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20 Cards in this Set

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Examples of tissues with permanent cells
-auditory hair cells (in the organ of corti in the inner ear)

-rods & cones in the retina
What is characteristic of permanent cells?
-made once during fetal development; if destroyed, they are gone forever

-All though they don't proliferate, they are still very much alive - they are ongoing RNA and protein synthesis
if liver cells are completely destroyed, what cells will regenerate the liver
peri-ductular cells (oval cells)
what are the characteristics of a stem cell?
-cell that is not terminal differentiated
-cells that can divide without limit
-daughter cells have the choice of remaining a stem cell or committing to a pathway of differentiation
transient amplifying cells
-stem cells give rise to transient amplifying cells which go through a limited series of more rapid determinaations prior to differentiation
In epithelial cells, where is proliferation occuring?
-in the basal cell layer (attached to the basal lamina)
-60% of basal cells are proliferation
-5-10% of the cells are stem cells
What are the layers in the epithelium?
-prickle layer
-granular layer
-keratinized squames
Prickle layer
found just about the basal cell layer and right below the granular cell layer
-keratin gene expression
changes as the cell moves upward
-prickly appearance results from insertion of keratin bundles into desmosomes
Granular layer
-cells begin to loose their nuclei
-granular appearance from densely staining aggregates of keratohyalin ( which is involved in intracellular compaction and keratin crosslinking)
keratohyalin
- found in the GRANULAR LAYER

-(which is involved in intracellular compaction and keratin crosslinking)
what causes the layers in the epidermis?
- differenes in expression of keratin genes as you move through the layers
-the order is: basal cell layer, prickle cell layer, granular cell layer, keratinized squames
stem cells in the small intestine give rise to:
-absorbtive lineage
-secreating lineage
-goblet cells
-enteroendocrine
-paneth cells
paneth cells
cells at the bottom of the crypt, don't divide, just secrete factors used in bacterial defense.
What is the difference between the epidermis and the intestinal epithelium in terms of potency and structure?
epidermis -unipotent & multiple layers

intestinal epithelium - multipotent and single layered
Difference between colon and small intestine epithelium?
- colon has no paneth cells and no microvili - COLON ONLY HAS CRYPTS

-small intestine has paneth cells, crypts and microvili
Proliferating cells are stained brown with the cell cycle marker
Ki67
Ki67
Proliferating cells are stained brown with the cell cycle marker
What is the heirachy of HSC ?
-start out with multipotent HSC
-HSC makes progenitor myeloid cells & progenitor lymphoid cells
CSF
-colony stimulating factors, it's what cause there to be 100X more erythrocytes than basophils for instance.

-regulates the probability of cell division & death for each pathway
What are CSF controllable parameters?
-frequency of stem cell division
-probability of stem cell death
-probability that stem cell daughter will become a committed progenitor cell of a given type
-division cycle time of committed progenitor cell
-probability of progenitor cell death
-number of committed progenitor cell divisions before terminal differentiation
-lifetime of differentiated cell