detergent acts as a___
surface tension, surfactant
in proportion to the size of the thorax, an infant's lungs are small, large
large
the bases of the lungs are separated from the abdominal viscera by the
diaphragm
a young male adult may have a lung capacity in excess of 5,000 cubic centimeters or apporximately --- liters
five
the parietal(costal) pleura lining the ___ cavity and the visceral pleura investing the ____ are anatomically contiguous membranes.
thoracic, lungs
what is the intrapleural space
a nonexistent, but potential space between the pleurae
what are the funtions of the pleurae
provide friction-free surfaces which glide smoothly during breathing; form protective sacs so puncture will not collapse both lungs.
site of cardiac impression
left lung
over the bulk of hte liver
right lung
has two lobes
left lung
has three lobes
right lung
a detergentlike substance which reduces surface tension
surfactant
derived from a word leaning light in weight
lung
the presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity
pneumothorax
depression on the mediastinal surface of thel ung where its root (bronchi, blood vessels, nerves) EMERGES
hilum
the space in the central region of the thorax between the two pleura
mediastinum
a property of liquid or solid matter which is the result of unbalanced molecular forces near the surface
surface tension
inflammation of hte pleura
pleurisy
serous membrane which line the thoracic cvity and invest the surfaces of the lungs
pleurae
the region of the trunk between the diaphragm and the neckt
thorax
continuous layer of tissue which lines hte pulmonary alveoli
pulmonary alveolar epithelium
a fold formed by a sleeve of pleura enclosing the bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels
pulmonary ligament
closed membranous sac surrounding the heart
pericardium
portions of the thoracic cavity (excluding the mediastinum) which are not occupied by the lungs
pleural sinuses
in its original place
in situ
three main components of the skeletal framework for breathing
vertebral column, rib cage, pelvis
the framework for breathing also includes the skull
true
the axis is part of which group of vertebrae
cervical
where are the largest vertebrae found
lumbar
have transverse foramina which form passageway for vertebral artery and vein
cervical
have articular facets for ribs
thoracic
atlas
cervical
five in number
lumbar
12 in number
thoracic
seven in number
cervical
large bodies for weight bearing
lumbar
lack features of other vertebrae
lumbar
the fused sacral vertebrae appear as a single bone called the
sacrum
although the coccygeal vertebrae are not fused, they are referred to as a structure called the ____ or more commonly the ___
coccyx, tailbone
the vertebral foramen is ocupied by the
spinal cord
the spinous process at the base of the neck which is most easily palpated is the second, fifth, seventh, cervical vertebrae
seventh
movement of the spinal column is restricted by intervertebral ___and a system of ____
articulations, ligaments
dervived from a word meaning neck
cervical
incomplete fusion of arches of the vertebral column
spina bifida
derived from a word meaning footprint; a remnant of a structure which, in a earlier stage of development or in a preceding organixm, was functional
vestigial
derived from a word meaning loin
lumbar
a lateral curvature of the spinal column
scoliosis
derived from a word meanign cuckoo
coccygeal
derived from a word meaning beginning; an incompletely developed structure
rudimentary
second cervical vertebra
axis
an upward projection of the body of the axis that provides a pivot arond which the atlas and skull rotate
dens, odontoid
the body of a vertebra
corpus
first cervical vertebra
atlas
an abnormally increased convex curvature of the lumbar region
lordosis
the leglike parts of vertebrae
pedicles
hunchback; an abnormally increased concave curvature of the thoracic region
kyphosis
derived from a word meaning sacred
sacrum
dervived from a word meanting to turn
vertebra
pertainign to chest; region above diaphragm and below the neck
thoracic
a large canal in a vertebra through which the spinal cord passes
certebral foramen
component of the rib cage found in the midline posterior
12 thoracic vertebrae
component of the rib cage found in the midline anteriorly
sternum
component of the rib cage found lateraly
12 pairs of ribs
the osseous ribs articulate with the
vertebrae
the angle or chondro-osseous union of a rib is generally _____to its posterior attachment
inferior
in infants the course of the ribs is more____ than in adults
horizontal
the ribs articulate with the vertebral column by menas of
gliding joints
ribs 1, 10, 11, 12 articulate with how many vertebrae
one
ribs 2 through 9 articulate with how many vertebrae
2
floating ribs
11-12
false ribs
8-10
true ribs
1-7
vertebrochondral ribs
8-10
vertebral ribs
11-12
vertebrosternal ribs
1-7
articulates with sternum by synchondrosis
1
indirectly connected with sternum by long costal cartilages
8-10
articulate with sternum by synovial joint
2-7
free anterior extremities
11-12
also known as ensiform process
xiphoid
also known as corpus
body
derived from word meaning handle
manubrium
location of jugular or suprasternal notch
manubrium
its uppermost articulation is with clavical
manubrium
first costal cartilage attaches to its lateral border
manubrium
second costal cartilage attaches at the junction of
manubrium and body
location of sternal angle indicated junction of
manubrium and body
small carilaginous process which begins to ossify in adult hood
xiphoid
in early life composed for four sternebrae
body
the dimensions of the thoracic cavity increase in three planes during
inhalation
the vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity is increased by contraction of the
diaphragm
the transverse diamter of the thoracic cavity is increased when the curved ribs are
raised
the anteroposterior diamter of the thoracic cavity is increased by simultaneous forward and upward movement of the
sternum
an increase in the diameter of the upper thorax is primarily anteroposterior/lateral, while an increase in diamter of the lower thorax is primarily
anteroposterior, lateral
muscles which lower the ribs are genrally considered inspiratory/expiratory in function, while muscles which raise the ribs are generally considered _____ in function
expiratory, inspiratory
the pelvic girdle, which provides attachment for the lower limbs, is formed by the _____ bones
coxal, hip
the bony pelvis is formed by the paired______ bones plus the ___ and the ___-
coxal, sacrum, coccyx
the socket in the coxal bone which receives the head of the femur is called the
acetabulum
the ischial tuberosity is concealed by the ____muscle
gluteus maximus
the lower abdomen and the leg are anatomically separated by the ____ ligament
inguinal
name the three bones which form each coxal bone
ilium, ischium, pubis
the coxal bone which absorbs body weight during sitting is the
ischium
the largest coxal bone is the
ilium
which coxal bone articulates with the sarcum
ilium
how does the pelvis contribute to speech production
most of the muscles of the abdominal wall attach to the ilium. The pelvis functions as a supporting basin for the abdominal viscera.
the pectoral girdle is formed by the ____ and the __
clavcle, scapula
the pectoral girlde provides attachment for the ___to the torso
upper limbs, arms
the large, flat trangular plate of of bone which forms the back of the shoulder is called the
scapula
the strut which projects the scapula clear of the chest wall is called teh
clavicle
the free, rather flat projection of the scapula which articulates with the lateral end of the clavicle is called the
acromion
the space between the medial ends of the clavicles is called the ___or ____ notch
jugular,suprasternal
swordlike inferior portion of the sternum
xiphoid process, ensiform process
hipbone
coxal bone
a palpable projection at the junction of the manubrium and the corpus of the sternum
sternal angle
derived from a word meaning like the beak of a crow
coracoid
pertaining to breast
pectoral
pertaining to ribs
costal
true ribs
vertebrosternal ribs
floating ribs
vertebral ribs
upper segment of the sternum
manubrium
derived from word meaning hip
ischium
socket which accepts the thigh bone; "vinegar cup"
acetabulum
false ribs
vertebrochondral ribs
collar bone
clavicle
depression on the superior border of the manumbrium
jugular notch, suprasternal notch
breastbone
sternum
shoulder blade
scapula
uppermost point of the shoulder
acromion
meaning body
corpus
pertaining to shoulder
omo-
anatomical division between leg and lower abdomen
inguinal ligament
through the contraction of the thoracic muscles, the sixe of the thoracic cavity increases how many dimensions
three
the lungs also expand, but by means of ____linkage
pleural
with thoracic expansion the pressure which is momentarily generated within the pulmonary alveoli is positive or negative?
negativ3e
air rushes into the lngs until the intraalveolar pressure is equal to ____pressure
atmospheric
as the nuscles of inhalation cease to contract, the dimensions of the expanded thorax-lung complex decrease, thus generating a slightly positive/negative intraalveolar pressure, and air is exhaled
positive
in quiet breathing the forces of expiration are active/ passive and muscular/nonmuscular
passive, nonmuscular
in adults a quiet respiratory cycle occupies apporximately how many seconds
five
the amount of air exchanged during each cycle of breathing is approximately 500-700 cu.cm. or ___-____liters
.5-.75
during quiet breathing muscle contraction is required for inspiration/expiration
inspiration
forced exhalation is facilitated by contraction of the abdominal/thoracic muscles
abdominal
the diaphragm divides the torso into the ___ and the ____
thorax, abdomen
the periphery of the diaphragm consists of muscular fibers which originate at the bottom of the rib cage and insert into the eduges of an aponeurosis called the c
central tendon
the fibrous pericardium blends into and becomes a part of the
diaphragm
when the diaphragm descends the lungs/ heart/ both also descend
both
the large organ which is suspended from the diaphragm by five ligaments is the
liver
the diphragm has a unilateral/bilateral nerve supply
bilateral
which part of the muscular diaphragm encircles the esophagus
vertebral
which part of the muscular diaphragm originates from teh xiphoid process
sternal
which part originates from teh upper lumbar vertebrae by means of crura
vertebral
originates from teh cartilages of ribs 7-12
costal
inserts in the central tendon
sternal, vertebral, costal
intracostals
subcostals
originate from vertebrae
costal elevators, serratus posterior
originate from sternum and fan out
transversus thoracis
inferior and superior
serratus posterior
breves and longus
costal elevators
for musculomembranous sheet linig the back of the thorax
subcostal
line the inner surface of the anterior thoracic wall
transversus thoracis
trangularis sterni
transverssus thoracis
similar to intercostals,but not confined to one intercostal space
subcostals
levatores costalis
costal elevators
appear to be a continuation of the external intercostals
costal elevators
often largely aponeurotic or poorly developed; sometiems missing
serratus posterior
when the diaphragm contracts the central tendon is pulled downward and
forward
when the diaphragm contracts the thorax enlarges primarily
vertically
when the diaphragm contracts thoracic volume
increases
pressure within the thorax
decreases
volume of the abdominal cavity
decreases
pressure within the adbominal cavity
increases
the diaphragm contracts throughout the inhalation/exhalation phase and momentarily into the inhalation/exhalation phase
inhalation, exhalation
in some cases the diaphragm may be the only muscle which is really active during quiet breathing
ture
diaphragmatic(abdominal) breathing requires voluntary control of the diaphragm
false
the diaphragm may contract toward the end of maximum exhalation
true
a functional diaphragm is essential for breathing
flase
when does the diaphragm contract very strongly
druing expulsive efforts requireing fixation of the thoracic-abdominal system, particularly when transmission of abdominal pressure to the thoracic cavity is needed as in coughing, sneezing, laughing
base of the thorax expands and abdominal viscera fill up the space created in teh abdomen in
costal(thoracic) breathing
contraction of the diaphragm compresses the abdominal viscera and results in expansion of the abdominal wall
abdominal(diaphragmatic) breathing
becomes more prominent with progressively deeper breathing
abdominal
used by most people
both
as a group, the intercostal muscles contribute to the rigidity of the ___wall
thoracic
intercostal muscles help control the degree of space between the
ribs
intercostal muscles couple the ____on to another
ribs
intercostal muscles function in the flexion of the trunk, thus being classified as ____muscles
postural
intercostal muscles appear to contribute to sequential control of the breath stream during___1
speech production
it appears that for the interosseous portion of the internal intercostals, the more efficient lever system is that of the upper/lower rib. Contraction of these muscles probably ___the ribs, thus aiding____
upper, depress, exhalation
inf the intercostal muscles as a group contribute to the rigidity of the thoracic wall, they will facilitate
both inahaltion and exhalation
checking action, which counteracts the elastic recoil of the inflated thorax, consists of prolonged activity of the muscles of inhalation into the ___phase of breathing
expiratory
during speech production, as the volume of air in the lungs decreases, the relaxation pressure progressively increases/decreases
decreases
checking action continues as long as relaxation pressure is/is not provididng adequate pressure for speeech
is
when checking action ceases, inspratory/expiratory muscles begin to contract
expiratory
using electromyography to measure the electrical energy generated by a muscle, a researcher can accurately determine the function of that mucscle.
false-EMG can determine muscle activity, but that does not neccesarily prove the function of a muscle.
the sternocleidomastoid muscle asit name indicates, this muscles originates on the sternum and clavical and inserts on the mastoid process of the ___bone
temporal
because the sternocleidomastoid muscle inserts behind the rotational axis of the head, unilateral contraction will rotate the head toward the same/opposite side, and bilateral contraction will flex/extend the neck
oppsite, flex
when the hed is held in a fixed position, bilateral contraction will elevate the ____and the _____, thus increasing the antero-posterior dimension of the upper thorax and aiding inhalation/exhalation
sternum, clavical, inhalation
the scalene muscles (lateral vertbral muscles) the deep muscles of the anterolateral region of the neck are divided into two groups, with the scalenes coustituting the inner/outer groups
outer
the scalenes course from the cervical/thoracic vertebrae to the upper two ribs
cervical
unilateral contraction will bend the cervical column toward the same/opposite side and bilateral contrraction wil flex/extend the cervical column
same, flex
with the cervical column fixed, contraction of the scalenes will elevate/depress the upper two ribs, thus aiding inhalation, exhalation
elevate, inhalation
rectus abdominus
anterolateral
transversus abdominis
anterolateral
quadratus lumborum
posterior
external and internal obliques
anterolateral
iliacus, psoas major and minor, pyramidlais
posterior
form a wall between the pelvis and the lower margin of the rib cage
anterolateral
attach to other muscles and the skeleton b means of abdominal aponeurosis and thoracolumbar fascia
anterolateral
deepest anterolater abdominals
transversus abdominis
superficial anterolateral abdominals
external obliques, rectus abdominis
largest and strongest of the anterolateral abdominial
external obliques
middle layer of abdominal muscularature
internal obliques
parallel to midline, jus tlateral to linea alba
rectus abdominis
postural
external obliques, interal obliques, recuts abdominus
compress abdominal contents
all
probably active in foced exhalation
all
most suited for electromyographic study
external obliques, rectus abdominis
probably the most effective rib depressors
interal obliques
may most effectively compress abdominal contents
transversus abdominis
contraction may limit depth of inspiration
all
tidal volume
the volume of air inhaled and exhaled during any single respiratory cycle
inspiratory reserve volume
the quantity of air which can be inhaled beyond the inhaled in a tidal volume cycle
expiratory reserve volume
the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled following a quiet or passive exhalation
residual volume
the quantity of air that remains in the lungs and airways even after a maximum exhalation
inspiratory capacity
tidal volume+inspiratory reserve volume. the maximum volume of air that can be inhaled from the resting espiratory level.
vital capacity
inspiratory reserve volume +tidal volume+ expiratory reserve volume. the quantity of air that can be exhaled after as deep an inhalation as possible
functional residual capacity
expiratory reserve volume+residual volume. the quantity of air in the lungs and airways at the resting expiratory level
total lung capacity
sum of all lung volumes. the quantity of air the lungs are capable of holding at the height of maximum inhalation.
minute volume
liters of air exchanged per minute during quiet breathing (active inhalation, passive exhalation)
maximum minute volume or maximum breathing capacity
the liters of air which would be exchanged if a person could forcefuly inhale and exhale for a full minute (usually based on an eight or ten second sample)
lung volumes and capcities
pulmonary subdivisions
syllables produced during single expiratory movement
breath group
anautomatic and involuntary deep inhalation which provides needed oxygen to the blood stream
yawn
a graphic recording of lung volume and capacity
spirogram
the air, the first to be inhaled and the last to be exhaled, which does not contribute oxygen to the blood or receive carbon dioxide from it
dead air
an instrument for measureing lung volume and capacity
spirometer
a rotaional restoring force
torque
the air that cannot be forcibly exhaled and which remeains in the lungs after death
residual air
portion of the respiratory trac from teh oral and nasal cavities to the bronchioles
dead air space
determines degree to which lung/thorax compex canb e distended
pulmonary compliance
as the amount of physical work performed by an individual increases, tidal volume
increases, increases, oxygen expenditure increases as work increases
following exhalation, dead air is laden with and follwing exhalation, itis laden with...
oxygen, carbon dioxide
is dead air a portion of the residual air? what is the funciton of dead air?
yes, helps prevent wide fluctuations of concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood stream
when an individual is supine rather than upright, most pulmonary volumes and capacities
decrease, abdominal viscera press diaphragm upward; increase in pumonary blood volume decrease pulmonary iar space
whwat factors, in addition to body position, determine an individuals vital capacity
height/weight, respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary compliance
thoracic rebound exerts __Force on the lungs
outward
elasticity of lungs exerts____ force on the thorax
inward
the mass of abdominal contents exerts ____force on the diaphragm, and thus on the lungs. WHy are the lungs subjected to the same gravitational forces as the diaphragm?
downward, the lungs are closely bound to the diaphragm
from the standpoint of mechanics, the cavity which may be regarded as a fluid-filled container is the ___cavity
abdominal
when the muscles of inhalation expand the thorax the lung 'springs' ane increasingly stretched. when thoracic expansion creases the lung 'springs' will rebound, thus accounting for passive
exhalation
thoracic 'springs' are compressed by teh muscles of forced exhalation. when compression ceases the thoracis 'springs' will rebound, thus contributing to passive
inhalation
predict what would happen to the following sturctures if pleural linkage were to hypothetically vanish
a. thoracic walls
b. lungs
c. diaphragm
d. abdominal wall
a. enlarge
b. collapse
c. descend
d. distend
alveolar pressure is the same as atmospheric pressure at the beginning and end of__, and at the end of___
inhalation, exhalation
alveolar pressure is above atmosphereic pressure during__ and below during ___
ex, in
intrapleural pressure falls during___ and rises during____
in, ex
the inspiratory phase isusually some what shorter/longer than the expiratory phase
shorter
the slight teim lag between changes in alveolar pressure and air flow is due to
air friction
what are three mechanisms that alone or in combination regulate alveolar pressure
airway resistance, muscular pressure, relation pressure
the maximum expiratory and inspiratory pressures that can be generated at any give lung volume represent the algebraic sum of the ___and the ___
mucular, relaxation
lateral expansion of rib cage
thoracic
elevation of rib cage and shoulders
clavicular
protrusion of abdominal wall
diphragmatic
apparent simulataneous contraction of muscles of inahaltion and exhalation; lack of sequential control of breathing musculature
oppositional
both considered normal (predominant expansion may vary from person to person)
diaphragmatic, thoraci