Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/357

Click to flip

357 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define Hematopoiesis

Production of blood cells

Define Granulopoiesis

Production of granulocytes

Define Erythropoiesis

Production of RBCs

Define Thrombopoiesis

Production of platelets

What is Erythropoietin

A hormone produced by the kidney, stimulates the production of RBCs. can be used as a palliative treatment for animals with kidney disease

What is Thrombopoietin

A hormone which stimulates the production of Platelets

Erythropoiesis is stimulated by __________

Erythropoetin

Thrombopoiesis is stimulated by _________

Thrombopoetin

Hematopoiesis can occur in what other tissues other than the Bone Marrow

Liver, Spleen, and rarely in the Lymph nodes, thymus

What is a stem cell?

A cell that has the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types

There is not a common stem cell for Neutrophils and monocytes. true or false?

False, there is a common stem cell for neutrophils and monocytes

How is the Maturation time of granulocytes affected by inflammation?- what is the normal production time for them? what do the cells that are created during shortened maturation time look like?

The time is shortened. as there is an increased demand for neutrophils,- 6 days


toxic changes- color, shape, size

In Rbcs, as the cell looses basophilia it gains ____________

Eosinophilia

When neutrophil concentration in peripheral blood increases, what other cell also commonly increases in concentration.

Monocytes

what is "Toxic change"

If the bone marrow needs to it can increase production, however instead of coming out normally they have Toxic changes which can cause them to be more basophilic, more vaculated, or have other cellular abnormalities.

What does the Nucleus of the Myeloblast look like?

- Very Fine/granular chromatin


- Nucleoli

What does the Cytoplasm of the myeloblast look like?

- Deeply basophilic


- No granules

What does the Nucleus of the Promyelocyte look like?

-Fine chromatin


- +/- Nucleoli

What does the cytoplasm of the promyelocyte look like?

- Basophilic


-Azurophilic granules

What doe the Nucleus of the Myelocyte look like?

-coarse, clumped chromatin


-no nucleoli

What does the Cytoplasm of the myelocyte look like?

- similar to neutrophil, slightly more basophilic


- secondary granules


- no primary granules

What does the Nucleus of the Metamyelocyte look like?

-Coarse, clumped chromatin


-shallow indent (bean, or fat hourglass)

what does the cytoplasm of the metamyelocyte look like?

-similar to mature cell, may be slightly basophlic

What does the nucleus of a Band look like?

- Coarse, clumped, condensed chromatin


- sausage shaped


- "Parallel" sides


- Thicker than the nucleus of a neutrophil

What does the cytoplasm of the band look like?

-similar to mature cell, slightly basophilic.

In what order does the precurser WBCs develop?

1. Myeloblast


2. promyelocyte


3. myelocyte


4. metamyelocyte


5. band


6. Neutrophil

Where does erythropoiesis occur?

Primarily in the bone marrow

Erythropoiesis takes how long?


and what things does it need to be preformed?

4-6 days, cannot be sped up.


Protein, iron, copper, cobalt and vitamins

With RBCs we don't get a change in granulation, whereas what changes dramatically?

Chromatin and colour changes dramatically in RBC maturation.

What is a Pluripotent stem cell?

Produces RBCs, WBCs and platelets

Compared to granulocytic precursors, erythroid precursors are...

- Smaller


- more basophilic when young


- have very round nucleus

what does the Nucleus of the Rubriblast look like?

- large round nucleus


- delicate, stippled chromatin


-nucleoli

what does the cytoplasm of the Rubriblast look like?

- thin rim


- royal blue


- perinuclear clear zone

what does the nucleus of the prorubricyte look like?

- Nucleoli usually disappear


- chromatin is slightly more coarse than a rubriblast

What does the cytoplasm of the prorubricyte look like?

- Royal blue


-prominent perinuclear clear zone

What does the nucleus of a Rubricyte look like?

- Relatively large, "juicy nucleus"


- alternating light and dark clumps of chromatin

What does the cytoplasm of a Rubricyte look like?

- usually varies from intensely basophilic to polychromatic (grey-blue)

true or false, a basophilic rubricyte is usually smaller than a polychromatic rubricyte

FALSE


the basophilic rubricyte is usually larger. and has a more condensed nucleus

What does the Nucleus of a Metarubricyte look like?

- Small


-pyknotic (dark and shrivelled)

What does the cytoplasm of a metarubricyte look like?

- relatively more cytoplasm than a rubricyte


- polychromatic or eosinophilic.

what species never has polychromatic RBCS in circulation?


Polychromatic's are called what when stained with NMB?

Horses


Reticulocytes

when a cell is between two stages what should you call it?

call it the more mature

How are WBCs/precurses reported during a differantial cell count?

WBCs are named specifically & counted as part of the differentiall cell count, i.e. part of the 100%

How are nRBCs reported during a differential cell count?

nRBCs are named specifically and are reported as # per 100 WBCs

when Rbcs are destroyed they are metabolized into what?

- iron


- protein


- bilirubin

what is the bilirubin cycle

1. rbcs are broken down into heme.


2. the heme turns into unconjugated bilirubin


3. the conjugated bilirubin goes to the liver to become conjugated


4. the conjugated bilirubin comes out in the urine, or gets stored in the gallbladder, until it is needed.


5. it is then moved into the bile duct and becomes stercobilinogin in the feces, or urobilinogin which is recirculated by the body.

What does IMHA mean?

Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia

What is IMHA?

It is the destruction f RBCs by the immune system, resulting in anemia.




the animals immune system attacks its own cells

due to the excessive RBC destruction during IMHA, what will there be an increased production of?

There will be an increased production of both Unconjugated and Conjugated bilirubin.

What Causes IMHA?

- when the RBCs are coated with immunoglobulins or compliment (secondary to many causes including neoplasia, antibiotic therapy, vaccines etc)


- the body recognizes RBCs as "Foreign" and destroys them.

What is Intravascular Hemolysis

i.e. ghost cells


- membrane only


-hemoglobin has been lost

What is Extravascular Hemolysis

i.e. Spherocytes


- smaller, darker, with no central pallor

What is a leptocyte? why are they formed?

Leptocyte- an rbc with a misshapen area of pallor


they are formed when cells are large and less flexible than normal.

What increased number of Howell-Jolly bodies indicate?

It indicates decreased Splenic function

What are the clinical signs of IMHA?

- often vague


- poor appetite


- listless


- weak


- pale Mucous Membranes

true or false:


the presence of spherocytes is highly suggestive of IMHA

TRUE

Agglutination is diagnostic for IMHA, if agglutination if not present what test should be preformed?

a Coomb's test

why is it important to recognize normal RBCs?

so that abnormalities can be detected.

In dogs, what size, size variation, and central pallor is normal?

- about 7um


- large central pallor


- no anisocytosis

In Cats, what size, size variation, and central pallor is normal?

- about 5.8um


- small central pallor


- some anisocytosis

What is the function of RBCs?

- use hemoglobin to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide


- removal of wastes from plasma

what are the clinical signs of Anemia

- lethargy, fatigue, weakness


-tachypnea & tachycardia


- possibly a systolic heart murmur

what is the lifespan of RBCS?

- varies between species


- approx. 10-22 weeks


-100 days in dogs

which of the byproducts of RBC metabolism are recycled

-Iron


- Globin

How is RBC number presented

__ x 10^12/L

What are the 2 units Microhematocrit (PCV) is presented?

Traditional: __%


SI: __ L/L

true or false: Hematocrit is presnted in the same units as microhematocrit (Traditional and SI units)

TRUE

What are the units for Hemoglobin, what is it?

__g/L




Hemoglobin is the TOTAL amount of hemoglibin in a volume of blood

What Does anemia mean (Hint: theres more than one answer)

Anemia: Decreased RBC numbers ORhematocrit/PCV OR hemoglobin concentration in the blood

Define Polycythemia

Increased concentration of RBCs inthe blood. RBC numbers and/or hematocrit/PCV and/or hemoglobinconcentration are increased.

what is responsible for the pink color of RBCs

The Hemoglobin

"Hb" on an erythrogram refers to what?

The total hemoglobin in the blood, NOT the amount of hemoglobin in a cell

what is Methemoglobin?

it is when cells cannot hold oxygen

What happens when Methemoglobin occurs?

- Mucous membranes appear cyanotic


- blood appears brown

when referring to colour we are referring to what saturation in the cells?

hemoglobin saturation.

what does MCH mean? and what does it refer to?

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin


- it refers to the weight of the hemoglobin in an average RBC

What does MCHC mean? and what does it refer to?

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.


- it refers to the concentration of Hemoglobin in an average RBC (g/L)

A patient has a PCV of 0.20 L/L, hemoglobin of 72 g/L and a RBC count of 3.2 x 10^12/L what is MCH?




(MCH= Hemoglobin (g/L) / RBC #/L )

MCH = 72g/L / 3.2x10^12/L


= 22pg




( 72/3.2 = 22 )




- so MCH is calculated by dividing hemoglobin by RBC count number

A Patient has a PCV of 0.20 L/L,hemoglobin of 72 g/L and a RBC count of 3.2 x 10^12/L

What is the MCHC?




(MCHC= Hemoglobin (g/L) / PCV(L/L) )

MCHC = 72g/L / 0.20L/L


= 360g/L




(72/0.20 = 360)




-so MCHC is calculated by dviding hemoglobin by PCV

When hemoglobin concentration is Decreased, normal, increased is is referred to as

Decreased: Hypochromic


Normal: Normochromic


Increased: Hyperchromic. (cannot actually be hyperchromoic but can appear to be)

what is a femtoliter (fL)

- it is a unit expressed as "10^-15/L" used for MCV

true or false: an MCV is an average, an animal with small and large RBCs might not have a normal MCV

FALSE- their MCV may be normal, the average of a small RBC and a Large RBC = a regular RBC

What is meant by Mild Anisocytosis?

- the diameter of the smallest cell, plus 1/3 the diameter of a normal cell makes the largest cells

What is meant by Moderate Anisocytosis?

- the diameter of the smallest cell plus 2/3 the diameter of a normal cell makes the largest cells

what is meant by Marked Anisocytosis?

- the diameter of the smallest cell plus the diameter of a normal cell makes the largest cells.

What is a microcyte? what is a Macrocyte?

Microcyte- Small RBC


Macrocyte- Large RBC

How can Anemia be classified?

1. According to size, and hemoglobin saturation of RBCs


2. According to response


- responsive/ regenerative


-non-responsive/ non-regenerative


3. According to cause

RBC count determins what on an erythrogram?

- It determines if there is anemia. if the numbers are within reference values the animal is normal, if they are below reference values the animal is anemic.

MCV determines what on an erythrogram?

- It determines the size of the cell. whether it is normocytic, microcytic or macrocytic.

MCHC determines what on an erythrogram?

- it determines the chromasia of the cell. whether it is the hypochromic, normochromic, or hyperchrmoic.

- Sphereocytes appear what on a smear?

Hyperchromic

How would you describe a cell that has increased MCV and Normal MCHC

- Macrocytic


-normochromic

How would you describe a cell that has normal MCV and Decreased MCHC

-Normocytic


- hypochromic

How would you describe a cell that is decreased MCV and decreased MCHC

-Microcytic


-hypochrmic

What is expected to be found in a responsive anemia?

- the bone marrow releasing immature cells to replace the "missing" ones (the bone marrow is responding to the anemia, therefore it is responsive)


- increased concentration of polychrmoatic RBCs


- increased anisocytosis

if the anemia is regenerative MCV will be ______ and MCHC will be ______ since young RBCs are _________ and not fully hemoglobinized

If the anemia is regenerative, MCV will be __increased__ and MCHC will be __decreased__ since young RBCs are __larger__ and are not fully hemoglobinized.

True or false: the presence of Nucleated RBCs in the absence of increased polychrmoatic RBCs does indicate a response

False- it DOES NOT indicate a response.

What is a reticulocyte?

A reticulocyte is a polychromatic RBC that has been stained basophilic with a supravital stain

What are the two different kinds of reticulocytes in cats?

-aggregate (clumps or clusters of organelles)


-punctate (scattered individual organelles)

True or False: reticulocytes are a better indicator of bone marrow response the anemia than polychromasia

True. reticulocytes will give a definitive answer

True or False


when reporting RBC precursors, they are included in the differential cell count

False, they are NOT included in the differential cell count

An animal with increased MCH but decreased MCHC is decreased presumably, what do the cells look like in regards to color

The cells would appear Hypochromic

On a Erythrogram, how can you tell if an anemia is responsive or non-responsive?

If there is a more than normal # of polychromatic RBCs / reticulocytes than the anemia could be regenerative

What is the equation for corrected reticulocyte count?

Corrected reticulocyte % = origional count x patients PCV/"Normal" PCV




-Make sure to use the middle (or average) of the reference interval for the "Normaml

what does a RBC look like when it undergoes crenation?

even projections, and around edges only, they are often an artifact

Describe an Echinocyte:

Even projections, on all surfaces, a more severe form of crenation.

How does an Acanthocyte differ from and Echinocyte

an Acanthocyte has irregular spaced- blunt and a various lengthed projections, they are caused by liver disease and hemangiosarcoma. Echinocytes have even projections, and are a form of crenations.

An RBC that has projections on only one edge is a:

crenated RBC

An RBC that has even projections on all surfaces and is a form of crenation is a:

Echinocyte.

Describe an Ovaloechinocyte:

They have short projections and are oval in shape.

What is the #1 cause of crenated RBCs?

someone didn't dry the smear quick enough

Are Acanthocytes normally seen in normal blood, T/F?

False

Snake bites cause which of the following in RBCs?


a) Crenation


b) Echinocytosis


c) Acanthocytes to be present


d) Ovaloechinocytosis





Echinocytosis

Anemia

A decrease in the PCV, RBC count or hemoglobin value s below normal values

Anisocytosis

variation in the size of cells

Aplasia

Cessation of blood cell formation

Basket cell

A free ruptured nucleus which has swollen so that separated chromatin can be seen

basophilia

1. increased numbers of basophils in circulation


2. The blue staining of a structure with a Romanowsky

Buffy coat

The layer of WBCs, platelets and nucleated RBCs if present, that collects above the RBC's in sedimented or centrifuged blood

Chromatin

DNA which makes up the nucleus of a cell

Degenerative left shift

the number of immature, non-segmented neutrophils exceeds the number of mature, segmented neutrophils in circulation,

Doehle Body

Small, irregular, blue-grey body in the cytoplasm of neutrophils


residual RNA

Eosinophilia

increased concentration of eosinophils in circulation

Eosinopenia

Decreased concentration of eosinophils in circulation

Erythropoiesis

the production of RBC's

Fibrin

the end product of coagulation.

Hemacytometer

A precision instrument for manually counting cells

Hemoglobin

A protein found in erythrocytes; composed of heme and globin

Hemoglobinemia

a condition in which free hemoglobin is present in the plasma

hemolysis

Destruction of RBCs

hypersegmented

a neutrophil with six or more nuclear lobes

hypochromic/hypochromatic

an adjective used to describe a RBC that shows a decrease in the density of hemoglobin present in the cell, resulting in increased central pallor

Hyperproteinemia

increased protein concentration in the blood

Hypoproteinemia

increased protein concentration in the blood

Idiopathic

of unknown cause

karyorrhexis

pyknosis and fragmentation of the nucleus

Leukemia

neoplastic disease of the bone marrow and blood

Idiopathic

of unknown cause

Karyorrhexis

pyknosis and fragmentation of the nucleus

Leukemia

neoplastic disease of the bone marrow and blood

Extramedullary

Blood being formed outside of the bone marrow, in the spleen, liver and lymph

Leukemoid

Resembles leukemia by having a marked leukocytosis or by having a lot of immature cell in the blood


not due to neoplastic changes in the hematopoietic tissue

Left shift

Presence on an increased concentration of immature (non-segmented) neutrophil in the circulation

leukocytosis

increased concentration of white blood cells in circulation

leukopenia

decreased concentration of white blood cells in circulation.

lymphocytosis

increased concentration of lymphocytes in circulation

lymphopenia/lymphocytopenia

decreased concentration of lymphocytes in circulation

marcocyte

an rbc that has a volume that is larger than normal

macrocytic

a cell that is larger than normal (adjective)

Macrocytosis

an increased number of large RBCs

Macroplatelet

A large platelet; at least as large as a normal RBC

Mast cell

A tissue cell which has granules that contain histamine & heparin

MCHC

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

MCV

Mean corpuscular volume

microcyte

An rbc with a volume which is smaller than normal

microcytic

A cell that is smaller than normal(adjective)

Microcytosis

An increased number of small RBC's

Monocytosis

Increased concentration of monocytes in circulation

Neutropenia

decreased concentration of neutrophils in circulation

neutrophilia

increased concentration of neutrophils in circulation

Normochormic


or


normochromic

a RBC with normal hemoglobin saturation (MCHC)

normocytic

an adjective used to describe an RBC of normal size (volume)

Pancytopenia

A decrease in all blood cell (RBC, WBC and platelet) Lines

Plasma

The fluid component of the blood

Polychromasia

increased concentration of polychromatic RBCs in circulation

Polycythemia

increased RBC Mass (PCV; RBC count) in the body

pyknosis

nuclear condensation and death

Reticulocytosis

an increased concentration of reticulocytes in circulation

Right shift

Presence of an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils in circulations.

Sedimentation rate

The rate at which "RBCs settle in their own plasma in a given amount or time"

Serum

The fluid component of the blood produced after the blood has been allowed to clot

Shift red blood cell

A RBC which is twice the size of a normal RBC and polychromatic

Smudge cell

A nucleated cell that was ruptured during smearing,


due to mechanical damage or increased fragility of cell,


chromatin has not spread out in distant strand (see "basket cell")

Supravital staining

use of stain that is taken up by a live cell so that "vital and functional processes" can be studied, eg. New Methylene Blue or brilliant cresyl blue

Thrombocytopenia

Decreased concentration of platelets (thrombocyte) in circulation

Thrombocytosis

increased concentration of platelets (thrombocytes) in circulation

Toxic neutrophil

A neutrophil showing certain morphologic changes such as vacuolation, toxic granule, increased basophilia and/or nuclear changes.

Does a patient have to be anemic to see Acanthocytes

NO

When will a cell spiculate?

if a smear is to thick


or if a smear is not dried quickly


or if the sample is aging

Leptocyte

general term for RBC with an area of pallor that is oddly shaped and large and and less flexable

Target Cell

also called a codocyte "bulls eye"

Stomatocyte

a RBC with a central slit

Bar Cell



central bar of hemoglobin visible

Describe apple stem cell

it has one stalk or projection

Descibe keratocyte

has two horns or projections

HOW much is this worth?

10%

Eccentrocyte

has membrane stuck together on one side fused

Pyknocyte

the eccentrocyte but without the membrane

Spherocyte

Cell is spherical, rather than biconcave, smaller & darker than a normal RBC


no central pallor- only identified in species with a large zone of central pallor



Eccentrocytes are not always abnormal t/f

false

What is the difference between elliptocytes and ovalocytes?

elliptocytes are cigar- shaped


ovalocytes are egg- shaped

Elliptocytes and ovalocytes are normal in what species?

Camelids- camels, alpacas, llamas,


birds, reptiles

What are fragmented RBC's usually caused by?

Shearing damage by fibrin or movement through tortuous vessels - hemangiosarcoma or inflammation, RBCs hitting the fibrin.

Schistocytosis in patients with thrombocytopenia is highly suggestive of

DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation,


medical emergency. but can also be seen with iron deficiency.

poikilocyte

Any odd- shaped RBC,


Use only when shape change cannot be specifically identified

Schistocyte

a RBC fragment


usually up to 1/3 RBC in size


torn off of an RBC

Fragmented RBCs

Torn RBCs are obviouslt torn but are the cell portion

Ghost Cell

Has lost its hemoglobin


membrane only

Smudged RBCs

Blurred edges


frequent with lipemia

Hemoglobin Crystal

one or more rectangular pink crystals

Dacryoctes

Teardrop-shaped


makesure these are not just stretched

describe Basophilic stippling

variable size, lighter than howell-jolly bodies



What is Basophilic stippling indicative of?

Regenerative anemia (ruminants and cats)


as well heavy metal poisoning

what causes howell- jolly bodys and what is the normal value of them in cats and horses. and what are they a remnant of



round nuclear remnant


normal in cats and horses (up to 1%)


lack of splenic function

describe heinz bodies and how to identify and also what they are caused by and also what color they stain

only stain blue with NMD or brilliant Cresyl blue; pink with routine stains


caused by oxidative damage

lead poisoning will cause


a) basophilic stippling


b) heinz bodies

a) basophilic stippling

describe Heinz bodies

often have a clear area at the base may be on top of the cell and will appear as round pale areas


colourless and retractile in unstained wet preparations, basophilic with NMB or brilliant cresyl blue.

what is Rouleaux?

Stacking of RBCs

True or false marked rouleaux is normal in cats

false moderate


marked is horses and


mild is dogs

t/f rouleaux is increased with hyperproteinemia

t

Agglutination is when

RBCs stick together in clumps

what does agglutination indicate?

an immune mediated hemolytic process

immune- mediated hemolytic process is confirmed with :

a saline agglutination test


blood mixed with normal saline 1:4


check a wet prep for the presence of agglutination

what is it meant when the term Lipemic artifact is used

when RBCs appear smudged and misshapen


poikilocytosis can not be reliably identified on these smears

what number do you use to assess WBC s

Absolute numbers

what is the only exception to the rule that the number of decimal places of the absolute numbers should match the number of decimal places of the WBC count

if the number is very small and would otherwise round to zero, please leave an extra decimal place

Blood is only collected from the


a) marginated pool


b) circulating pool


c) swimming pool


d) blood vessel

circulating pool

cells move freely between ---------- and ------------- pools.

Circulation and marginating pool

Cells marginate after moving into tissues t/f

false before

leukocytosis can be due to:

increase is any type of WBC or a combination of different types of WBCs




most frequently due to neutrophilia +-monocytosis, and occ lymphocytosis

what is neutrophilia caused by?

inflammation- fast acting


stress- neutrophil demarginate


exercise/ epinephrine


leukemia/neoplasia



inflammation = infection? t/f

false

What change may be seen initially in the circulating neutrophil concentration?

Neutrophils are first released frommarrow granulocyte reserve pool• Granulopoiesisis stimulated• As supply of mature neutrophils isdepleted, less mature neutrophils are released, i.e. a LEFT SHIFT is seen in circulating blood

define left shift

an increased concentration of immature, non segmented neutrophil in circulation

an inflammatory leukogram has to have a left shift. t/f.

False does not

accelerated granulopoiesis may result in------------ changes.

Toxic

in established (chronic) inflammation, what change in production of blood cells happens?

the bone marrows capacity for granulopoiesis is increased, bone marrow can "keep up" with increased demand


neutrophilia, but no left shift


often a monocytosis is seem.

what change in cell numbers are seen in stress/ corticosteroid cases?

Lymphopenia isthe most common changeEosinopeniaoften not seen due to low “normal” reference valuesChangesoccur within 6 hours

what change in cell number are seen in exercise/ epinephrine cases?

Lymphocytosis is most frequently seen in cats & young animalsChanges are almost IMMEDIATE, but disappear within a few hours once the patient is calm/rested

What is Leukemia?

The presence of neoplastic (cancerous)cells in circulation or the bone marrow


what are the two types of leukemia?

Myelogenous leukemia


Lymphocytic leukemia

General causes of Neutropenia?

1.Decreased productionLack of hematopoietic space InfectionsDrugs (not being made)

2.Overwhelming tissuedemand/Decreased survival (leaving)


3.Sequestration (hidden)

Neutropenia due to decrease production is because of:

lack of hematopoietic space:


tumors


affects all cell lines


infections:


parvovirus


feline distemper


feline leukemia


FTLV


Drugs:



Neutropenia due to increased tissue demand/ decreased survival can be due to:

severe bacterial infections


toxic changes seen often with degenerative left shift

if a neutropenia is seen to check for bacterial infections do a buffy coat to check for bacteria

true

Buffy coat: how do you preform it?

Spin microhematocrit,as usual- Score the tube (to weaken it) justabove the buffy coatBreak the tube where it is scoredInsert a paper clip into thesealant at the bottom of the tubePush until the buffy coat comes outthe topDab buffy coat on a slideSmear and stain as usual

Degenerative left shift is:

The number of immature, non-segmented neutrophil (bands and younger) outnumber the number of mature neutrophils, bone marrow just cant keep up man!

Sequestration is when neutrophils are:

hidden in the margination pool- allergic reaction. or due to anaphylaxis or endotoxemia (from bacterial infection)

Lymphocytosis is caused by?

1.Physiologic– excitement/epinephrine

2.Chronic immune stimulusRemember what lymphocytes do


3.NeoplasiaLymphocyticleukemia


1.Animalexcited, young, active, they also get a neutrophilia that goes along with it,will go away within a few hours,


2.Something that stimulates body tomount an immune response, - lymphocytes make anitbodies- if there is an infection and there isan ongoing intruder –it is common to see lyphocytosis


3.Lymphoblastic leukemia also named

if the patient was upset there may be an alteration in lymphocytosis. t/f

true

immunoglobins are antibodies to something, if seen is high numbers this case can be an immune respond. t/f?

true

Lymphopenia is cause by:

1.Stress/corticosteroids- ear meds, cushings, biological strss

2.Renal disease


3.Viral damage to lymphoid tissue


4.Loss/sequestration/blockage of lymphRemember lymphocytes re-circulate

Eosinophilia is caused by:

parasites


allergies


Specific eosinophilicdiseases


Inflammation of tissues with lotsof mast cells- similar granules to basophils


Remember mast cells containhistamine & eosinophils havean anti-histamine action

basophilia is caused by:

heartworm disease- commonly


mast cell neoplasia

please fill in the chart for the WBCs for the causes of changes in leukocyte concentrations



Myogobinurea is caused by:

Muscle breakdown, and muscles release the myoglobin, to the blood steam,


tying up

Morphologic changes can occur in the absence of changes in cell -----------. i.e

Numbers


toxic changes


neoplastic


changes diagnostic for a specific disease, eg. distemper inclusions


inclusions- phagocytosed material, organisms, cellular debris


etcetera

Machines cannot detect morphologic changes t/f

true

All routine morphology should be assessed in the

Optimal viewing area

normal PCV: for cats and dogs

cats: 37-55


dogs: 27-45




Middle range 36, 46



The feathered edge is checked for ----------- & ----------- cells.

Large & unusual

What did a bilobed neutrophil start out as?

a myelocyte

Giant Neutrophils

Diameter is >16 um


- Compare with RBCs



Do giant neutrophils mature without the cell dividing normally?

yes

Giant neutrophils are common in which species

cats

What is increased Cytoplasmic Basophilia due to:

RNA


short maturation time or an interference with maturation

describe Cytoplasmic Basophilia:

often streaky or blotchy in appearance

where do you look for vacuolation on the cells:

the edges

If increased cytoplasmic basophilia is present than there are often vacuoles present, t/f?

true

What do indistinct "holes" or cytoplasmic vacuolation look like?

Motheaten or foaminess



what are large punctate vacuoles usually due to?

and artifact of (EDTA)

Doehle bodies are remnants of what?

RNA

What do Doehle Bodies look like?

small, irregular, blue grey bodies



Doehle bodies are common in which species?

cats

Doehle bodies can form in blood if it is stored prior to smearing t/f?

True 15MINUTES!##@#@#%@%@#%@#%

describe hypersegmentation:

6 or more nuclear lobes

what is hypersegmentation due to?

corticosteroids

when does hypersegmentation occur?

when A cell has stayed in circulation for longer than usual.

Hypersegmentation is a toxic change t/f?

false

What is a Right shift?

Presence of Hypersegmented cells

Pelger- Huet Anomaly is a Left shift t/f?

False DO NOT CONFUSE THIS WITH A LEFT SHIFT

What does the Pelger-huet anomaly look like?

condensed chromatin but not constricted.

Not all neutrophils are effected with a patient with pelger-huet anomaly t/f?

false ALL neutrophils are affected.

neutrophils are the only cell affected by pelger huet anomaly t/f?

no


others are too- check the eosinophils

Toxic Granulation is :

retained primary granules



what is the difference between toxic granules and normal neutrophil granules?

toxic granules are more dark than normal neutrophil granules

Toxic Granulation is most common in dogs t/f?

true

Name 4 nuclear changes to the shape or lobulation of the neutrophils:

Hypersegmentation


hyposegmentation


Pyknosis/ karyorrhexis


donut nuclei



nuclear change: hyposegmentation is also known as left shift? t/f?

false

What are some changes seen in the chromatin of nuclear changes

mitotic figures


nuclear/ cytoplasmic asynchrony or nuclear immaturity.

Barr body look like:

a small drumstick- like nuclear appendage

Barr bodys are often seen in male animals? t/f?

false


females ore hermaphrodites

doughnut or ring nucleuses are often seen in cats t/f?

true

doughnut or ring nucleus are only seen in neutrophils? t/f

false, both neutrophils and bands can see this change.

Describe Pyknosis and Karyorrhexis

nucleus shrunken and condensed



how do pyknosis and karyorrhexis differ?

the number of "balls"


p- nuclei form one "ball"


k- nuclei form two "balls"

Pyknosis and karyorrhexis are seen in samples that are not processed immediately t/f?

True

what is nuclear/ cytoplasmic asynchrony or immature chromatin?

the maturity of the nucleus/ chromatin does not "fit" with the maturity of the cytoplasm or nuclear shape

Bilobed Neutrophils is NEVER normal.

false- normal in Elephants

What WBC changes are considered toxic?

Doehle bodies


cytoplasmic basophilia and vacuolation


donut nuclei


giant neutrophils


toxic granulation



Toxic neutrophils are caused by what?

Accelerated granulopoiesis...


inflammation



sepsis causes toxic neutrophils t/f

false, but they are often seen in septic patients

how do you report the morphologic change of doehle bodies, cytoplasmic basophilia, foamy cytoplasm?

few- 5-10%


moderate- 11-30%


many- > 30 %

how do you report the morphologic change of giant neutrophils, doughnut nucleus, bilobed neutrophils, hypersegmented neutrophils, barr bodies, pyknosis/karyorrhexis, reactive lymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes

check box if present.

describe granular lymphocytes

they have a collection of large azurophilic granules,



granular lymphocytes are not frequently seen in low numbers in sheep? t/f

false they are seen frequently

granular lymphocytes often indicate what?

inflammation, but can be seen in neoplastic cells

Describe a reactive lymphocyte.

large


royal blue cytoplasm


perinuclear clear zone


nucleus may be indicated


may have vacuoles



describe a lymphoblast

they have one or more nucleoli


usually large


chromatin is finer and more dispersed


often have moderately to deeply basophilic cytoplasm

describe an atypical Lymphocyte

Nucleus has deep clefts or multiple infoldings


May have dark blue or abundant cytoplasm doesn't look right, if a lymphocyte looks "ODD" but you can't classify it call it "atypical"

describe small lymphocytes

smaller than a neutrophil


nucleus ~ 1 RBC

Describe Plasma cells

deeply basophilic cytoplasm


prominent perinuclear clear zone


eccentric nucleus



Describe Lymphoblasts

Stippled chromatin


prominent nucleolus


moderate to deeply basophilic cytoplasm



what are some breakdown products of RBC's

Hemosiderin and hematoidin,



what are some Phagocytosed material

infectious organisms


cells


hemosiderin and hematoidin


cellular debris

what is Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome ?

what does it look like?...... "dont memorize"

inherited syndorme


mostly in cattle and persian cats


partial oculo-cutaneous albinism


large, pink- purple granules

Describe mast cells, where they are found on smear, and why they are caused and example

Round to oval with an oval nucleusand abundant deep purple granules


Most commonly seen in the featherededgeCan also check a buffy coat smear


May be due to inflammatory diseaseor may be systemic mastocytosis example hit by car trauma

where do cell tumors form?

spleen

what is leukoagglutination?

Clumping of WBCs in peripheral blood

Usually an artifact due to prolonged storage


Can be due to EDTA Try a different anticoagulantCan affect automated counts

what does leukoagglutination effect? what can you try to fix it?

effects count and differential, try anticoagulation.

what is distemper viral inclusions, what are they used to diagnose.

Round, pale basophilic to magenta, intracytoplasmicinclusionsCan also be seen in RBCs Diagnosticfor CANINE DISTEMPER

What are some organisms that affect WBCs

Ehrlichiaspp.

Hemogregarines- Hepatazoonspp.


Leukocytozoon spp.


See Blood-borne Organisms lecture

What are the normal #'s of polychromatic RBCs seen in dogs, and cats,

dogs ( up to 1%)


and cats ( up to 0.3%)



When are polychromatic RBCs released in Cattle, Sheep, and Goats.

Only if they are needed.

Describe the destruction of RBC's

they are picked up by the reticuloendothelial cells, especially in the spleen, then they are metabolized to iron, protein, & bilirubin,


iron is stored for reuse and, proteins are broken down stored in the amino acid pool, bilirubin comes from heme, as unconjugated bilirubin, then goes to the liver and it changes it to conjugated bilirubin- stored in the gull bladder, and then goes to the bile duct and to the intestine which changes it to stercobilinogon and urobilinogen,

What are the clinical signs of IMHA

Often vague


Poor appetite


Listless


Weak


Pale mucous membranes



in what order should you asses all the features of the WBCs

- Maturation/precursors


- Size


- Cytoplasm


- Nucleus

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Toxic changes


- Cytoplasmic Basophilia


- Cytoplasmic Vaculation


- Doehle Bodies

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
Toxic changes

- Cytoplasmic Basophilia


- Cytoplasmic Vaculation


- Doehle Bodies

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Toxic Changes:


- Toxic granulation

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Toxic Changes:


- Cytoplasmic Basophilia


- cytoplasmic vaculation


Doehle bodies


- Giant Neutrophil (16 micrometers or larger)

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not toxic:


- Hypersegmentation (6 or more nuclear lobes present)

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not Toxic:


- Pyknosis

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not Toxic:


- Karyorrhexis

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Toxic:


- Cytoplasmic Basophilia


- Cytoplasmic Vaculation


- Doehle Bodies

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Toxic:


Donut Band

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not Toxic:


- Smudge

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not Toxic:


- Basket

What is occurring in this Picture?

What is occurring in this Picture?

Erythrophagocytosis

With Giant Neutrophils the Nucleus _______ without the cell __________ normally

With Giant Neutrophils the Nucleus matures without the cell dividing normally

What is increased Cytoplasmic Basophilia caused by?

It is due to retained RNA, and a to short maturation time or something interfering with maturation.

What do Doehle Bodies look like and how could they be formed?

They are small, irregular, blue-grey bodies. can form if the blood is stored prior to smearing or if left in EDTA

What is Toxic granulation

It is retained primary granules, they are more prominent and darker than normal neutrophil granules. it is very uncommon.

Hypersegmentation- a cell that has _________ in circulation for _______ than usual.

Hypersegmentation- a cell that has stayed in circulation for Longer than usual.

What is The presence of Hypersegmented cells known as?

A Right Shift

What is the Pelger-Huet Anomaly?

It is when chromatin is condensed, but not constricted, Neuclei do not segment normally and will affect all Neutrophils.

What is a Barr Body and where are they seen?

They are small drumstick-like appendages coming off the nucleus, it is seen only in females (or hermaphrodites) as it is due to a second "X" Chromosome.

Can a Donut Cell be seen in a Band or a Neutrophil? or both?

It can be seen in both, differentiation depends on the width of the nucleus.




NOTE: do not misidentify as just a normal cell with overlapping ends.

Identify and comment on the Nucleated cells

Identify and comment on the Nucleated cells

Left: Toxic Neutrophil - Cytoplasmis Basophilia


Right: Toxic neutrophil. - Giant, Donut, Cytoplasmic Basophilia

With Pyknosis the Nucleus is _______ and _______ (Dead)

With Pyknosis the Nucleus is Shrunken and Condensed (Dead)
What is this?
What is this?

A Mitotic Figure (Mitotic cell)

Is the Presence of a Bilobed Neutrophil a toxic change?

No

What changes in WBCs are considered toxic?

Doehle Bodies, Cytoplasmic Basoplilia and Vaculation, Donut nuclei, giant neutrophils, toxic granulation.

What are toxic neutrophils caused by?

caused by accelerated granulopoesis, such as that in Inflammation.

What kind of cell is this?

What kind of cell is this?

Small Lymphocyte (the size of one RBC)

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Medium Lymphocyte (The size of 2 RBCs)

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Large Lymphocyte (the size of 3 or more RBCs)

What kind of cell is this?

What kind of cell is this?

Reactive Lymphocyte (may have vaculation, indented nucleus, perinuclearclear zone)

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Granular Lymphocyte

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Lymphoblast (one or more Nucleoli)

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Atypical Lymphocyte

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Plasma Cell (a cell that is producing antibodies, a B Lymphocyte)

Can granular lymphocytes be seen in low numbers in normal animals?

yes

Describe a Lymphoblast (Necleus, size, chromatin, cytoplasm)

-one or more Nucleoli


-usually large


-Chromatin is finer + more dispersed


-moderatly to deeply basophilic cytoplasm

what is the fuzzy round inclusions on the nucleated cell

what is the fuzzy round inclusions on the nucleated cell

Distemper viral Inclusion

What is this image showing?

What is this image showing?

Leukoagglutination

What is the syndrome being presented in this image?

What is the syndrome being presented in this image?

The Chediak-Higashi Syndrome.