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101 Cards in this Set

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1. Complete a Punnett square crossing a homozygous dominant with a heterozygous.
D D
-----------------------
D DD DD
-----------------------
d Dd Dd
2. What are the genotype and phenotype ratios of the cross in #1?
Genotype- 2:2:0

Phenotype- 4:0
3. What is the driving force behind evolution?
Natural selection
4. What is unique about each species DNA?
The order of the bases
5. What is cancer?
Uncontrolled cell division caused by changes in the DNA
6. What process makes identical copies of DNA?
Replication
7. In a food chain, what is a producer? Give examples.
An autotroph. Plants, algae and some bacteria.
8. Traits are inherited by?
Pairs of genes (alleles) from parent to offspring.
9. Use the chart in your textbook to decode the following strand of DNA first into RNA, then into a chain of amino acids. TAC – CGC – ATT
DNA strand - TAC - CGC - ATT
RNA strand - AUG -GCG -UAA
Amino acids - Met - Ala - Stop
10. What is the process of making RNA from a DNA template called? Draw a picture of where this takes place in the cell.
Transcription - takes place in the nucleus
11. Making an amino acid chain is called what? Where does it take place? Draw a picture of this process.
Translation - At the ribosome in the cytoplasm
12. Define species.
Organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring together.
13. How is protein sequencing used in determining evolutionary relationships?
The more base sequences that have in common, the more closely related the two species are.
14. What happens when predators are removed from food webs and chains?
The population directly beneath will rise, which in turn will cause the feeding level beneath that to fall.
15. How do lethal genetic diseases remain in the population?
Usually in the form of recessive carriers.
16. If a brown guinea pig is crossed with a white guinea pig, and all the offspring turn
out brown, which color is dominant?
Brown
17. Give an example for sex-linked inheritance – how can you tell?
Colorblindness & Hemophilia. It shows up more often in males than females. The allele is located on X chromosome.
18. Give an example of incomplete dominance – how can you tell?
Pink snapdragons. Red X white makes pink, a third phenotype. Any time you see a third phenotype that is inbetween the parents. Black and white makes gray,
19. Give an example of codominance – how can you tell?
A white chicken crossed with a black chicken = checkered black/white chicken. When both colors show up equally.
20. In an energy pyramid, 90% of the energy is lost at each level as heat. What body processes generate this heat? (think of the characteristics of life.)
All the processes of metabolism - growth, development, reproduction, movement, digestion, respiration, etc.
21. What is a karyotype? What is a Monosomy? What is a Trisomy?
A diploid set of chromosomes arranged in pairs by decreasing size. A monosomy is when one chromosome is missing. Trisomy is when there is one extra.
22. What is a common disorder caused by a Monosomy? Trisomy?
The most common Monosomy is Turners - Monosomy X
The most common Trisomy is Down syndrome (Trisomy 23) and Klinefelter XXY.
23. Mutations in a gene will directly affect the production of what?
Proteins
24. Define the process of natural selection.
Survival and reproduction of the organisms that are best adapted to the environment
25. Draw a picture of a DNA molecule, label it’s parts.
nucleotide, base pair, hydrogen bond, sugar, phosphate, base.
26. Give an example of a chance occurrence that could lead to genetic drift.
Random change in allele frequency caused by a series of chance occurrences that cause an allele to become more or less common in a population. Things like a flood, epidemic, earthquake, etc.
27. Why is genetic variation in a population so important?
It helps species survive catastrophic change.
28. What is a mutation? What types of thing cause them? What do they lead to?
Changes in the DNA. Exposure to toxic chemicals, radiation and extreme heat. They result in formation of the wrong protein which may cause genetic disorders.
29. A mutation in which type of cell would be passed on to the next generation?
Sex cells
30. In the carbon cycle, which processes convert CO2 into sugar? Which process converts sugar into CO2? What does the burning of fossil fuels produce?
Photosynthesis.
Respiration.
CO2
31. What are the 3 greenhouse gases?
Water vapor, CO2, methane
32. What is geographic isolation, and what does it lead to?
A form of reporductive isolation in which two populations are separated by geographic barriers. It leds to the formation of two separate species.
33. What is the difference between the terms genotype and phenotype?
Genotype - gene types: homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive or heterozygous.

Phenotype - physical type, what does it physically look like.
34. What is the difference between a frame-shift mutation and a point shift mutation?
Which is more damaging? Why?
In a point shift mutation, there is a substitution in a single base pair. In a frame shift mutation, there has been a deletion or an insertion, so the entire reading of the sequence is shifted over, which is the most damaging type of gene mutation.
35. What is meant by the term nitrogen fixation? What two processes can undergo nitrogen fixation?
The process of converting nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can use. Bacteria and lightening are needed for two separate processes.
36. What is the function of the digestive system and the circulatory system?
The digestive system absorbs nutrients from food.
The circulatory system transports nutrients & oxygen to cells and removes waste and CO2.
37. How does stomach acid help prevent disease?
Stomach acids destroy bacteria and other pathogens in food we eat.
38. What is meant by the term antibiotic resistance? What do antibiotics kill?
When bacteria are no longer killled by the antibiotic. Antibiotics do not kill viruses, only bacteria.
39. What is the difference between an infectious disease vs. a genetic disease?
Infectious means it is caused by a pathogen. Genetic means it is caused by changes in a person's genes.
40. What is meant by the term gene pool? How do you know if evolution has occurred in a population?
All of the genes that are present in a population at any one time. If there is a change in the allelic frequency - the number of times that an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of alleles in that pool for the same gene, then evolution has occurred.
What two things provide genetic variety for evolution.
Mutations and sexual reproduction.
How does adaptive radiation reduce competition?
Many species evolve from a single species by adapting to different niches. (food sources)
Give some examples of vestigial structures.
Leg bones in snakes. Pelvis in whales. Tail-bone in humans.
The development of similar characteristics in unrelated species, such as a marsupial anteater and a placental anteater is called ?
Convergent evolution.
Describe directional selection.
When natural selection selects for one extreme of the phenotypic range.
What three conditions must exist in order for natural selection to operate?
Overproduction of offspring, an advantage to a variation, and competition for limited resources.
Define evolution.
Change in the gene pool over time.
How do population develop resistance?
The interaction of variations in the population and natural selection. The variations can be the result of sexual reproduction or mutation.
What is a homologous structure and give some examples.
Homologous structures may not necessarily perform the same function but they share a common ancestral origin. Examples: Forelimbs in mammals
What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection?
In artificial selection, people choose which traits are selected for in the next generation. In natural selection environmental pressures select the traits.
Two or more groups of different species living together form a ?
Community.
What two factors are most important in determining a biome?
Temperature and precipitation.
Name three reasons why a lichen is important.
1. It's a pioneer species in succession.
2. It's an indicator species for pollution.
3. It's a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an algae - mutualism.
What biome do you live in and describe it.
Temperate, deciduous forest. Broad leaf trees, rich soil, moderate rainfall, hot summers and cold winters.

Climax community of oak, maple, beech.
Which biomes have very little rainfall?
Desert and tundra.
Name an example for each of the following: A decomposer. A producer. An herbivore. A carnivore. An omnivore.
Bacteria.
Plant.
Grasshopper.
Wolf.
Bear.
Give an example of the following three symbiotic relationships: Mutualism. Parasitism. Commensalism.
Bacteria in our intestines
Tape worm.
Barnacle.
Name some abiotic and biotic factors that effect your life.
Abiotic: temperature, sunlight, water.
Biotic: parasites, food, your pets, other people.
In a food chain, a hawk eats a frog, which eats a grasshopper, which eats grass. How much energy would there be for the hawk if there was 100,000 kilocalories available at the level of the grass?
100 kilocalories
Why are invasive species bad?
They have no natural predators, therefore they out-compete the native species and replace them. Often times they destroy habitats.
In a heterozygous genotype, which allele will be expressed?
The dominant one.
How do you determine phenotype?
By looking at the appearance of the organism.
In X linked inheritance, a father passes a sex linked gene to who? A mother passes a sex linked gene to who?
Father passes it to a daughter only. A mother passes it to either a daughter or a son.
Complete a punnett square to determine the odds of having a male versus a female offspring. Which parent determines the sex of the offspring?
50/50. The father.
What type of inheritance pattern has the broadest range of phenotypes?
Polygenic.
What is a test cross used for?
To determine if a plant or animal has a genotype of homozygous dominant or heterozygous. They are not used on people. The best you could do would be a pedigree to determine this for a person. If one parent was rr, then you know the genotype is heterozygous.
What is a carrier?
Heterozygous for a recessive disease.
What can a punnett square predict?
Possible genotypes for the offspring.
How do monosomies and trisomies occur?
Nondisjunction - failure of the sister chromatids to properly separate during meiosis.
Genes code for the making of _______?
Proteins.
A DNA nucleotide is composed of?
Phosphate, deoxyribose and nitrogen base.
What is the difference between RNA and DNA?
RNA is single stranded and DNA is double stranded. RNA has a ribose instead of deoxyribose. RNA has uracil instead of thymine.
What controls chemical reactions?
Enzymes (type of protein).
What determines what you look like?
Genes which code for proteins.
Building and repairing cell parts is the job of _________?
Proteins.
What is a codon and what does it do?
A sequence of three nitrogen bases on a mRNA strand. It codes for an amino acid.
How do you write a scientific name?
Capitalize the first name and underline or italicize both names.
List the eight taxa in the biological hierarchy in order from largest to smallest.
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
What is a dichotomous key?
A series of paired questions used to classify an organism.
What is binomial nomenclature?
A two name naming system that includes the genus and the specific epithet.
During dissection we used comparative anatomy. What does this mean?
To compare anatomical structures between two organisms.
Who is the father of genetics?
Gregor Mendel.
Who discovered the structure of DNA?
Watson & Crick.
Who developed the theory of evolution?
Charles Darwin.
Who developed binomial nomenclature?
Carolus Linnaeus.
What characteristic does a tundra, grassland and desert share?
No trees
What are proteins made of?
Chains of amino acids
What process occurs at the ribosome and builds an amino acid chain called a polypeptide chain?
Translation
What is the phenotype ratio for a cross between
BB X bb.
4:0 - all would show the dominant phenotype.
How many numbers will be in a phenotype ratio?
Only 2 if it is dominant/recessive inheritance.
What would happen to the cricket population in the food chain shown if the hawks were removed?

grass - cricket - frog - hawk
Cricket population would decrease because the frog population would increase - extra frogs would eat more crickets.
What living organism makes nitrogen usable for plants in the process of nitrogen fixation?
bacteria
When two organisms appear similar, how can you determine if it is convergent or divergent evolution?
1. See if they are both classified in the same taxonomic group together - ie mammals, marsupial etc.
2. Determine if their common structures are homologous or analogous (same function).
Homologous - divergent (close common ancestor)
Analogous - convergent (adapted to similar environments
In order for evolution to occur in a species, there must be variation in alleles. Where does this variation come from?
Mutations and sexual reproduction
How do you determine if similar structures are homologous or analogous.
Homologous - Different functions, but similar bone structure.

Analogous - Same function. Internal structure is different
How did bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
Variation withing the species. Some alleles provided immunity.
What is the role of bacteria?
Decomposer, nitrogen fixation,
From whom does a son inherit an X-linked trait from - mom or dad? Why?
Mom, because dad does not pass an X chromosome to son.
Which chromosome determines what sex you are?

X or Y. If you are male, who did you inherit this from?
Y - from dad
How do monosomies and trisomies happen?
nondisjunction - failure of sister chromatids to separate properly.
A dog's scientific name is Canis major. What is its genus name, what is its species name?
Genus - Canis

Species - Canis major